Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, December 7, 2010     USDL-10-1685

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


            Job Openings and Labor Turnover – October 2010

There were 3.4 million job openings on the last business day of
October, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The job
openings rate increased over the month to 2.5 percent. The hires rate
remained at 3.2 percent in October, while the separations rate was
essentially unchanged at 3.1 percent. This release includes estimates
of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the
total nonfarm sector by industry and geographic region.

Job Openings
The number of job openings in October was 3.4 million, which was up
from 3.0 million in September. Since the most recent series trough in
July 2009, the number of job openings has risen by 1.0 million or 44
percent. (See table 1.) This trough immediately followed the end of
the recession in June 2009 (as designated by the National Bureau of
Economic Research). Even with the gains since July 2009, the number of
job openings in October remained 1.0 million below the 4.4 million
openings when the recession began in December 2007.

The number of job openings in October (not seasonally adjusted)
increased from 12 months earlier for total nonfarm and total private.
The level was little changed over the year for government overall but
decreased for federal government. Over the year, the job openings
level increased in seven industries and decreased in two industries.
The job openings level was up over the year in 3 of the 4 regions: the
Northeast, South, and West. (See table 5.)

                                 - 2 -

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Oct. | Sept.| Oct. | Oct. | Sept.| Oct. | Oct. | Sept.| Oct.
                   | 2009 | 2010 | 2010p| 2009 | 2010 | 2010p| 2009 | 2010 | 2010p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|2,546 |3,011 |3,362 |4,001 |4,208 |4,196 |4,171 |4,139 |4,047
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|2,164 |2,658 |3,027 |3,689 |3,953 |3,929 |3,901 |3,761 |3,768
  Construction.....|   65 |   71 |   56 |  325 |  336 |  370 |  381 |  334 |  346
  Manufacturing....|  141 |  203 |  205 |  243 |  260 |  269 |  293 |  261 |  271
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  363 |  472 |  488 |  772 |  863 |  849 |  844 |  813 |  806
   Retail trade....|  228 |  265 |  280 |  518 |  606 |  603 |  567 |  569 |  560
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  436 |  559 |  744 |  709 |  818 |  778 |  717 |  774 |  770
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  529 |  529 |  632 |  522 |  514 |  482 |  473 |  487 |  434
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  268 |  307 |  339 |  663 |  714 |  688 |  707 |  675 |  693
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   19 |   41 |   36 |  100 |  118 |  100 |  128 |  105 |  107
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  249 |  266 |  303 |  563 |  595 |  588 |  579 |  570 |  586
 Government(3).....|  382 |  354 |  335 |  312 |  254 |  267 |  269 |  378 |  279
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  292 |  250 |  265 |  271 |  222 |  234 |  242 |  269 |  239
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|  1.9 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  3.1 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.1
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  2.0 |  2.4 |  2.7 |  3.4 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.5 |  3.5
  Construction.....|  1.1 |  1.2 |  1.0 |  5.7 |  6.0 |  6.6 |  6.6 |  5.9 |  6.2
  Manufacturing....|  1.2 |  1.7 |  1.7 |  2.1 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  2.2 |  2.3
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  1.4 |  1.9 |  1.9 |  3.1 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  3.4 |  3.3 |  3.2
   Retail trade....|  1.6 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  3.6 |  4.2 |  4.2 |  3.9 |  3.9 |  3.9
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  2.6 |  3.2 |  4.2 |  4.3 |  4.9 |  4.6 |  4.4 |  4.6 |  4.6
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  2.7 |  2.6 |  3.1 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  2.4 |  2.5 |  2.5 |  2.2
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  2.0 |  2.3 |  2.5 |  5.1 |  5.4 |  5.2 |  5.4 |  5.1 |  5.3
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  1.0 |  2.1 |  1.8 |  5.2 |  6.2 |  5.3 |  6.7 |  5.5 |  5.7
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.6 |  5.1 |  5.3 |  5.2 |  5.2 |  5.1 |  5.2
 Government(3).....|  1.7 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.1 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.7 |  1.3
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.5 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.1 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.4 |  1.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.

Hires
In October, the hires rate remained at 3.2 percent for total nonfarm
and the rate was essentially unchanged for all industries and regions.
There were 4.2 million hires during the month, 9 percent higher than
the most recent series trough in June 2009. (See table 2.) This trough
coincided with the official end of the recession. Despite the gains
since June 2009, the number of hires in October remained below the 5.0
million hires when the recession began in December 2007. Since their
respective troughs, the hires level has risen at a slower pace than
the job openings level.

Over the 12 months ending in October, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was little changed for total nonfarm and total private but
fell slightly for government. The hires rate increased over the past
12 months in retail trade, decreased in real estate and rental and
leasing, and was essentially unchanged in the remaining industries.
(See table 6.)

                                 - 3 -

Separations
Total separations includes quits (voluntary separations), layoffs and
discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations (including
retirements). The total separations, or turnover, rate in October was
little changed for total nonfarm and total private, but the rate
decreased for government. Over the 12 months ending in October, the
total separations rate (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed
for total nonfarm, total private, and government. (See tables 3 and
7.)

The quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or
ability to change jobs. In October, the quits rate was little changed
for total nonfarm (1.5 percent), total private (1.7 percent), and
government (0.5 percent) and in every industry and region. (See table
4.) The number of quits in October (2.0 million) is somewhat higher
than the series trough in September 2009 (1.7 million), but it is
still well below the series peak in November 2006 (3.2 million).

Over the 12 months ending in October, the quits rate (not seasonally
adjusted) increased for total nonfarm; total private; professional and
business services; and arts, entertainment, and recreation as well as
in the Midwest and South regions. (See table 8.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels. The layoffs and discharges level was essentially
unchanged in October for total nonfarm and total private but fell for
government. The number of layoffs and discharges for total nonfarm
peaked at 2.6 million in January 2009, falling to 1.7 million in
October 2010. In government, the number of layoffs and discharges in
October (108,000) was lower than when the recession began in December
2007 (117,000). (See table B below.)

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) declined
over the 12 months ending in October for total nonfarm and total
private, but the level increased in federal government. The layoffs
and discharges level declined over the year in many industries and in
the South and Midwest regions. (See table 9.)

Table B.  Layoffs and discharges by industry, seasonally adjusted
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                   | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                   |------------------------------------------------
     Industry      |  Oct. |  Sept.|  Oct. |  Oct. |  Sept.|  Oct.
                   |  2009 |  2010 |  2010p|  2009 |  2010 |  2010p
-------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 2,063 | 1,808 | 1,717 |  1.6  |  1.4  |  1.3
 Total private.....| 1,960 | 1,614 | 1,610 |  1.8  |  1.5  |  1.5
 Government........|   103 |   194 |   108 |  0.5  |  0.9  |  0.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = preliminary.

The other separations series is not seasonally adjusted. In October,
there were 302,000 other separations for total nonfarm, 257,000 for
total private, and 44,000 for government. Compared to October 2009,
the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm
and total private. The number of other separations decreased over the
year for federal government. (See table 10.)

Relative Contributions to Separations
The total separations level is influenced by the relative contribution
of its three components—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. The percentage of total separations at the total nonfarm
level attributable to the individual components has varied over time,
but for the majority of the months

                                 - 4 -

since the series began in December 2000, the proportion of quits has
exceeded the proportion of layoffs and discharges. Other separations
is historically a very small portion of total separations; it has rarely
been above 10 percent of the total.

Since February 2010, the proportions of quits and of layoffs and
discharges at the total nonfarm level have been close. In October
2010, the proportion of quits for total nonfarm was 49 percent and the
proportion of layoffs and discharges was 42 percent. For total
private, the proportions were 50 percent quits and 43 percent layoffs
and discharges. For government, the proportions were 39 percent quits
and 39 percent layoffs and discharges. The proportion of layoffs and
discharges in government had been higher than usual in parts of 2009
and 2010 due to layoffs of temporary Census 2010 workers. This
proportion decreased in October as most temporary Census 2010 workers
had already been discharged. (See table C below.)

Table C.  Quits and layoffs and discharges as a percentage of total separations, seasonally adjusted
(Levels in thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Quits                      |             Layoffs and discharges
                   | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |      Oct.      |      Sept.     |      Oct.      |      Oct.      |      Sept.     |      Oct.
                   |      2009      |      2010      |      2010p     |      2009      |      2010      |      2010p
     Industry      | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion
                   | Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,723 |   41%  | 1,983 |   48%  | 1,997 |   49%  | 2,063 |   49%  | 1,808 |   44%  | 1,717 |   42%
 Total private.....| 1,620 |   42%  | 1,860 |   49%  | 1,887 |   50%  | 1,960 |   50%  | 1,614 |   43%  | 1,610 |   43%
 Government........|   102 |   38%  |   124 |   33%  |   110 |   39%  |   103 |   38%  |   194 |   51%  |   108 |   39%
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = preliminary.

Net Change in Employment
Over the 12 months ending in October, hires (not seasonally adjusted)
totaled nearly 50.8 million and separations (not seasonally adjusted)
totaled 50.0 million, yielding a net employment gain of 0.7 million.
These figures include workers who may have been hired and separated
more than once during the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for November 2010
are scheduled to be released on Tuesday, January 11, 2011 at 10:00
a.m. (EST).





                                 - 5 -

Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

                                 - 6 -

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm
business establishments, including factories, offices, and stores,
as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a
universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part of the
operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed from
individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked monthly to the
employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and sepa-

                                 - 7 -

rations from these units during their early existence.  BLS has
developed a model to estimate birth/death activity for current
months by examining the birth/death activity from previous years on the
QCEW and projecting forward to the present using an econometric technique
known as X-12 ARIMA modeling. The birth/death model also uses historical
JOLTS data to estimate the amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that
exists in establishments of various sizes.  The model then combines
the estimated churn with the projected employment change to
estimate the number of hires and separations taking place in these
units that cannot be measured through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Using JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the

                                 - 8 -

federal government.  The Office of Personnel Management's record
shows these transfers were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion
of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires and separations
is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers between
establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reorganization
was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these
intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.


Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  2,546  2,939  2,864  3,141  3,092  3,011  3,362    1.9   2.2   2.1   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,164  2,597  2,537  2,821  2,752  2,658  3,027    2.0   2.4   2.3   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.7
  Construction...........................     65     79     53    101     65     71     56    1.1   1.4    .9   1.8   1.1   1.2   1.0
  Manufacturing..........................    141    205    226    238    190    203    205    1.2   1.7   1.9   2.0   1.6   1.7   1.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    363    452    449    485    449    472    488    1.4   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8   1.9   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    228    274    284    295    263    265    280    1.6   1.9   1.9   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.9
  Professional and business services.....    436    601    514    564    590    559    744    2.6   3.5   3.0   3.3   3.4   3.2   4.2
  Education and health services..........    529    512    487    515    487    529    632    2.7   2.6   2.4   2.6   2.4   2.6   3.1
  Leisure and hospitality................    268    288    317    365    381    307    339    2.0   2.2   2.4   2.7   2.8   2.3   2.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     19     41     55     42     41     41     36    1.0   2.1   2.8   2.1   2.1   2.1   1.8
   Accommodation and food services.......    249    247    263    323    340    266    303    2.2   2.2   2.3   2.8   2.9   2.3   2.6
 Government(6)...........................    382    342    327    320    341    354    335    1.7   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.5   1.6   1.5
  State and local government.............    292    237    238    246    257    250    265    1.5   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.3   1.3   1.3


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    532    657    631    639    666    565    676    2.1   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.6   2.2   2.7
  South..................................    915  1,078    982  1,100  1,159  1,101  1,293    1.9   2.2   2.0   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.7
  Midwest................................    566    568    604    617    647    552    642    1.9   1.9   2.0   2.0   2.1   1.8   2.1
  West...................................    605    689    632    696    730    665    833    2.1   2.3   2.1   2.4   2.5   2.3   2.8


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  4,001  4,581  4,250  4,275  4,156  4,208  4,196    3.1   3.5   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.2   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,689  3,846  3,946  3,985  3,891  3,953  3,929    3.4   3.6   3.7   3.7   3.6   3.7   3.6
  Construction...........................    325    321    289    361    357    336    370    5.7   5.7   5.2   6.4   6.4   6.0   6.6
  Manufacturing..........................    243    266    267    297    274    260    269    2.1   2.3   2.3   2.5   2.3   2.2   2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    772    819    876    864    798    863    849    3.1   3.3   3.5   3.5   3.2   3.5   3.4
   Retail trade..........................    518    567    589    608    571    606    603    3.6   3.9   4.1   4.2   4.0   4.2   4.2
  Professional and business services.....    709    805    825    810    831    818    778    4.3   4.8   4.9   4.8   5.0   4.9   4.6
  Education and health services..........    522    479    523    515    492    514    482    2.7   2.5   2.7   2.6   2.5   2.6   2.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    663    678    691    712    688    714    688    5.1   5.2   5.3   5.4   5.2   5.4   5.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    100    105    127    119    109    118    100    5.2   5.5   6.7   6.2   5.7   6.2   5.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    563    573    564    593    579    595    588    5.1   5.1   5.0   5.3   5.2   5.3   5.2
 Government(6)...........................    312    735    304    289    264    254    267    1.4   3.2   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.2
  State and local government.............    271    246    247    247    228    222    234    1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.2


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    805    844    718    731    702    787    753    3.3   3.4   2.9   3.0   2.8   3.2   3.0
  South..................................  1,420  1,681  1,505  1,531  1,541  1,562  1,550    3.0   3.6   3.2   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.3
  Midwest................................    949  1,090  1,013  1,011    946    924    973    3.2   3.7   3.4   3.4   3.2   3.1   3.3
  West...................................    933  1,014    923    923    870    950    931    3.2   3.5   3.2   3.2   3.0   3.3   3.2


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  4,171  4,146  4,436  4,390  4,210  4,139  4,047    3.2   3.2   3.4   3.4   3.2   3.2   3.1

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,901  3,816  3,884  3,940  3,796  3,761  3,768    3.6   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.5   3.5   3.5
  Construction...........................    381    340    314    361    321    334    346    6.6   6.1   5.6   6.5   5.7   5.9   6.2
  Manufacturing..........................    293    238    260    271    279    261    271    2.5   2.0   2.2   2.3   2.4   2.2   2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    844    800    874    855    814    813    806    3.4   3.2   3.5   3.5   3.3   3.3   3.2
   Retail trade..........................    567    574    604    613    583    569    560    3.9   4.0   4.2   4.2   4.0   3.9   3.9
  Professional and business services.....    717    806    777    830    808    774    770    4.4   4.8   4.7   5.0   4.8   4.6   4.6
  Education and health services..........    473    446    493    491    454    487    434    2.5   2.3   2.5   2.5   2.3   2.5   2.2
  Leisure and hospitality................    707    707    668    701    663    675    693    5.4   5.4   5.1   5.3   5.0   5.1   5.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    128    122    113    121    106    105    107    6.7   6.5   5.9   6.3   5.5   5.5   5.7
   Accommodation and food services.......    579    585    555    580    557    570    586    5.2   5.2   5.0   5.2   5.0   5.1   5.2
 Government(6)...........................    269    331    552    450    414    378    279    1.2   1.4   2.4   2.0   1.8   1.7   1.3
  State and local government.............    242    263    275    268    267    269    239    1.2   1.3   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.2


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    727    734    748    775    731    707    738    3.0   3.0   3.0   3.1   3.0   2.9   3.0
  South..................................  1,544  1,521  1,606  1,533  1,602  1,553  1,442    3.3   3.2   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.1
  Midwest................................    920    988    981  1,018    930    984    900    3.1   3.3   3.3   3.4   3.1   3.3   3.0
  West...................................    939    920    928    929    889    910    864    3.3   3.2   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.0


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  1,723  1,929  1,951  1,974  1,998  1,983  1,997    1.3   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,620  1,828  1,819  1,855  1,881  1,860  1,887    1.5   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7
  Construction...........................     62     64     67     72     81     85     82    1.1   1.1   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.5   1.5
  Manufacturing..........................     80     96    105     97    107     95    106     .7    .8    .9    .8    .9    .8    .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    382    438    443    451    425    452    430    1.6   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.8   1.7
   Retail trade..........................    287    338    331    347    322    351    331    2.0   2.3   2.3   2.4   2.2   2.4   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    277    330    325    357    385    350    385    1.7   2.0   1.9   2.1   2.3   2.1   2.3
  Education and health services..........    267    254    268    258    249    245    249    1.4   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    356    428    373    401    407    394    416    2.7   3.3   2.8   3.1   3.1   3.0   3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     39     39     26     31     36     39     54    2.0   2.0   1.4   1.6   1.9   2.1   2.8
   Accommodation and food services.......    317    390    347    370    370    355    362    2.8   3.5   3.1   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.2
 Government(6)...........................    102    101    131    119    117    124    110     .5    .4    .6    .5    .5    .6    .5
  State and local government.............     98     88    105    100    101    112     99     .5    .4    .5    .5    .5    .6    .5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    300    286    341    318    333    271    284    1.2   1.2   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.1   1.1
  South..................................    677    736    796    749    791    804    768    1.4   1.6   1.7   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.6
  Midwest................................    382    496    438    475    452    410    484    1.3   1.7   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.6
  West...................................    388    433    437    404    425    411    425    1.3   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  2,676    2,998    3,573           2.0      2.2      2.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,284    2,672    3,222           2.1      2.4      2.9
  Mining and Logging............................      6       17       20            .9      2.2      2.6
  Construction..................................     58       76       46           1.0      1.3       .8
  Manufacturing.................................    147      213      207           1.2      1.8      1.7
   Durable goods................................     69      146      142           1.0      2.0      1.9
   Nondurable goods.............................     78       68       65           1.7      1.5      1.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    407      521      550           1.6      2.1      2.2
   Wholesale trade..............................     76       98      107           1.3      1.7      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    275      305      340           1.9      2.1      2.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     56      118      103           1.2      2.4      2.1
  Information...................................     89       64       83           3.1      2.3      3.0
  Financial activities..........................    171      293      328           2.2      3.7      4.2
   Finance and insurance........................    104      267      290           1.8      4.5      4.9
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     67       27       39           3.3      1.4      2.0
  Professional and business services............    475      553      827           2.8      3.2      4.6
  Education and health services.................    543      509      663           2.7      2.5      3.2
   Educational services.........................     37       47       61           1.1      1.5      1.8
   Health care and social assistance............    506      462      602           3.0      2.7      3.5
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    278      302      358           2.1      2.2      2.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     20       36       38           1.1      1.7      2.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     257      267      320           2.3      2.3      2.8
  Other services................................    111      122      140           2.0      2.2      2.5

 Government.....................................    392      326      352           1.7      1.5      1.5
  Federal.......................................    103       89       76           3.5      3.0      2.6
  State and local...............................    289      237      276           1.4      1.2      1.4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    569      587      719           2.2      2.3      2.8
  South.........................................    926    1,128    1,354           1.9      2.3      2.8
  Midwest.......................................    598      608      682           2.0      2.0      2.2
  West..........................................    582      675      818           2.0      2.3      2.7


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  4,273    4,391    4,475           3.3      3.4      3.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,961    4,036    4,208           3.7      3.7      3.9
  Mining and Logging............................     19       21       26           2.8      2.7      3.4
  Construction..................................    318      302      367           5.3      5.2      6.3
  Manufacturing.................................    259      277      283           2.2      2.4      2.4
   Durable goods................................    125      141      153           1.8      2.0      2.1
   Nondurable goods.............................    134      136      130           2.9      3.0      2.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    895      948      986           3.6      3.8      4.0
   Wholesale trade..............................    133      149      126           2.4      2.6      2.2
   Retail trade.................................    620      652      717           4.3      4.5      4.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    142      148      143           3.0      3.1      3.0
  Information...................................     66       57       72           2.4      2.1      2.7
  Financial activities..........................    221      175      209           2.9      2.3      2.8
   Finance and insurance........................    138      129      157           2.4      2.3      2.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     83       45       53           4.2      2.3      2.7
  Professional and business services............    780      776      838           4.7      4.6      4.9
  Education and health services.................    575      612      526           3.0      3.1      2.6
   Educational services.........................     98      142       90           3.0      4.6      2.7
   Health care and social assistance............    477      470      436           2.9      2.9      2.6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    657      683      678           5.1      5.1      5.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     80      106       75           4.3      5.3      4.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     577      577      603           5.2      5.1      5.3
  Other services................................    171      185      223           3.2      3.4      4.1

 Government.....................................    311      356      266           1.4      1.6      1.2
  Federal.......................................     41       35       33           1.4      1.2      1.2
  State and local...............................    271      321      233           1.4      1.7      1.2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    820      877      804           3.3      3.5      3.2
  South.........................................  1,484    1,568    1,638           3.1      3.3      3.4
  Midwest.......................................  1,015      953    1,056           3.4      3.2      3.5
  West..........................................    954      993      977           3.3      3.4      3.4


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  4,493    4,242    4,349           3.4      3.2      3.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,267    3,802    4,119           4.0      3.5      3.8
  Mining and Logging............................     26       18       20           3.8      2.4      2.6
  Construction..................................    438      326      400           7.3      5.6      6.8
  Manufacturing.................................    332      251      310           2.8      2.1      2.6
   Durable goods................................    178      128      168           2.5      1.8      2.3
   Nondurable goods.............................    153      124      142           3.4      2.7      3.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    868      806      825           3.5      3.3      3.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    140      130      125           2.5      2.3      2.2
   Retail trade.................................    572      557      560           4.0      3.9      3.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    156      118      140           3.3      2.5      2.9
  Information...................................     71       52       71           2.6      1.9      2.6
  Financial activities..........................    236      158      205           3.1      2.1      2.7
   Finance and insurance........................    140      108      144           2.5      1.9      2.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     96       50       61           4.8      2.6      3.1
  Professional and business services............    768      726      816           4.6      4.3      4.8
  Education and health services.................    461      492      414           2.4      2.5      2.1
   Educational services.........................     60       80       46           1.8      2.6      1.4
   Health care and social assistance............    401      412      368           2.5      2.5      2.2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    870      811      863           6.7      6.1      6.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    194      177      167          10.4      8.8      9.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     675      634      696           6.1      5.6      6.2
  Other services................................    199      162      194           3.7      3.0      3.6

 Government.....................................    226      440      231           1.0      2.0      1.0
  Federal.......................................     23      115       36            .8      4.0      1.3
  State and local...............................    203      324      195           1.0      1.7      1.0

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    777      786      812           3.1      3.2      3.3
  South.........................................  1,666    1,507    1,565           3.5      3.2      3.3
  Midwest.......................................  1,014    1,022      999           3.4      3.4      3.3
  West..........................................  1,037      926      972           3.6      3.2      3.3


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  1,853    2,071    2,164           1.4      1.6      1.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,767    1,934    2,073           1.6      1.8      1.9
  Mining and Logging............................      6       10       10            .9      1.3      1.3
  Construction..................................     70       87       95           1.2      1.5      1.6
  Manufacturing.................................     94      101      123            .8       .9      1.1
   Durable goods................................     41       44       57            .6       .6       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................     53       57       66           1.2      1.2      1.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    407      469      450           1.6      1.9      1.8
   Wholesale trade..............................     38       48       48            .7       .9       .9
   Retail trade.................................    304      364      345           2.1      2.5      2.4
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     65       58       57           1.4      1.2      1.2
  Information...................................     30       27       41           1.1      1.0      1.5
  Financial activities..........................     95      102       94           1.2      1.3      1.2
   Finance and insurance........................     67       61       67           1.2      1.1      1.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     28       40       26           1.4      2.1      1.4
  Professional and business services............    300      329      438           1.8      2.0      2.6
  Education and health services.................    282      258      263           1.5      1.3      1.3
   Educational services.........................     33       39       32           1.0      1.3      1.0
   Health care and social assistance............    250      218      231           1.5      1.3      1.4
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    397      464      467           3.1      3.5      3.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     42       60       63           2.3      3.0      3.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     355      404      404           3.2      3.5      3.6
  Other services................................     86       88       91           1.6      1.6      1.7

 Government.....................................     87      137       91            .4       .6       .4
  Federal.......................................      3       13        7            .1       .4       .3
  State and local...............................     84      124       84            .4       .6       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    316      335      316           1.3      1.4      1.3
  South.........................................    723      818      834           1.5      1.7      1.8
  Midwest.......................................    416      463      555           1.4      1.6      1.9
  West..........................................    398      455      458           1.4      1.6      1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  2,283    1,817    1,884           1.7      1.4      1.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,193    1,583    1,788           2.0      1.5      1.6
  Mining and Logging............................     18        7        8           2.7      1.0      1.0
  Construction..................................    362      225      280           6.0      3.8      4.8
  Manufacturing.................................    220      136      167           1.9      1.2      1.4
   Durable goods................................    128       74       99           1.8      1.0      1.4
   Nondurable goods.............................     92       61       68           2.0      1.4      1.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    343      257      309           1.4      1.0      1.2
   Wholesale trade..............................     59       69       65           1.1      1.2      1.2
   Retail trade.................................    216      145      171           1.5      1.0      1.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     68       43       72           1.4       .9      1.5
  Information...................................     29       17       24           1.1       .6       .9
  Financial activities..........................    119       44       95           1.6       .6      1.3
   Finance and insurance........................     54       35       63            .9       .6      1.1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     65        9       32           3.3       .4      1.6
  Professional and business services............    407      323      333           2.4      1.9      2.0
  Education and health services.................    153      204      122            .8      1.0       .6
   Educational services.........................     25       37       12            .8      1.2       .4
   Health care and social assistance............    128      166      110            .8      1.0       .7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    448      311      367           3.4      2.3      2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    144      115      100           7.7      5.7      5.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     303      196      267           2.7      1.7      2.4
  Other services................................     94       61       85           1.8      1.1      1.6

 Government.....................................     90      234       96            .4      1.1       .4
  Federal.......................................      7       92       22            .3      3.2       .8
  State and local...............................     83      142       74            .4       .7       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    408      373      436           1.6      1.5      1.7
  South.........................................    825      556      608           1.7      1.2      1.3
  Midwest.......................................    515      483      370           1.7      1.6      1.2
  West..........................................    536      405      470           1.8      1.4      1.6


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................    357      354      302           0.3      0.3      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    308      285      257            .3       .3       .2
  Mining and Logging............................      2        1        2            .2       .2       .3
  Construction..................................      6       15       25            .1       .2       .4
  Manufacturing.................................     18       14       20            .2       .1       .2
   Durable goods................................      9        9       12            .1       .1       .2
   Nondurable goods.............................      8        5        7            .2       .1       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    118       80       66            .5       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................     43       14       11            .8       .2       .2
   Retail trade.................................     52       49       44            .4       .3       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     23       17       11            .5       .4       .2
  Information...................................     11        8        6            .4       .3       .2
  Financial activities..........................     22       13       16            .3       .2       .2
   Finance and insurance........................     19       12       14            .3       .2       .2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      3        1        3            .1       .1       .1
  Professional and business services............     62       74       45            .4       .4       .3
  Education and health services.................     25       31       30            .1       .2       .2
   Educational services.........................      1        4        3           (4)       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     24       28       27            .1       .2       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     25       36       29            .2       .3       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      8        2        5            .4       .1       .2
   Accommodation and food services.............      17       34       25            .2       .3       .2
  Other services................................     20       13       17            .4       .2       .3

 Government.....................................     49       69       44            .2       .3       .2
  Federal.......................................     13       11        7            .4       .4       .2
  State and local...............................     36       58       37            .2       .3       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     54       78       61            .2       .3       .2
  South.........................................    119      133      123            .3       .3       .3
  Midwest.......................................     83       76       73            .3       .3       .2
  West..........................................    101       67       45            .3       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: December 07, 2010
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