Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release



Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 08-1670
                   http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EST
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Thursday, November 13, 2008


           JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  SEPTEMBER 2008

     On the last business day of September, there were 3.3 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 2.3
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate was little changed in
September, while the hires rate increased slightly to 3.2 percent, and
the total separations rate decreased slightly to 3.0 percent.  This
release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings,
hires, and separations for the total nonfarm sector by industry and
geographic region.


     
     Although the month-to-month changes in job openings, hires, and
turnover data are often small, the trends over time are notable.  The
job openings rate remained essentially flat from August 2006 through
September 2007, followed by a downward trend through September 2008.
The hires rate rose in August and September after trending downward
from July 2006 through July 2008.  Although the rise in the hires rate
in September was significant, the rate remains low at a level last
seen in 2004.  After holding steady for three months, the separations
rate declined to 3.0 percent in September to the lowest point since
August 2003.  (See tables 1, 2, and 3.)


                                   - 2 - 


Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Sept.| Aug. | Sept.| Sept.| Aug. | Sept.| Sept.| Aug. | Sept.
                   | 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|4,080 |3,375 |3,254 |4,700 |4,063 |4,364 |4,456 |4,398 |4,053
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|3,637 |2,952 |2,828 |4,325 |3,822 |4,094 |4,168 |4,149 |3,790
    Construction...|  128 |   85 |   96 |  336 |  322 |  261 |  355 |  400 |  375
    Manufacturing..|  314 |  245 |  217 |  352 |  251 |  273 |  374 |  325 |  336
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  679 |  572 |  474 |  977 |  878 |  877 |  950 |  933 |  940
     Retail trade..|  357 |  357 |  272 |  699 |  619 |  626 |  683 |  642 |  598
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  673 |  634 |  578 |  799 |  701 |  807 |  824 |  851 |  713
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  712 |  643 |  640 |  453 |  509 |  498 |  414 |  424 |  345
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  663 |  383 |  417 |  888 |  728 |  814 |  730 |  754 |  723
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  595 |  316 |  363 |  732 |  626 |  678 |  645 |  652 |  643
  Government(4)....|  443 |  423 |  434 |  359 |  315 |  312 |  290 |  257 |  253
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  403 |  363 |  376 |  287 |  286 |  285 |  219 |  231 |  233
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  2.9 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  3.4 |  3.0 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.0
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|  3.1 |  2.5 |  2.4 |  3.7 |  3.3 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.3
    Construction...|  1.7 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  4.4 |  4.5 |  3.7 |  4.7 |  5.6 |  5.3
    Manufacturing..|  2.2 |  1.8 |  1.6 |  2.5 |  1.9 |  2.0 |  2.7 |  2.4 |  2.5
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  2.5 |  2.1 |  1.8 |  3.7 |  3.3 |  3.3 |  3.6 |  3.5 |  3.6
     Retail trade..|  2.3 |  2.3 |  1.8 |  4.5 |  4.0 |  4.1 |  4.4 |  4.2 |  3.9
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  3.6 |  3.4 |  3.1 |  4.4 |  3.9 |  4.5 |  4.6 |  4.8 |  4.0
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  3.7 |  3.3 |  3.3 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  1.8
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  4.7 |  2.7 |  3.0 |  6.6 |  5.3 |  6.0 |  5.4 |  5.5 |  5.3
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  4.9 |  2.6 |  3.0 |  6.3 |  5.4 |  5.8 |  5.6 |  5.6 |  5.5
  Government(4)....|  2.0 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.1 |  1.1
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  2.0 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.1 |  1.2 |  1.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.


Job Openings
     
     The job openings rate was little changed in September 2008 but
has been trending downward over the last 12 months. At 2.3 percent in
September, the job openings rate was at the lowest level since April
2004.  Although the job openings rate was little changed at the total
nonfarm and total private levels, the rate decreased significantly in
September in the manufacturing and retail trade industries.
Throughout the history of the series, three industries consistently
have had higher job openings rates than the other industries, although
the gap has recently decreased:  education and health services (3.3
percent in September), professional and business services (3.1
percent), and accommodation and food services (3.0 percent).  (See
table 1.)
     
                                   - 3 - 


     Over the last 12 months, the job openings rate (not seasonally
adjusted) rose significantly only in the federal government (to 1.9
percent).  The rate fell over the year for total nonfarm and total
private as well as in most industries, including durable goods
manufacturing; nondurable goods manufacturing; wholesale trade; retail
trade; information; finance and insurance; professional and business
services; health care and social assistance; and accommodation and
food services.  The job openings rate also fell over the year in three
of the four regions—Midwest, South, and West.  (See table 5.)
     
Hires
     
     The hires rate rose in September to 3.2 percent.  The increase at
the total nonfarm and total private level was due to small rises in
the hires rate for several industries rather than a significant
increase in any particular industry.  No industry or region
experienced a significant over-the-month change in the hires rate in
September.  As occurs nearly every month, the seasonally adjusted
hires rate was highest in accommodation and food services (5.8
percent) and lowest in state and local government (1.4 percent).  (See
table 2.)
     
     Over the past 12 months, the hires rate did not increase
significantly in any industry or region but decreased in a few
industries, including durable goods manufacturing; wholesale trade;
and federal government.  Regionally, the hires rate dropped
significantly over the past 12 months in the South.  (See table 6.)

Separations
     
     The total separations, or turnover, rate fell to 3.0 percent in
September due to declines in the rates in professional and business
services and in education and health services.  Over the past 12
months, the separations rate rose significantly in wholesale trade and
in state and local government; the rate fell in natural resources and
mining; nondurable goods manufacturing; retail trade; health care and
social assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation; and federal
government.  Regionally, the separations rate dropped significantly
over the past 12 months in the South.  As often occurs, the seasonally
adjusted separations rate was highest in September in accommodation
and food services (5.5 percent) and lowest in state and local
government (1.2 percent).  (See tables 3 and 7.)
     
     Total separations include quits (voluntary separations), layoffs
and discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations
(including retirements).  The quits rate, which can serve as a
barometer of workers’ ability to change jobs, was little changed in
September for total nonfarm (1.5 percent).  Although the one-month
change in the quits rate was not significant, the decline in the past
two months puts the rate at the lowest point since August 2003.  The
quits rate changed significantly in September only in the construction
industry and in the South region, declining for both.  As has occurred
every month since the series began in December 2000, the seasonally
adjusted quits rate was highest in the accommodation and food services
industry (3.8 percent) and lowest in state and local government (0.6
percent).  From September 2007 to September 2008, the quits rate fell
for total nonfarm and total private and in many industries, including
natural resources and mining; nondurable goods manufacturing; finance
and insurance; professional and business services; health care and
social assistance; other services; and federal government.  The quits
rate also fell over the year in three of the four regions—Northeast,
South, and West.  The quits rate did not rise significantly over the
past 12 months in any industry or region.  (See tables 4 and 8.)
     

                                   - 4 - 


     The other two components of total separations—layoffs and
discharges, and other separations—are not seasonally adjusted.  In
September, the layoffs and discharges rate (1.4 percent) and level
(1.9 million) were little changed from a year earlier. The layoffs and
discharges rate was highest in arts, entertainment, and recreation
(4.5 percent) and lowest in federal government (0.2 percent).  The
other separations rate (0.2 percent) and level (296,000) were
essentially unchanged from a year earlier at the total nonfarm level.
(See tables 9 and 10.)
     
     The total separations rate is driven by the relative contribution
of its three components (quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations), with quits contributing the largest portion.  The
percentage of total separations attributable to quits has varied over
time. The proportion of total separations due to quits (seasonally
adjusted) rose from a post-recession low of 50 percent in December
2003 to a high of 61 percent in December 2006 before trending downward
again.  Quits accounted for only 52 percent of total separations in
September 2008, down considerably in 2008 as quits decreased and
layoffs increased.  (See tables 3 and 4.)

Flows in the Labor Market

     Several industries consistently have high rates of both hires and
separations.  These include construction; retail trade; professional
and business services; arts, entertainment, and recreation; and
accommodation and food services.  In the 12 months ending in September
2008, these 5 industries produced 31.2 million hires and 31.3 million
separations, accounting for 58 percent of total nonfarm hires and 59
percent of total nonfarm separations while comprising only 39 percent
of total nonfarm employment.

For More Information
     
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
     
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for October 2008 is
scheduled to be issued on Tuesday, December 9.


                                  - 5 -


Technical Note


   The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are
collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business establishments
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

   Each month, data are collected in a survey of business establishments
for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Data collection methods include computer-assisted
telephone interviewing, touchtone data entry, fax, and mail.

Coverage

   The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as
factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local
government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Concepts

   Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).  In order to ensure the highest possible
quality of data, State Workforce Agencies verify with employers and up-
date, if necessary, the industry code, location, and ownership classi-
fication of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for the
first month of the year.

   Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the refer-
ence month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, sala-
ried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vaca-
tions or other paid leave.  Proprietors or partners of unincorporated
businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on 
strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed.  Employees
of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

   Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for the
last business day of the reference month.  A job opening requires that:
1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that posi-
tion, 2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable
candidate is found, and 3) the employer is actively recruiting from out-
side the establishment to fill the position.  Included are full-time,
part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active re-
cruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position
by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted
signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, out-
side contractors, or consultants.  The job openings rate is computed by
dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job
openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.


                                  - 6 -

   Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occur-
ring at any time during the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and 
seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff
lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other
locations.  The hires count does not include transfers or promotions 
within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of
temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, or consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number
of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

   Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are
reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by employees (ex-
cept for retirements, which are reported as other separations).  Lay-
offs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the em-
ployer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs
lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges
for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees.  Other separations include re-
tirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability.  Separations do not include transfers within the
same location or employees on strike.

   The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separa-
tions by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.  The quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed simi-
larly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

   Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and dis-
charges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the
12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are computed by
dividing the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
This figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly
rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES annual levels are rounded to
the nearest thousand before the annual estimates are calculated.  Con-
sistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for
not seasonally adjusted data.

   Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last busi-
ness day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day of the
month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot be cumulated
throughout each month, annual figures for job openings cannot be created
by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and separations are flow mea-
sures and are cumulated over the month with a total reported for the
month.  Therefore, the annual figures can be created by summing the
monthly estimates.


                                  - 7 -

Sample methodology

   The JOLTS sample design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm business
establishments, including factories, offices, and stores, as well as
federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states and the District
of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a universe of over
eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.  This program
includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws
and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE).

   The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector,
and size class.  Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty.
JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment esti-
mates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES 
to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data
elements.  Rates are then computed from the adjusted levels.

Using JOLTS data

   The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are rel-
atively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel en-
rolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the original data
series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system
was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002.  The sup-
plemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were
not completely enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until
those points are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were
reporting data at that time.

   In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data
were revised to address possible underreporting.  As a result, JOLTS hires
and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be compar-
able with estimates for March 2002 and later.

   The federal government reorganization that involved transferring approx-
imately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not
reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the federal gov-
ernment.  The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers
were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS defi-
nitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of
workers between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reor-
ganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these inter-
governmental transfers would distort the federal government time series.

Seasonal adjustment

   BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA seasonal
adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of estimating and
removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such as weather, holidays,
and the beginning and ending of the school year.  Seasonal adjustment makes
it easier to observe fundamental changes in the level of the series, par-
ticularly those associated with general economic expansions and contrac-
tions.  A concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new
seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.


                                  - 8 -

  Prior to the January  2007 benchmark release in March 2007, seasonal adjust-
ment of the JOLTS series was conducted using the stable seasonal filter option
since there were not enough data observations available for the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters.  Although the seasonal adjustment of
the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary,
the number of observations is now above the minimum required by  X-12-ARIMA to
use the normal seasonal filters.  Therefore, the standard use of moving aver-
ages as seasonal filter is now in place for JOLTS seasonal adjustment.  JOLTS
seasonal adjustment now includes both additive and multiplicative seasonal
adjustment models  and REGARIMA (regression  with autocorrelated errors)
modeling to improve the  seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end
of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

   JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  When
a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error.  Estimates of sampling errors are available upon request.

   The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a seg-
ment of the population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the
sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection
or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data
used in estimation.

   JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net
changes in nonfarm payroll employment.  Some reasons why it is problematic to 
compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, espe-
cially on a monthly basis, are:  1) the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period
for hires and separations is the calendar month; and 2) payroll employment can
vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not
always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.  Addi-
tionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature
of their payroll systems and practices.  The shortfall appears to be about
2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,080  3,612  3,631  3,497  3,492  3,375  3,254    2.9   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,637  3,192  3,185  3,073  3,046  2,952  2,828    3.1   2.7   2.7   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.4
  Construction...........................    128     99    130    100     94     85     96    1.7   1.3   1.8   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.3
  Manufacturing..........................    314    244    249    241    229    245    217    2.2   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    679    550    572    539    569    572    474    2.5   2.0   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1   1.8
   Retail trade..........................    357    338    363    322    346    357    272    2.3   2.2   2.3   2.1   2.2   2.3   1.8
  Professional and business services.....    673    676    649    670    696    634    578    3.6   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.4   3.1
  Education and health services..........    712    684    648    682    687    643    640    3.7   3.5   3.3   3.5   3.5   3.3   3.3
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    663    491    503    452    432    383    417    4.7   3.5   3.5   3.2   3.1   2.7   3.0
   Accommodation and food services.......    595    433    438    406    388    316    363    4.9   3.6   3.6   3.4   3.2   2.6   3.0
 Government(7)...........................    443    422    451    417    412    423    434    2.0   1.8   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9
  State and local government.............    403    395    407    361    362    363    376    2.0   2.0   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    594    618    600    608    615    617    596    2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.4   2.3
  South..................................  1,641  1,364  1,386  1,440  1,384  1,317  1,215    3.2   2.7   2.7   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.4
  Midwest................................    787    752    721    676    638    664    667    2.4   2.3   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1
  West...................................  1,054    883    937    789    847    777    760    3.3   2.8   2.9   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.4


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,700  4,715  4,123  4,438  4,026  4,063  4,364    3.4   3.4   3.0   3.2   2.9   3.0   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,325  4,311  3,871  4,136  3,751  3,822  4,094    3.7   3.7   3.4   3.6   3.3   3.3   3.6
  Construction...........................    336    385    286    354    242    322    261    4.4   5.3   3.9   4.9   3.4   4.5   3.7
  Manufacturing..........................    352    300    274    285    249    251    273    2.5   2.2   2.0   2.1   1.8   1.9   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    977    943    828    906    858    878    877    3.7   3.6   3.1   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.3
   Retail trade..........................    699    642    585    608    585    619    626    4.5   4.2   3.8   4.0   3.8   4.0   4.1
  Professional and business services.....    799    858    770    889    748    701    807    4.4   4.8   4.3   5.0   4.2   3.9   4.5
  Education and health services..........    453    510    479    485    474    509    498    2.5   2.7   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.7   2.6
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    888    841    847    741    798    728    814    6.6   6.1   6.2   5.4   5.8   5.3   6.0
   Accommodation and food services.......    732    719    731    645    683    626    678    6.3   6.2   6.3   5.5   5.9   5.4   5.8
 Government(7)...........................    359    407    329    340    321    315    312    1.6   1.8   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4
  State and local government.............    287    315    304    309    300    286    285    1.5   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.4


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    689    743    646    761    657    679    693    2.7   2.9   2.5   3.0   2.6   2.7   2.7
  South..................................  1,844  1,725  1,538  1,666  1,512  1,549  1,598    3.7   3.5   3.1   3.4   3.0   3.1   3.2
  Midwest................................  1,093    986    914    966    934    926  1,020    3.5   3.1   2.9   3.1   3.0   2.9   3.2
  West...................................  1,048  1,246  1,111  1,084    979  1,004  1,035    3.4   4.0   3.6   3.5   3.2   3.3   3.4


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,456  4,404  4,313  4,368  4,359  4,398  4,053    3.2   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.2   3.2   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,168  4,112  4,046  4,115  4,128  4,149  3,790    3.6   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.6   3.6   3.3
  Construction...........................    355    378    393    409    473    400    375    4.7   5.2   5.4   5.7   6.6   5.6   5.3
  Manufacturing..........................    374    390    359    353    324    325    336    2.7   2.9   2.6   2.6   2.4   2.4   2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    950  1,003    868  1,003  1,013    933    940    3.6   3.8   3.3   3.8   3.8   3.5   3.6
   Retail trade..........................    683    716    605    679    692    642    598    4.4   4.7   3.9   4.4   4.5   4.2   3.9
  Professional and business services.....    824    739    741    799    694    851    713    4.6   4.1   4.1   4.5   3.9   4.8   4.0
  Education and health services..........    414    429    434    417    464    424    345    2.2   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.4   2.2   1.8
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    730    722    801    749    741    754    723    5.4   5.3   5.8   5.5   5.4   5.5   5.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    645    619    675    641    629    652    643    5.6   5.3   5.8   5.5   5.4   5.6   5.5
 Government(7)...........................    290    295    269    259    244    257    253    1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1
  State and local government.............    219    248    240    233    222    231    233    1.1   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.1   1.2   1.2


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    635    709    685    658    745    705    629    2.5   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.9   2.7   2.5
  South..................................  1,786  1,666  1,614  1,681  1,629  1,633  1,449    3.6   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.3   2.9
  Midwest................................    983    949    915    954    912    893    934    3.1   3.0   2.9   3.0   2.9   2.8   3.0
  West...................................  1,038  1,094  1,096  1,089  1,099  1,142  1,015    3.4   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.3


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Sept.  Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Sept. Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  2,396  2,444  2,336  2,365  2,314  2,252  2,101    1.7   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,253  2,301  2,210  2,242  2,209  2,134  1,995    1.9   2.0   1.9   1.9   1.9   1.9   1.7
  Construction...........................    132    127    124    139    157    150    109    1.7   1.7   1.7   1.9   2.2   2.1   1.5
  Manufacturing..........................    183    182    163    154    134    143    146    1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.0   1.1   1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    549    550    495    545    545    485    498    2.1   2.1   1.9   2.1   2.1   1.8   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    412    404    352    391    405    355    355    2.7   2.6   2.3   2.6   2.6   2.3   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    405    385    391    413    363    352    311    2.2   2.1   2.2   2.3   2.0   2.0   1.7
  Education and health services..........    253    270    229    246    268    234    225    1.4   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.2   1.2
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    440    516    547    525    499    482    473    3.2   3.8   4.0   3.8   3.7   3.5   3.5
   Accommodation and food services.......    367    473    500    481    452    445    438    3.2   4.1   4.3   4.1   3.9   3.8   3.8
 Government(7)...........................    146    144    126    123    111    121    119     .7    .6    .6    .5    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    123    129    117    114    104    113    117     .6    .7    .6    .6    .5    .6    .6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    306    368    327    344    341    306    274    1.2   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1
  South..................................  1,003  1,001    937    969    930    912    808    2.0   2.0   1.9   2.0   1.9   1.8   1.6
  Midwest................................    524    500    485    515    504    513    517    1.7   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.6
  West...................................    575    575    584    539    541    518    494    1.9   1.9   1.9   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,240    3,637    3,349           3.0      2.6      2.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,807    3,177    2,922           3.2      2.7      2.5
  Natural resources and mining..................     11       16       16           1.5      2.0      2.0
  Construction..................................    124       88       93           1.6      1.2      1.2
  Manufacturing.................................    316      259      217           2.2      1.9      1.6
   Durable goods................................    186      143      119           2.1      1.6      1.4
   Nondurable goods.............................    130      116       98           2.5      2.3      1.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    765      667      554           2.8      2.5      2.1
   Wholesale trade..............................    180      124       82           2.9      2.0      1.4
   Retail trade.................................    431      416      341           2.7      2.7      2.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    154      127      131           2.9      2.5      2.5
  Information...................................     91       71       58           2.9      2.3      1.9
  Financial activities..........................    260      185      218           3.0      2.2      2.6
   Finance and insurance........................    220      150      160           3.5      2.4      2.6
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     40       35       58           1.8      1.6      2.7
  Professional and business services............    687      662      570           3.7      3.5      3.1
  Education and health services.................    736      669      651           3.9      3.5      3.3
   Educational services.........................     63       67       60           2.1      2.3      1.9
   Health care and social assistance............    673      602      592           4.2      3.7      3.6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    645      404      401           4.5      2.8      2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     70       71       52           3.3      3.0      2.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     575      333      350           4.7      2.7      2.9
  Other services................................    172      157      143           3.0      2.7      2.5

 Government.....................................    433      460      427           1.9      2.1      1.9
  Federal.......................................     33       73       53           1.2      2.6      1.9
  State and local...............................    400      387      374           2.0      2.0      1.9

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    634      702      630           2.4      2.7      2.4
  South.........................................  1,668    1,371    1,225           3.2      2.7      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    864      720      729           2.7      2.2      2.3
  West..........................................  1,073      845      765           3.3      2.7      2.4


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  5,090    4,727    4,759           3.7      3.4      3.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,542    4,205    4,304           3.9      3.6      3.7
  Natural resources and mining..................     26       29       29           3.5      3.6      3.6
  Construction..................................    336      353      247           4.3      4.7      3.4
  Manufacturing.................................    367      282      285           2.6      2.1      2.1
   Durable goods................................    208      161      147           2.4      1.9      1.7
   Nondurable goods.............................    159      121      139           3.1      2.4      2.8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,098      986      982           4.1      3.7      3.7
   Wholesale trade..............................    182      128      142           3.0      2.1      2.4
   Retail trade.................................    761      683      697           4.9      4.5      4.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    155      175      142           3.0      3.5      2.8
  Information...................................     61       46       68           2.0      1.5      2.3
  Financial activities..........................    230      195      208           2.8      2.4      2.6
   Finance and insurance........................    136      125      135           2.2      2.1      2.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     94       70       73           4.3      3.2      3.4
  Professional and business services............    828      714      861           4.6      4.0      4.8
  Education and health services.................    559      643      615           3.0      3.4      3.2
   Educational services.........................    128      131      136           4.4      4.7      4.4
   Health care and social assistance............    431      512      479           2.8      3.2      3.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    859      787      805           6.3      5.5      5.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    126       80      122           6.1      3.5      6.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     734      706      683           6.3      5.9      5.8
  Other services................................    179      171      204           3.3      3.1      3.7

 Government.....................................    548      521      456           2.5      2.4      2.0
  Federal.......................................    107       28       31           3.9      1.0      1.1
  State and local...............................    441      494      425           2.3      2.7      2.2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    841      741      839           3.3      2.9      3.3
  South.........................................  1,929    1,811    1,675           3.9      3.7      3.4
  Midwest.......................................  1,183    1,015    1,133           3.8      3.2      3.6
  West..........................................  1,137    1,159    1,113           3.7      3.8      3.6


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,946    5,615    4,465           3.6      4.1      3.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,573    5,211    4,130           3.9      4.5      3.6
  Natural resources and mining..................     30       29       20           4.0      3.6      2.4
  Construction..................................    388      504      391           5.0      6.8      5.3
  Manufacturing.................................    399      393      359           2.9      2.9      2.7
   Durable goods................................    225      261      234           2.6      3.1      2.8
   Nondurable goods.............................    174      132      124           3.4      2.6      2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,007    1,084      981           3.8      4.1      3.7
   Wholesale trade..............................    145      166      188           2.4      2.8      3.1
   Retail trade.................................    720      752      611           4.7      4.9      4.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    142      166      182           2.8      3.3      3.6
  Information...................................     74       68       60           2.5      2.3      2.0
  Financial activities..........................    238      258      194           2.9      3.1      2.4
   Finance and insurance........................    155      185      130           2.5      3.0      2.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     83       73       64           3.8      3.4      3.0
  Professional and business services............    847      972      722           4.7      5.4      4.0
  Education and health services.................    444      573      366           2.4      3.1      1.9
   Educational services.........................     50      118       48           1.7      4.2      1.6
   Health care and social assistance............    394      455      318           2.6      2.9      2.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    969      980      894           7.1      6.9      6.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    210      154      157          10.3      6.8      7.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     759      826      737           6.5      6.9      6.3
  Other services................................    177      351      143           3.2      6.3      2.6

 Government.....................................    373      404      335           1.7      1.9      1.5
  Federal.......................................     98       29       22           3.6      1.0       .8
  State and local...............................    276      375      313           1.4      2.0      1.6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    810      960      770           3.2      3.8      3.0
  South.........................................  1,881    2,103    1,529           3.8      4.2      3.1
  Midwest.......................................  1,079    1,146    1,043           3.4      3.7      3.3
  West..........................................  1,176    1,406    1,122           3.8      4.6      3.6


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  2,660    3,087    2,266           1.9      2.2      1.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,487    2,891    2,126           2.1      2.5      1.8
  Natural resources and mining..................     20       21       14           2.7      2.6      1.7
  Construction..................................    143      236      111           1.8      3.2      1.5
  Manufacturing.................................    200      196      159           1.4      1.5      1.2
   Durable goods................................    112      118       93           1.3      1.4      1.1
   Nondurable goods.............................     87       78       66           1.7      1.6      1.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    609      634      548           2.3      2.4      2.1
   Wholesale trade..............................     81       85       88           1.3      1.4      1.5
   Retail trade.................................    450      464      384           2.9      3.0      2.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     78       84       75           1.5      1.7      1.5
  Information...................................     42       52       30           1.4      1.7      1.0
  Financial activities..........................    128      130       99           1.6      1.6      1.2
   Finance and insurance........................     88      100       60           1.4      1.6      1.0
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     41       30       39           1.9      1.4      1.8
  Professional and business services............    430      461      315           2.4      2.6      1.8
  Education and health services.................    273      324      231           1.5      1.7      1.2
   Educational services.........................     30       49       28           1.0      1.8       .9
   Health care and social assistance............    244      274      203           1.6      1.7      1.3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    522      647      547           3.8      4.5      4.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     70       70       60           3.4      3.1      3.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     452      577      487           3.9      4.8      4.2
  Other services................................    118      191       73           2.2      3.4      1.3

 Government.....................................    173      196      139            .8       .9       .6
  Federal.......................................     35       13        9           1.3       .5       .3
  State and local...............................    137      183      131            .7      1.0       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    392      437      336           1.5      1.7      1.3
  South.........................................  1,049    1,223      817           2.1      2.5      1.6
  Midwest.......................................    576      755      577           1.8      2.4      1.8
  West..........................................    643      671      535           2.1      2.2      1.7


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  1,981    2,207    1,903           1.4      1.6      1.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,851    2,051    1,761           1.6      1.8      1.5
  Natural resources and mining..................      7        6        5           1.0       .8       .6
  Construction..................................    234      252      269           3.0      3.4      3.7
  Manufacturing.................................    165      173      169           1.2      1.3      1.3
   Durable goods................................    100      128      120           1.1      1.5      1.4
   Nondurable goods.............................     66       45       49           1.3       .9      1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    331      376      365           1.2      1.4      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     59       66       85           1.0      1.1      1.4
   Retail trade.................................    221      242      187           1.4      1.6      1.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     51       68       93           1.0      1.3      1.8
  Information...................................     17       14       25            .6       .5       .9
  Financial activities..........................     94      106       65           1.1      1.3       .8
   Finance and insurance........................     55       69       41            .9      1.1       .7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     39       37       24           1.8      1.7      1.1
  Professional and business services............    371      438      365           2.0      2.4      2.0
  Education and health services.................    146      215      112            .8      1.2       .6
   Educational services.........................     17       63       17            .6      2.3       .6
   Health care and social assistance............    129      152       95            .8      1.0       .6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    434      312      327           3.2      2.2      2.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    138       79       91           6.7      3.5      4.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     296      232      236           2.5      1.9      2.0
  Other services................................     51      159       59            .9      2.9      1.1

 Government.....................................    130      156      142            .6       .7       .6
  Federal.......................................     25        8        7            .9       .3       .2
  State and local...............................    105      148      136            .5       .8       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    351      475      375           1.4      1.9      1.5
  South.........................................    748      742      608           1.5      1.5      1.2
  Midwest.......................................    431      324      416           1.4      1.0      1.3
  West..........................................    451      665      504           1.5      2.2      1.6


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Sept.    Aug.     Sept.         Sept.    Aug.     Sept.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................    305      321      296           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    235      269      243            .2       .2       .2
  Natural resources and mining..................      2        2        1            .3       .3       .2
  Construction..................................     10       16       11            .1       .2       .1
  Manufacturing.................................     34       23       31            .2       .2       .2
   Durable goods................................     13       15       21            .1       .2       .3
   Nondurable goods.............................     21        8        9            .4       .2       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     67       74       69            .3       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................      5       14       15            .1       .2       .3
   Retail trade.................................     48       46       39            .3       .3       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     14       14       14            .3       .3       .3
  Information...................................     14        1        5            .5      (4)       .2
  Financial activities..........................     15       22       30            .2       .3       .4
   Finance and insurance........................     12       17       29            .2       .3       .5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      3        6        1            .1       .3       .1
  Professional and business services............     46       73       41            .3       .4       .2
  Education and health services.................     25       35       24            .1       .2       .1
   Educational services.........................      3        6        4            .1       .2       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     21       29       21            .1       .2       .1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     13       21       20            .1       .1       .1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      2        4        6            .1       .2       .3
   Accommodation and food services.............      11       16       14            .1       .1       .1
  Other services................................      8        2       11            .1      (4)       .2

 Government.....................................     71       52       53            .3       .2       .2
  Federal.......................................     37        8        6           1.4       .3       .2
  State and local...............................     33       45       47            .2       .2       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     67       47       59            .3       .2       .2
  South.........................................     84      137      104            .2       .3       .2
  Midwest.......................................     72       68       50            .2       .2       .2
  West..........................................     82       70       83            .3       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: November 13, 2008
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