Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release

                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, November 8, 2011     USDL-11-1610

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


           Job Openings and Labor Turnover – September 2011

There were 3.4 million job openings on the last business day of
September, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The
hires rate (3.2 percent) and separations rate (3.2 percent) were
little changed over the month. The job openings rate has trended
upward since the end of the recession in June 2009 (as determined by
the National Bureau of Economic Research). This release includes
estimates of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and
separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by geographic
region.

Job Openings

The number of job openings in September was 3.4 million, up from 3.1
million in August. (See table 1.) Although the number of job openings
remained below the 4.4 million openings when the recession began in
December 2007, the level in September was 1.2 million higher than in
July 2009 (the most recent trough for the series). The number of job
openings has increased 38 percent since the end of the recession in
June 2009.

________________________________________________________________________
|Adjustments to August JOLTS data                                      |
|                                                                      |
|August estimates of hires, separations, and job openings originally   |
|published on October 12, 2011, had not been adjusted to account for   |
|a strike in the information industry. With this release, August       |
|estimates reflect both regular revisions and corrections. For further |
|assistance, see www.bls.gov/bls/errata/jolts_corrections_11082011.htm.|
|______________________________________________________________________|


Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Sept.| Aug. | Sept.| Sept.| Aug. | Sept.| Sept.| Aug. | Sept.
                   | 2010 | 2011 | 2011p| 2010 | 2011 | 2011p| 2010 | 2011 | 2011p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|2,756 |3,129 |3,354 |3,869 |4,060 |4,245 |3,904 |3,960 |4,149
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|2,429 |2,799 |2,988 |3,614 |3,785 |3,984 |3,526 |3,688 |3,861
  Construction.....|   68 |  102 |   75 |  327 |  309 |  404 |  330 |  320 |  367
  Manufacturing....|  183 |  232 |  242 |  240 |  249 |  239 |  245 |  250 |  246
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  419 |  490 |  546 |  776 |  779 |  758 |  763 |  762 |  757
   Retail trade....|  239 |  324 |  344 |  539 |  526 |  537 |  531 |  521 |  534
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  554 |  621 |  684 |  747 |  863 |1,002 |  742 |  824 |  946
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  510 |  609 |  616 |  487 |  481 |  470 |  460 |  444 |  407
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  284 |  351 |  362 |  645 |  679 |  699 |  607 |  689 |  707
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   35 |   44 |   53 |  110 |  110 |  126 |  104 |  113 |  144
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  248 |  307 |  309 |  535 |  569 |  573 |  503 |  576 |  563
 Government(3).....|  326 |  329 |  366 |  255 |  275 |  262 |  379 |  272 |  288
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  239 |  287 |  313 |  224 |  247 |  233 |  266 |  240 |  255
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|  2.1 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  3.0 |  3.1 |  3.2 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.2
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  2.2 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  3.4 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  3.3 |  3.4 |  3.5
  Construction.....|  1.2 |  1.8 |  1.3 |  5.9 |  5.6 |  7.3 |  6.0 |  5.8 |  6.6
  Manufacturing....|  1.6 |  1.9 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.1 |  2.1
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  1.7 |  1.9 |  2.1 |  3.2 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.0
   Retail trade....|  1.6 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.7
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  3.2 |  3.5 |  3.8 |  4.5 |  5.0 |  5.8 |  4.4 |  4.8 |  5.5
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  2.5 |  2.9 |  3.0 |  2.5 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.0
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  2.1 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  4.9 |  5.1 |  5.3 |  4.6 |  5.2 |  5.3
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  1.8 |  2.3 |  2.7 |  5.7 |  5.8 |  6.7 |  5.4 |  6.0 |  7.6
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  2.2 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  4.8 |  5.0 |  5.1 |  4.5 |  5.1 |  5.0
 Government(3).....|  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.1 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.7 |  1.2 |  1.3
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.2 |  1.5 |  1.6 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.4 |  1.2 |  1.3
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = Preliminary

The number of job openings in September (not seasonally adjusted)
increased over the year for total nonfarm, total private, and
government. Several industries experienced an increase over the year
in the number of job openings; the number of job openings decreased
for federal government. The number of job openings rose in 3 out of 4
regions. (See table 5.)

Hires

In September, the hires rate was little changed at 3.2 percent for
total nonfarm. The hires rate increased in construction and
professional and business services as well as in 3 out of 4 regions.
(See table 2.) The number of hires in September was 4.2 million, up
from 3.6 million in October 2009 (the most recent trough) but below
the 5.0 million hires recorded when the recession began in December
2007. The number of hires has increased 17 percent since the end of
the recession in June 2009.

Over the past 12 months, the hires rate (not seasonally adjusted) was
little changed for total nonfarm, total private, and government. The
hires rate increased for construction and professional and business
services. The hires rate increased in the Midwest and decreased in the
Northeast. (See table 6.)

Separations

The total separations figure includes voluntary quits, involuntary
layoffs and discharges, and other separations, including retirements.
Total separations is also referred to as turnover.

The seasonally adjusted total separations rate was little changed in
September for total nonfarm, total private, and government. (See table
3.) Over the year, the total separations rate (not seasonally
adjusted) increased for total nonfarm and total private but decreased
for government. (See table 7.)

The quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or
ability to change jobs. In September, the quits rate was essentially
unchanged for total nonfarm, total private, and government. (See table
4.) The number of quits rose from 1.5 million in January 2010 (the
most recent trough) to 2.0 million in September, although it remained
below the 2.8 million recorded when the recession began in December
2007.

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) in September 2011
increased from 12 months earlier for total nonfarm and total private
and was essentially unchanged for government. Several industries
experienced an increase in the number of quits over the year. (See
table 8.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted only at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels. The layoffs and discharges rate remained unchanged
in September for total nonfarm and government. The rate was little
changed for total private. The number of layoffs and discharges for
total nonfarm has declined to 1.8 million in September 2011 from 2.5
million in February 2009 (peak), returning to pre-recession levels.
(See table B.)

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) for total
nonfarm and total private were little changed but declined over the 12
months ending in September 2011 for government. Over the year, the
number of layoffs and discharges was little changed for most
industries and in all four regions. (See table 9.)

Table B.  Layoffs and discharges by industry, seasonally adjusted
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                   | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                   |------------------------------------------------
     Industry      |  Sept.|  Aug. |  Sept.|  Sept.|  Aug. |  Sept.
                   |  2010 |  2011 |  2011p|  2010 |  2011 |  2011p
-------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,714 | 1,687 | 1,756 |  1.3  |  1.3  |  1.3
 Total private.....| 1,518 | 1,583 | 1,638 |  1.4  |  1.4  |  1.5
 Government........|   196 |   104 |   118 |  0.9  |  0.5  |  0.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

The other separations series is not seasonally adjusted. In September
2011, there were 329,000 other separations for total nonfarm, 276,000
for total private, and 53,000 for government. Compared to September
2010, the number of other separations was down for government and the
South region. (See table 10.)

Relative Contributions to Separations

The total separations level is influenced by the relative contribution
of its three components—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. Other separations is historically a very small portion of
total separations; it has rarely been above 10 percent of total
separations. The percentage of total separations attributable to the
individual components has varied over time at the total nonfarm level,
but for the majority of the months since the series began in December
2000, the proportion of quits has exceeded the proportion of layoffs
and discharges. For most of the months between November 2008 and
November 2010, however, the proportion of layoffs and discharges was
equal to or greater than the proportion of quits. Since November 2010,
the series have returned to their historical pattern. In September
2011, the proportion of quits for total nonfarm was 49 percent, and
the proportion of layoffs and discharges was 42 percent. (See table
C.)

Table C.  Quits and layoffs and discharges as a percentage of total separations, seasonally adjusted
(Levels in thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Quits                      |             Layoffs and discharges
                   | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |      Sept.     |      Aug.      |      Sept.     |      Sept.     |      Aug.      |      Sept.
                   |      2010      |      2011      |      2011p     |      2010      |      2011      |      2011p
     Industry      | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion
                   | Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,843 |   47%  | 2,006 |   51%  | 2,048 |   49%  | 1,714 |   44%  | 1,687 |   43%  | 1,756 |   42%
 Total private.....| 1,723 |   49%  | 1,889 |   51%  | 1,933 |   50%  | 1,518 |   43%  | 1,583 |   43%  | 1,638 |   42%
 Government........|   120 |   32%  |   117 |   43%  |   115 |   40%  |   196 |   52%  |   104 |   38%  |   118 |   41%
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month. Over the 12
months ending in September 2011, hires totaled 48.3 million and
separations totaled 47.0 million, yielding a net employment gain of
1.3 million based on not seasonally adjusted data. These figures
include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once
during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for October 2011
are scheduled to be released on Tuesday, December 13, 2011 at 10:00
a.m. (EST).




Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm
business establishments, including factories, offices, and stores,
as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a
universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part of the
operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed from
individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked monthly to the
employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from
these units during their early existence.  BLS has developed a model
to estimate birth/death activity for current months by examining the
birth/death activity from previous years on the QCEW and projecting
forward to the present using an econometric technique known as X-12
ARIMA modeling. The birth/death model also uses historical JOLTS data
to estimate the amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that
exists in establishments of various sizes.  The model then combines
the estimated churn with the projected employment change to
estimate the number of hires and separations taking place in these
units that cannot be measured through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Using JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the federal government.  The Office of Personnel
Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March
2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires
and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers
between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security
reorganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of
these intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     2,756  2,953  3,034  3,169  3,213  3,129  3,354    2.1   2.2   2.3   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,429  2,635  2,725  2,835  2,905  2,799  2,988    2.2   2.4   2.4   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.7
  Construction...........................     68     90    100     68     75    102     75    1.2   1.6   1.8   1.2   1.3   1.8   1.3
  Manufacturing..........................    183    226    211    217    252    232    242    1.6   1.9   1.8   1.8   2.1   1.9   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    419    524    484    515    540    490    546    1.7   2.1   1.9   2.0   2.1   1.9   2.1
   Retail trade..........................    239    312    276    332    312    324    344    1.6   2.1   1.9   2.2   2.1   2.2   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    554    497    615    616    640    621    684    3.2   2.8   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.5   3.8
  Education and health services..........    510    550    594    596    604    609    616    2.5   2.7   2.9   2.9   2.9   2.9   3.0
  Leisure and hospitality................    284    305    298    360    338    351    362    2.1   2.3   2.2   2.6   2.5   2.6   2.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     35     36     34     55     62     44     53    1.8   1.9   1.8   2.8   3.2   2.3   2.7
   Accommodation and food services.......    248    269    264    305    276    307    309    2.2   2.3   2.3   2.6   2.4   2.6   2.7
 Government(6).........................      326    319    309    334    309    329    366    1.4   1.4   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.5   1.6
  State and local government.............    239    268    261    279    253    287    313    1.2   1.4   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.5   1.6


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       559    531    586    522    570    589    607    2.2   2.1   2.3   2.0   2.2   2.3   2.4
  South...............................     1,015    985  1,087  1,109  1,192  1,108  1,251    2.1   2.0   2.2   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.6
  Midwest.............................       540    664    730    686    714    732    714    1.8   2.2   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.4   2.3
  West................................       648    681    719    753    753    775    810    2.2   2.3   2.4   2.5   2.5   2.6   2.7


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = Preliminary


Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,869  4,001  4,129  4,058  3,976  4,060  4,245    3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1   3.0   3.1   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,614  3,733  3,870  3,797  3,733  3,785  3,984    3.4   3.4   3.6   3.5   3.4   3.5   3.6
  Construction...........................    327    355    371    360    334    309    404    5.9   6.4   6.7   6.5   6.0   5.6   7.3
  Manufacturing..........................    240    257    263    260    259    249    239    2.1   2.2   2.2   2.2   2.2   2.1   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    776    791    804    802    767    779    758    3.2   3.2   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.1   3.0
   Retail trade..........................    539    556    557    553    552    526    537    3.7   3.8   3.8   3.8   3.8   3.6   3.7
  Professional and business services.....    747    831    902    806    819    863  1,002    4.5   4.9   5.3   4.7   4.8   5.0   5.8
  Education and health services..........    487    468    480    485    472    481    470    2.5   2.4   2.4   2.4   2.4   2.4   2.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    645    653    629    689    682    679    699    4.9   4.9   4.8   5.2   5.2   5.1   5.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    110    107    111    104     96    110    126    5.7   5.6   5.9   5.5   5.1   5.8   6.7
   Accommodation and food services.......    535    546    517    585    586    569    573    4.8   4.8   4.6   5.2   5.2   5.0   5.1
 Government(6).........................      255    269    259    261    243    275    262    1.1   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.1   1.2   1.2
  State and local government.............    224    244    232    238    219    247    233    1.2   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.1   1.3   1.2


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       724    695    675    681    675    604    719    2.9   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.4   2.9
  South...............................     1,427  1,471  1,643  1,503  1,488  1,526  1,652    3.0   3.1   3.5   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.5
  Midwest.............................       854    941    890    908    910    919  1,087    2.9   3.2   3.0   3.1   3.1   3.1   3.6
  West................................       852    864    826    910    893    868  1,000    3.0   3.0   2.9   3.2   3.1   3.0   3.5


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     3,904  3,833  4,145  3,993  3,962  3,960  4,149    3.0   2.9   3.2   3.0   3.0   3.0   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,526  3,528  3,844  3,687  3,659  3,688  3,861    3.3   3.2   3.5   3.4   3.4   3.4   3.5
  Construction...........................    330    357    376    371    327    320    367    6.0   6.5   6.8   6.7   5.9   5.8   6.6
  Manufacturing..........................    245    241    272    252    239    250    246    2.1   2.1   2.3   2.2   2.0   2.1   2.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    763    725    799    785    770    762    757    3.1   2.9   3.2   3.1   3.1   3.1   3.0
   Retail trade..........................    531    511    562    538    547    521    534    3.7   3.5   3.9   3.7   3.8   3.6   3.7
  Professional and business services.....    742    785    892    766    806    824    946    4.4   4.6   5.2   4.5   4.7   4.8   5.5
  Education and health services..........    460    428    450    459    431    444    407    2.3   2.1   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.2   2.0
  Leisure and hospitality................    607    621    652    653    670    689    707    4.6   4.7   4.9   4.9   5.1   5.2   5.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    104    109    123    101     97    113    144    5.4   5.7   6.6   5.3   5.1   6.0   7.6
   Accommodation and food services.......    503    512    528    552    573    576    563    4.5   4.5   4.7   4.9   5.1   5.1   5.0
 Government(6).........................      379    304    301    306    302    272    288    1.7   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.3
  State and local government.............    266    278    271    273    271    240    255    1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.3


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       664    763    757    634    665    627    718    2.7   3.1   3.0   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.9
  South...............................     1,456  1,402  1,528  1,421  1,482  1,463  1,555    3.1   3.0   3.2   3.0   3.1   3.1   3.3
  Midwest.............................       902    947    942    934    905    903    982    3.1   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.0   3.0   3.3
  West................................       851    898    974    863    853    812    902    3.0   3.1   3.4   3.0   3.0   2.8   3.1


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2010   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011   2011p  2010  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011  2011p

Total.................................     1,843  1,887  2,000  1,904  1,969  2,006  2,048    1.4   1.4   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,723  1,771  1,877  1,786  1,839  1,889  1,933    1.6   1.6   1.7   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.8
  Construction...........................     80     91     92     75     71     66     84    1.5   1.7   1.7   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.5
  Manufacturing..........................     93    105    109    109    101     98     95     .8    .9    .9    .9    .9    .8    .8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    411    410    463    432    412    422    432    1.7   1.6   1.9   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7
   Retail trade..........................    319    315    351    333    316    319    327    2.2   2.2   2.4   2.3   2.2   2.2   2.2
  Professional and business services.....    337    360    372    330    391    383    425    2.0   2.1   2.2   1.9   2.3   2.2   2.5
  Education and health services..........    235    239    253    264    238    268    243    1.2   1.2   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.2
  Leisure and hospitality................    358    386    388    395    401    432    421    2.7   2.9   2.9   3.0   3.0   3.3   3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     38     42     45     42     44     48     44    2.0   2.2   2.4   2.2   2.3   2.6   2.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    320    344    343    353    357    384    378    2.9   3.0   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.4   3.3
 Government(6).........................      120    117    123    117    130    117    115     .5    .5    .6    .5    .6    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    106    108    114    108    121    108    105     .5    .6    .6    .6    .6    .6    .5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast...........................       262    266    330    264    264    285    295    1.1   1.1   1.3   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.2
  South...............................       762    741    816    744    782    821    837    1.6   1.6   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.8
  Midwest.............................       374    456    484    465    476    495    482    1.3   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.6
  West................................       382    400    460    406    460    447    444    1.3   1.4   1.6   1.4   1.6   1.5   1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  2,763    3,220    3,425           2.1      2.4      2.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,454    2,864    3,061           2.2      2.5      2.7
  Mining and Logging............................     14       27       32           1.9      3.2      3.7
  Construction..................................     75      110       80           1.3      1.9      1.4
  Manufacturing.................................    191      244      254           1.6      2.0      2.1
   Durable goods................................    129      170      179           1.8      2.3      2.4
   Nondurable goods.............................     62       74       75           1.4      1.6      1.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    458      534      610           1.8      2.1      2.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     81       69      106           1.5      1.2      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    267      358      395           1.8      2.4      2.7
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    109      107      109           2.2      2.2      2.2
  Information...................................     58       94      112           2.1      3.4      4.1
  Financial activities..........................    215      172      194           2.7      2.2      2.5
   Finance and insurance........................    191      129      149           3.3      2.2      2.6
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     24       43       45           1.2      2.1      2.3
  Professional and business services............    545      598      685           3.1      3.3      3.8
  Education and health services.................    492      603      601           2.5      3.0      2.9
   Educational services.........................     43       62       57           1.4      2.1      1.8
   Health care and social assistance............    449      542      544           2.7      3.1      3.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    290      391      380           2.1      2.7      2.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     33       51       51           1.6      2.3      2.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     257      341      328           2.2      2.8      2.8
  Other services................................    117       89      113           2.1      1.6      2.0

 Government.....................................    309      356      364           1.4      1.7      1.6
  Federal.......................................     70       44       45           2.4      1.5      1.6
  State and local...............................    238      312      319           1.2      1.7      1.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    552      598      610           2.2      2.3      2.4
  South.........................................  1,018    1,106    1,304           2.1      2.3      2.7
  Midwest.......................................    569      779      732           1.9      2.6      2.4
  West..........................................    623      737      779           2.1      2.5      2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  4,115    4,545    4,456           3.2      3.5      3.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,752    4,057    4,096           3.5      3.7      3.7
  Mining and Logging............................     20       27       24           2.7      3.3      2.9
  Construction..................................    299      306      373           5.2      5.2      6.4
  Manufacturing.................................    257      280      246           2.2      2.4      2.1
   Durable goods................................    132      153      137           1.9      2.1      1.9
   Nondurable goods.............................    125      126      109           2.8      2.8      2.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    851      806      816           3.5      3.2      3.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    133      118      109           2.4      2.1      2.0
   Retail trade.................................    579      556      573           4.0      3.8      4.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    140      132      134           2.9      2.8      2.8
  Information...................................     50       64       57           1.9      2.4      2.1
  Financial activities..........................    155      169      137           2.0      2.2      1.8
   Finance and insurance........................    115       98       86           2.0      1.7      1.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     40       71       51           2.1      3.6      2.6
  Professional and business services............    704      863      954           4.2      5.0      5.5
  Education and health services.................    589      624      576           3.0      3.2      2.9
   Educational services.........................    137      121      152           4.4      4.2      4.8
   Health care and social assistance............    453      503      424           2.8      3.0      2.5
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    646      749      711           4.9      5.4      5.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    102      107      126           5.1      5.0      6.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     544      642      586           4.8      5.5      5.1
  Other services................................    180      170      202           3.4      3.1      3.7

 Government.....................................    363      487      359           1.6      2.3      1.7
  Federal.......................................     32       29       30           1.1      1.0      1.1
  State and local...............................    331      458      329           1.7      2.5      1.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    839      658      733           3.4      2.6      2.9
  South.........................................  1,468    1,821    1,628           3.1      3.8      3.4
  Midwest.......................................    896    1,067    1,095           3.0      3.6      3.7
  West..........................................    913      999      999           3.2      3.5      3.5


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  4,090    4,714    4,422           3.1      3.6      3.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,652    4,318    4,068           3.4      3.9      3.7
  Mining and Logging............................     17       24       21           2.3      3.0      2.6
  Construction..................................    327      324      370           5.7      5.6      6.4
  Manufacturing.................................    238      282      240           2.0      2.4      2.0
   Durable goods................................    122      164      140           1.7      2.2      1.9
   Nondurable goods.............................    117      118      101           2.6      2.6      2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    772      840      767           3.1      3.4      3.1
   Wholesale trade..............................    129      118      112           2.4      2.1      2.0
   Retail trade.................................    528      590      536           3.7      4.0      3.7
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    115      132      119           2.4      2.7      2.5
  Information...................................     50       68       60           1.9      2.5      2.3
  Financial activities..........................    150      181      152           2.0      2.4      2.0
   Finance and insurance........................    102      102       97           1.8      1.8      1.7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     48       78       55           2.5      4.0      2.8
  Professional and business services............    696      885      919           4.1      5.1      5.3
  Education and health services.................    491      591      423           2.5      3.0      2.1
   Educational services.........................     80      111       72           2.6      3.8      2.3
   Health care and social assistance............    412      479      351           2.5      2.9      2.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    762      893      918           5.7      6.4      6.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    184      171      267           9.1      7.9     13.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     578      722      650           5.1      6.2      5.7
  Other services................................    148      231      198           2.8      4.2      3.6

 Government.....................................    438      396      354           2.0      1.9      1.6
  Federal.......................................    119       43       40           4.2      1.5      1.4
  State and local...............................    319      353      314           1.7      2.0      1.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    734      798      794           3.0      3.2      3.2
  South.........................................  1,460    1,806    1,564           3.1      3.8      3.3
  Midwest.......................................    987    1,116    1,094           3.3      3.7      3.7
  West..........................................    908      994      969           3.2      3.4      3.3


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  1,988    2,612    2,238           1.5      2.0      1.7

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,851    2,430    2,112           1.7      2.2      1.9
  Mining and Logging............................      8       17       12           1.1      2.1      1.4
  Construction..................................     85       88       96           1.5      1.5      1.7
  Manufacturing.................................    104      138      103            .9      1.2       .9
   Durable goods................................     46       71       53            .6      1.0       .7
   Nondurable goods.............................     58       67       50           1.3      1.5      1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    445      533      474           1.8      2.1      1.9
   Wholesale trade..............................     43       61       63            .8      1.1      1.1
   Retail trade.................................    344      405      355           2.4      2.8      2.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     57       67       56           1.2      1.4      1.1
  Information...................................     27       44       35           1.0      1.6      1.3
  Financial activities..........................     92      105       69           1.2      1.4       .9
   Finance and insurance........................     55       59       45           1.0      1.0       .8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     36       46       24           1.9      2.3      1.3
  Professional and business services............    326      463      426           1.9      2.7      2.5
  Education and health services.................    260      341      267           1.3      1.7      1.3
   Educational services.........................     39       65       34           1.3      2.2      1.1
   Health care and social assistance............    221      276      232           1.3      1.6      1.4
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    425      590      512           3.2      4.3      3.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     59       85       67           2.9      3.9      3.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     367      505      445           3.2      4.3      3.9
  Other services................................     79      112      118           1.5      2.0      2.2

 Government.....................................    137      183      126            .6       .9       .6
  Federal.......................................     14       14       11            .5       .5       .4
  State and local...............................    123      168      115            .6       .9       .6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    333      356      352           1.3      1.4      1.4
  South.........................................    788    1,034      880           1.7      2.2      1.8
  Midwest.......................................    430      673      522           1.5      2.3      1.7
  West..........................................    437      549      484           1.5      1.9      1.7


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................  1,761    1,783    1,855           1.4      1.4      1.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,529    1,627    1,679           1.4      1.5      1.5
  Mining and Logging............................      6        6        8            .9       .8       .9
  Construction..................................    229      227      257           4.0      3.9      4.4
  Manufacturing.................................    120      121      120           1.0      1.0      1.0
   Durable goods................................     67       77       74            .9      1.1      1.0
   Nondurable goods.............................     53       44       47           1.2      1.0      1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    249      230      215           1.0       .9       .9
   Wholesale trade..............................     72       33       36           1.3       .6       .6
   Retail trade.................................    137      150      136           1.0      1.0       .9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     40       46       43            .8      1.0       .9
  Information...................................     16       21       21            .6       .8       .8
  Financial activities..........................     46       54       65            .6       .7       .9
   Finance and insurance........................     38       28       43            .7       .5       .8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      8       26       22            .4      1.3      1.1
  Professional and business services............    309      371      419           1.8      2.1      2.4
  Education and health services.................    200      212      132           1.0      1.1       .7
   Educational services.........................     36       36       33           1.2      1.2      1.1
   Health care and social assistance............    163      176       98           1.0      1.0       .6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    298      275      376           2.2      2.0      2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    123       84      198           6.1      3.9     10.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     175      191      178           1.6      1.6      1.6
  Other services................................     56      110       67           1.0      2.0      1.2

 Government.....................................    232      155      175           1.1       .7       .8
  Federal.......................................     92       21       20           3.2       .8       .7
  State and local...............................    140      134      155            .7       .7       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    334      381      387           1.3      1.5      1.5
  South.........................................    535      660      588           1.1      1.4      1.2
  Midwest.......................................    485      367      483           1.6      1.2      1.6
  West..........................................    407      375      396           1.4      1.3      1.4


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2010     2011     2011p         2010     2011     2011p

Total...........................................    341      319      329           0.3      0.2      0.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    272      261      276            .3       .2       .3
  Mining and Logging............................      2        1        2            .3       .1       .2
  Construction..................................     13        9       16            .2       .2       .3
  Manufacturing.................................     14       22       17            .1       .2       .1
   Durable goods................................      9       16       12            .1       .2       .2
   Nondurable goods.............................      6        7        5            .1       .2       .1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     79       77       79            .3       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................     13       24       14            .2       .4       .2
   Retail trade.................................     47       35       44            .3       .2       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     18       18       21            .4       .4       .4
  Information...................................      7        3        5            .3       .1       .2
  Financial activities..........................     13       22       17            .2       .3       .2
   Finance and insurance........................      9       16        9            .2       .3       .2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      4        7        8            .2       .3       .4
  Professional and business services............     62       50       74            .4       .3       .4
  Education and health services.................     31       38       24            .2       .2       .1
   Educational services.........................      4       10        4            .1       .4       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     27       28       20            .2       .2       .1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     39       28       30            .3       .2       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      2        2        2            .1       .1       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      36       27       28            .3       .2       .2
  Other services................................     13        9       12            .2       .2       .2

 Government.....................................     69       58       53            .3       .3       .2
  Federal.......................................     13        7        9            .4       .2       .3
  State and local...............................     56       51       44            .3       .3       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     67       60       55            .3       .2       .2
  South.........................................    137      111       97            .3       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     73       77       89            .2       .3       .3
  West..........................................     64       70       88            .2       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Last Modified Date: November 08, 2011
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