Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 08-1801
                  http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EST
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Tuesday, December 9, 2008


            JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  OCTOBER 2008

     On the last business day of October, there were 3.1 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 2.2
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate was little changed in
October but continued to trend downward. The hires rate decreased
slightly to 3.0 percent in October, while the total separations rate
was little changed at 3.1 percent.  This release includes estimates of
the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the
total nonfarm sector by industry and geographic region.

     
     Although the month-to-month changes in job openings, hires, and
turnover data are often small, the trends over time are notable.  The
job openings rate has declined for the past 13 months after remaining
essentially flat from August 2006 through September 2007.  For the
third time in 2008, the hires rate was 3.0 percent in October.  Prior
to 2008, the last time the hires rate was this low was May 2003.  The
separations rate has remained low for the past seven months, ranging
from 2.9 to 3.2.  The last time period that the separations rate was
consistently at or below 3.2 was March 2003 thru March 2004.  (See
tables 1, 2, and 3.)
     
Job Openings
     
     The job openings rate was little changed in October 2008 but has
been trending downward for over a year. At 2.2 percent in October, the
job openings rate was at the lowest level since February 2004.


                            - 2 -


Although the job openings rate was little changed at the total nonfarm
and total private levels, the rate decreased significantly in October
in the construction industry and in the West region.  The rate
increased significantly in October only in retail trade.  (See table
1.)
     
Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Oct. | Sept.| Oct. | Oct. | Sept.| Oct. | Oct. | Sept.| Oct.
                   | 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|4,044 |3,214 |3,052 |4,914 |4,362 |4,062 |4,594 |4,042 |4,234
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|3,597 |2,778 |2,609 |4,552 |4,090 |3,743 |4,314 |3,792 |3,972
    Construction...|  150 |  110 |   56 |  331 |  288 |  337 |  355 |  403 |  437
    Manufacturing..|  303 |  213 |  196 |  396 |  281 |  268 |  393 |  335 |  459
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  644 |  458 |  520 |1,018 |  875 |  849 |1,010 |  916 |  959
     Retail trade..|  321 |  260 |  317 |  699 |  616 |  551 |  702 |  581 |  646
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  758 |  567 |  503 |  855 |  741 |  678 |  935 |  696 |  719
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  704 |  617 |  611 |  517 |  514 |  507 |  434 |  378 |  427
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  614 |  443 |  392 |  924 |  830 |  705 |  761 |  714 |  641
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  543 |  373 |  337 |  803 |  681 |  585 |  651 |  634 |  543
  Government(4)....|  448 |  440 |  436 |  373 |  313 |  332 |  286 |  251 |  258
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  408 |  387 |  365 |  315 |  283 |  286 |  238 |  233 |  228
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  2.8 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  3.6 |  3.2 |  3.0 |  3.3 |  2.9 |  3.1
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|  3.0 |  2.4 |  2.2 |  3.9 |  3.6 |  3.3 |  3.7 |  3.3 |  3.5
    Construction...|  1.9 |  1.5 |  0.8 |  4.4 |  4.0 |  4.8 |  4.7 |  5.7 |  6.2
    Manufacturing..|  2.2 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  2.9 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  2.9 |  2.5 |  3.5
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  2.4 |  1.7 |  1.9 |  3.8 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  3.8 |  3.5 |  3.7
     Retail trade..|  2.0 |  1.7 |  2.0 |  4.5 |  4.0 |  3.6 |  4.5 |  3.8 |  4.3
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  4.0 |  3.1 |  2.8 |  4.7 |  4.2 |  3.8 |  5.2 |  3.9 |  4.0
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  3.7 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  2.8 |  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.3 |  2.0 |  2.2
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  4.3 |  3.2 |  2.8 |  6.8 |  6.1 |  5.2 |  5.6 |  5.2 |  4.7
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  4.5 |  3.1 |  2.8 |  6.9 |  5.9 |  5.0 |  5.6 |  5.5 |  4.7
  Government(4)....|  2.0 |  1.9 |  1.9 |  1.7 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.3 |  1.1 |  1.1
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  2.0 |  1.9 |  1.8 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.

     
     Over the last 12 months, the job openings rate (not seasonally
adjusted) rose significantly only in the federal government (to 2.5
percent).  The rate fell over the year for total nonfarm and total
private as well as in most industries, including construction; durable
goods manufacturing; nondurable goods manufacturing; wholesale trade;
transportation, warehousing, and utilities; information; finance and


                            - 3 -


insurance; professional and business services; health care and social
assistance; accommodation and food services; other services; and state
and local government.  The job openings rate also fell significantly
over the year in three of the four regions—Northeast, South, and West.
(See table 5.)
     
Hires
     
     The hires rate decreased in October to 3.0 percent due to small
declines in the rate for several industries. Only accommodation and
food services experienced a significant decrease in the hires rate in
October; no industry or region experienced a significant increase in
the hires rate in October.  Over the past 12 months, the hires rate
did not increase significantly in any industry or region but decreased
for total nonfarm and total private and in several industries,
including durable goods manufacturing; nondurable goods manufacturing;
retail trade; finance and insurance; professional and business
services; accommodation and food services; and state and local
government.  The hires rate dropped significantly over the past 12
months in three of the four regions—Midwest, South, and West.  (See
tables 2 and 6.)

Separations
     
     The total separations, or turnover, rate ticked upward to 3.1
percent in October, but the change was not statistically significant.
Between October 2007 and October 2008, the total separations rate
decreased significantly due to a decline in quits, the largest
component of total separations.  (See tables 7 and 8.)
     
     The quits rate can serve as a barometer of workers’ ability to
change jobs.  Although the quits rate was unchanged in October for
total nonfarm, the rate has remained at 1.6 percent for three months—a
low point last seen in January 2004.  Comparing October 2008 to
October 2007, the quits rate was significantly lower for total nonfarm
and total private and in many industries, including nondurable goods
manufacturing; retail trade; finance and insurance; professional and
business services; accommodation and food services; other services;
and state and local government.  The quits rate also fell over the
year in three of the four regions—Northeast, South, and West.  The
quits rate rose significantly over the past 12 months only in the
mining industry.  (See tables 4 and 8.)
     
     The other two components of total separations—layoffs and
discharges, and other separations—are not seasonally adjusted.  In
October, the layoffs and discharges rate (1.4 percent) and level (1.9
million) were little changed from a year earlier.  Although
essentially unchanged at the total nonfarm level, the layoffs and
discharges rate increased between October 2007 and October 2008 in
construction; durable goods manufacturing; nondurable goods
manufacturing; and information.  The layoffs and discharges rate
declined over the year in finance and insurance and in professional
and business services.  The other separations rate (0.2 percent) and
level (273,000) were essentially unchanged from a year earlier at the
total nonfarm level.  (See tables 9 and 10.)
     
     The total separations rate is driven by the relative contribution
of its three components (quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations), with quits contributing the largest portion.  The
percentage of total separations attributable to quits has varied over
time. The proportion of total separations due to quits (seasonally
adjusted) rose from a post-recession low of 50 percent in December
2003 to a high of 61 percent in December 2006 before trending downward
again.  Quits accounted for only 51 percent of total separations in
October 2008, down five percentage points in 2008 as quits decreased
and layoffs increased.  (See tables 3 and 4.)


                            - 4 -


For More Information
     
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
     
     
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for November 2008 is
scheduled to be issued on Tuesday, January 13.  Release dates for the
balance of 2009 are as follows:
     
     Dec.  —  Feb. 10    March  —  May 12    June  —  Aug. 12    Sept.
—  Nov. 10
     Jan.   —  March 10  April    —  June 9  July   —  Sept. 9   Oct.
—  Dec. 8
     Feb.  —  April 7    May     —  July 7   Aug.  —  Oct. 9
     





                                  - 5 -


Technical Note


   The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are
collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business establishments
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

   Each month, data are collected in a survey of business establishments
for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Data collection methods include computer-assisted
telephone interviewing, touchtone data entry, fax, and mail.

Coverage

   The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as
factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local
government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Concepts

   Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).  In order to ensure the highest possible
quality of data, State Workforce Agencies verify with employers and up-
date, if necessary, the industry code, location, and ownership classi-
fication of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for the
first month of the year.

   Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the refer-
ence month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, sala-
ried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vaca-
tions or other paid leave.  Proprietors or partners of unincorporated
businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on 
strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed.  Employees
of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

   Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for the
last business day of the reference month.  A job opening requires that:
1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that posi-
tion, 2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable
candidate is found, and 3) the employer is actively recruiting from out-
side the establishment to fill the position.  Included are full-time,
part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active re-
cruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position
by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted
signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, out-
side contractors, or consultants.  The job openings rate is computed by
dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job
openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.


                                  - 6 -

   Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occur-
ring at any time during the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and 
seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff
lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other
locations.  The hires count does not include transfers or promotions 
within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of
temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, or consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number
of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

   Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are
reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by employees (ex-
cept for retirements, which are reported as other separations).  Lay-
offs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the em-
ployer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs
lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges
for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees.  Other separations include re-
tirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability.  Separations do not include transfers within the
same location or employees on strike.

   The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separa-
tions by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.  The quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed simi-
larly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

   Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and dis-
charges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the
12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are computed by
dividing the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
This figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly
rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES annual levels are rounded to
the nearest thousand before the annual estimates are calculated.  Con-
sistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for
not seasonally adjusted data.

   Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last busi-
ness day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day of the
month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot be cumulated
throughout each month, annual figures for job openings cannot be created
by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and separations are flow mea-
sures and are cumulated over the month with a total reported for the
month.  Therefore, the annual figures can be created by summing the
monthly estimates.


                                  - 7 -

Sample methodology

   The JOLTS sample design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm business
establishments, including factories, offices, and stores, as well as
federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states and the District
of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a universe of over
eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.  This program
includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws
and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE).

   The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector,
and size class.  Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty.
JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment esti-
mates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES 
to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data
elements.  Rates are then computed from the adjusted levels.

Using JOLTS data

   The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are rel-
atively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel en-
rolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the original data
series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system
was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002.  The sup-
plemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were
not completely enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until
those points are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were
reporting data at that time.

   In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data
were revised to address possible underreporting.  As a result, JOLTS hires
and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be compar-
able with estimates for March 2002 and later.

   The federal government reorganization that involved transferring approx-
imately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not
reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the federal gov-
ernment.  The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers
were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS defi-
nitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of
workers between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reor-
ganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these inter-
governmental transfers would distort the federal government time series.

Seasonal adjustment

   BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA seasonal
adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of estimating and
removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such as weather, holidays,
and the beginning and ending of the school year.  Seasonal adjustment makes
it easier to observe fundamental changes in the level of the series, par-
ticularly those associated with general economic expansions and contrac-
tions.  A concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new
seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.


                                  - 8 -

  Prior to the January  2007 benchmark release in March 2007, seasonal adjust-
ment of the JOLTS series was conducted using the stable seasonal filter option
since there were not enough data observations available for the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters.  Although the seasonal adjustment of
the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary,
the number of observations is now above the minimum required by  X-12-ARIMA to
use the normal seasonal filters.  Therefore, the standard use of moving aver-
ages as seasonal filter is now in place for JOLTS seasonal adjustment.  JOLTS
seasonal adjustment now includes both additive and multiplicative seasonal
adjustment models  and REGARIMA (regression  with autocorrelated errors)
modeling to improve the  seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end
of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

   JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  When
a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error.  Estimates of sampling errors are available upon request.

   The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a seg-
ment of the population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the
sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection
or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data
used in estimation.

   JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net
changes in nonfarm payroll employment.  Some reasons why it is problematic to 
compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, espe-
cially on a monthly basis, are:  1) the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period
for hires and separations is the calendar month; and 2) payroll employment can
vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not
always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.  Addi-
tionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature
of their payroll systems and practices.  The shortfall appears to be about
2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,044  3,631  3,497  3,492  3,375  3,214  3,052    2.8   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.3   2.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,597  3,185  3,073  3,046  2,952  2,778  2,609    3.0   2.7   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.4   2.2
  Construction...........................    150    130    100     94     85    110     56    1.9   1.8   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.5    .8
  Manufacturing..........................    303    249    241    229    245    213    196    2.2   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.6   1.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    644    572    539    569    572    458    520    2.4   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1   1.7   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    321    363    322    346    357    260    317    2.0   2.3   2.1   2.2   2.3   1.7   2.0
  Professional and business services.....    758    649    670    696    634    567    503    4.0   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.4   3.1   2.8
  Education and health services..........    704    648    682    687    643    617    611    3.7   3.3   3.5   3.5   3.3   3.1   3.1
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    614    503    452    432    383    443    392    4.3   3.5   3.2   3.1   2.7   3.2   2.8
   Accommodation and food services.......    543    438    406    388    316    373    337    4.5   3.6   3.4   3.2   2.6   3.1   2.8
 Government(7)...........................    448    451    417    412    423    440    436    2.0   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.9
  State and local government.............    408    407    361    362    363    387    365    2.0   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    657    600    608    615    617    590    557    2.5   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.1
  South..................................  1,629  1,386  1,440  1,384  1,317  1,240  1,194    3.2   2.7   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.4   2.4
  Midwest................................    747    721    676    638    664    664    685    2.3   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1   2.1
  West...................................  1,014    937    789    847    777    710    610    3.2   2.9   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.3   1.9


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,914  4,123  4,438  4,026  4,063  4,362  4,062    3.6   3.0   3.2   2.9   3.0   3.2   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,552  3,871  4,136  3,751  3,822  4,090  3,743    3.9   3.4   3.6   3.3   3.3   3.6   3.3
  Construction...........................    331    286    354    242    322    288    337    4.4   3.9   4.9   3.4   4.5   4.0   4.8
  Manufacturing..........................    396    274    285    249    251    281    268    2.9   2.0   2.1   1.8   1.9   2.1   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)  1,018    828    906    858    878    875    849    3.8   3.1   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.2
   Retail trade..........................    699    585    608    585    619    616    551    4.5   3.8   4.0   3.8   4.0   4.0   3.6
  Professional and business services.....    855    770    889    748    701    741    678    4.7   4.3   5.0   4.2   3.9   4.2   3.8
  Education and health services..........    517    479    485    474    509    514    507    2.8   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.7   2.7   2.7
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    924    847    741    798    728    830    705    6.8   6.2   5.4   5.8   5.3   6.1   5.2
   Accommodation and food services.......    803    731    645    683    626    681    585    6.9   6.3   5.5   5.9   5.4   5.9   5.0
 Government(7)...........................    373    329    340    321    315    313    332    1.7   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.5
  State and local government.............    315    304    309    300    286    283    286    1.6   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    653    646    761    657    679    688    651    2.5   2.5   3.0   2.6   2.7   2.7   2.5
  South..................................  1,924  1,538  1,666  1,512  1,549  1,570  1,511    3.9   3.1   3.4   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1
  Midwest................................  1,097    914    966    934    926  1,020    926    3.5   2.9   3.1   3.0   2.9   3.3   3.0
  West...................................  1,216  1,111  1,084    979  1,004  1,057    956    3.9   3.6   3.5   3.2   3.3   3.4   3.1


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,594  4,313  4,368  4,359  4,398  4,042  4,234    3.3   3.1   3.2   3.2   3.2   2.9   3.1

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,314  4,046  4,115  4,128  4,149  3,792  3,972    3.7   3.5   3.6   3.6   3.6   3.3   3.5
  Construction...........................    355    393    409    473    400    403    437    4.7   5.4   5.7   6.6   5.6   5.7   6.2
  Manufacturing..........................    393    359    353    324    325    335    459    2.9   2.6   2.6   2.4   2.4   2.5   3.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)  1,010    868  1,003  1,013    933    916    959    3.8   3.3   3.8   3.8   3.5   3.5   3.7
   Retail trade..........................    702    605    679    692    642    581    646    4.5   3.9   4.4   4.5   4.2   3.8   4.3
  Professional and business services.....    935    741    799    694    851    696    719    5.2   4.1   4.5   3.9   4.8   3.9   4.0
  Education and health services..........    434    434    417    464    424    378    427    2.3   2.3   2.2   2.4   2.2   2.0   2.2
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    761    801    749    741    754    714    641    5.6   5.8   5.5   5.4   5.5   5.2   4.7
   Accommodation and food services.......    651    675    641    629    652    634    543    5.6   5.8   5.5   5.4   5.6   5.5   4.7
 Government(7)...........................    286    269    259    244    257    251    258    1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1
  State and local government.............    238    240    233    222    231    233    228    1.2   1.2   1.2   1.1   1.2   1.2   1.2


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    652    685    658    745    705    600    578    2.5   2.7   2.6   2.9   2.7   2.3   2.3
  South..................................  1,764  1,614  1,681  1,629  1,633  1,456  1,576    3.5   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.3   2.9   3.2
  Midwest................................    994    915    954    912    893    956  1,013    3.2   2.9   3.0   2.9   2.8   3.0   3.2
  West...................................  1,186  1,096  1,089  1,099  1,142  1,017  1,076    3.8   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.3   3.5


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Oct.   May    June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Oct.  May   June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  2,648  2,336  2,365  2,314  2,252  2,144  2,163    1.9   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,508  2,210  2,242  2,209  2,134  2,032  2,048    2.2   1.9   1.9   1.9   1.9   1.8   1.8
  Construction...........................    137    124    139    157    150    118    115    1.8   1.7   1.9   2.2   2.1   1.7   1.6
  Manufacturing..........................    199    163    154    134    143    141    148    1.4   1.2   1.1   1.0   1.1   1.1   1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    588    495    545    545    485    494    503    2.2   1.9   2.1   2.1   1.8   1.9   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    432    352    391    405    355    351    351    2.8   2.3   2.6   2.6   2.3   2.3   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    479    391    413    363    352    317    360    2.7   2.2   2.3   2.0   2.0   1.8   2.0
  Education and health services..........    264    229    246    268    234    234    254    1.4   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.2   1.2   1.3
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    545    547    525    499    482    485    448    4.0   4.0   3.8   3.7   3.5   3.6   3.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    503    500    481    452    445    423    414    4.3   4.3   4.1   3.9   3.8   3.6   3.6
 Government(7)...........................    144    126    123    111    121    120    118     .6    .6    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    128    117    114    104    113    121    108     .7    .6    .6    .5    .6    .6    .5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    338    327    344    341    306    279    278    1.3   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1
  South..................................  1,088    937    969    930    912    821    855    2.2   1.9   2.0   1.9   1.8   1.7   1.7
  Midwest................................    524    485    515    504    513    531    506    1.7   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.6
  West...................................    691    584    539    541    518    492    511    2.2   1.9   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.7


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,120    3,327    3,070           2.9      2.4      2.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,683    2,893    2,642           3.1      2.5      2.2
  Natural resources and mining..................      9       18       15           1.2      2.2      1.8
  Construction..................................    133      108       49           1.7      1.5       .7
  Manufacturing.................................    291      218      186           2.1      1.6      1.4
   Durable goods................................    166      122       99           1.9      1.4      1.2
   Nondurable goods.............................    125       95       87           2.4      1.9      1.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    717      535      604           2.6      2.0      2.2
   Wholesale trade..............................    153       82      101           2.5      1.3      1.7
   Retail trade.................................    416      327      408           2.6      2.1      2.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    148      126       95           2.8      2.4      1.8
  Information...................................     90       59       60           2.9      2.0      2.0
  Financial activities..........................    237      195      148           2.8      2.3      1.8
   Finance and insurance........................    188      141      109           3.0      2.3      1.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     50       54       39           2.3      2.5      1.8
  Professional and business services............    769      570      509           4.0      3.1      2.8
  Education and health services.................    701      628      598           3.6      3.2      3.0
   Educational services.........................     60       55       59           1.9      1.8      1.8
   Health care and social assistance............    641      572      539           4.0      3.5      3.3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    572      431      361           4.1      3.0      2.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     60       51       47           3.0      2.4      2.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     513      381      313           4.2      3.1      2.6
  Other services................................    164      131      113           2.9      2.3      2.0

 Government.....................................    437      434      428           1.9      1.9      1.8
  Federal.......................................     35       50       70           1.3      1.8      2.5
  State and local...............................    401      384      358           2.0      1.9      1.8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    725      633      609           2.7      2.4      2.3
  South.........................................  1,633    1,250    1,175           3.2      2.5      2.3
  Midwest.......................................    741      721      680           2.3      2.2      2.1
  West..........................................  1,020      723      605           3.2      2.3      1.9


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,971    4,754    4,069           3.6      3.5      3.0

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,631    4,306    3,765           4.0      3.7      3.3
  Natural resources and mining..................     19       29       29           2.6      3.6      3.5
  Construction..................................    299      274      303           3.8      3.7      4.2
  Manufacturing.................................    373      292      258           2.7      2.2      1.9
   Durable goods................................    210      145      141           2.4      1.7      1.7
   Nondurable goods.............................    163      147      117           3.2      3.0      2.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,150      996      952           4.3      3.8      3.6
   Wholesale trade..............................    171      133      173           2.8      2.2      2.9
   Retail trade.................................    831      697      646           5.4      4.6      4.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    148      166      133           2.9      3.3      2.6
  Information...................................     55       62       64           1.8      2.1      2.2
  Financial activities..........................    252      204      159           3.1      2.5      1.9
   Finance and insurance........................    190      137      100           3.1      2.3      1.7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     62       67       59           2.9      3.2      2.8
  Professional and business services............    866      781      662           4.8      4.4      3.7
  Education and health services.................    543      643      536           2.9      3.4      2.8
   Educational services.........................     65      154       74           2.1      5.1      2.3
   Health care and social assistance............    478      489      462           3.1      3.1      2.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    886      816      651           6.5      5.9      4.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     93      130       93           4.8      6.4      4.8
   Accommodation and food services.............     793      686      558           6.8      5.9      4.8
  Other services................................    188      208      151           3.4      3.8      2.7

 Government.....................................    340      448      304           1.5      2.0      1.3
  Federal.......................................     34       27       26           1.2      1.0       .9
  State and local...............................    307      421      278           1.5      2.2      1.4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    665      835      654           2.6      3.3      2.5
  South.........................................  1,948    1,643    1,520           3.9      3.3      3.1
  Midwest.......................................  1,107    1,130      935           3.5      3.6      3.0
  West..........................................  1,251    1,146      960           4.0      3.7      3.1


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,627    4,454    4,264           3.3      3.2      3.1

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,405    4,135    4,058           3.8      3.6      3.5
  Natural resources and mining..................     18       19       29           2.5      2.4      3.6
  Construction..................................    380      428      476           4.9      5.8      6.5
  Manufacturing.................................    400      357      470           2.9      2.7      3.5
   Durable goods................................    229      221      308           2.6      2.6      3.7
   Nondurable goods.............................    172      136      163           3.4      2.7      3.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    960      945      924           3.6      3.6      3.5
   Wholesale trade..............................    164      184      154           2.7      3.1      2.6
   Retail trade.................................    660      594      610           4.3      3.9      4.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    136      168      160           2.6      3.3      3.2
  Information...................................     55       53       58           1.8      1.8      2.0
  Financial activities..........................    235      188      175           2.8      2.3      2.2
   Finance and insurance........................    161      119       90           2.6      2.0      1.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     74       69       85           3.5      3.3      4.0
  Professional and business services............    908      707      697           5.0      3.9      3.9
  Education and health services.................    391      384      385           2.1      2.0      2.0
   Educational services.........................     34       49       46           1.1      1.6      1.4
   Health care and social assistance............    357      335      339           2.3      2.1      2.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    883      890      719           6.5      6.5      5.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    145      152      124           7.4      7.4      6.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     738      738      595           6.4      6.3      5.2
  Other services................................    175      162      126           3.2      2.9      2.3

 Government.....................................    222      318      206           1.0      1.4       .9
  Federal.......................................     25       20       20            .9       .7       .7
  State and local...............................    196      298      186           1.0      1.5       .9

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    670      728      566           2.6      2.8      2.2
  South.........................................  1,790    1,537    1,592           3.6      3.1      3.2
  Midwest.......................................    959    1,063    1,001           3.0      3.4      3.2
  West..........................................  1,207    1,125    1,105           3.9      3.6      3.6


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  2,594    2,313    2,094           1.9      1.7      1.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,475    2,171    1,998           2.1      1.9      1.7
  Natural resources and mining..................     10       13       17           1.3      1.6      2.1
  Construction..................................    149      121      116           1.9      1.6      1.6
  Manufacturing.................................    205      152      152           1.5      1.1      1.1
   Durable goods................................    113       88       91           1.3      1.0      1.1
   Nondurable goods.............................     92       64       61           1.8      1.3      1.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    567      543      493           2.1      2.1      1.9
   Wholesale trade..............................     79       89       65           1.3      1.5      1.1
   Retail trade.................................    422      380      345           2.7      2.5      2.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     66       74       83           1.3      1.5      1.6
  Information...................................     33       23       26           1.1       .8       .9
  Financial activities..........................    134       93       86           1.6      1.1      1.1
   Finance and insurance........................    100       57       52           1.6       .9       .9
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     33       36       34           1.5      1.7      1.6
  Professional and business services............    443      322      338           2.4      1.8      1.9
  Education and health services.................    246      244      237           1.3      1.3      1.2
   Educational services.........................     20       30       21            .7      1.0       .7
   Health care and social assistance............    225      214      216           1.5      1.3      1.4
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    580      576      465           4.3      4.2      3.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     48       63       33           2.4      3.1      1.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     533      513      432           4.6      4.4      3.7
  Other services................................    108       85       69           2.0      1.5      1.2

 Government.....................................    119      142       96            .5       .6       .4
  Federal.......................................      9        7        5            .3       .3       .2
  State and local...............................    109      135       91            .5       .7       .5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    336      341      268           1.3      1.3      1.0
  South.........................................  1,088      836      846           2.2      1.7      1.7
  Midwest.......................................    508      604      491           1.6      1.9      1.6
  West..........................................    662      531      489           2.1      1.7      1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  1,786    1,851    1,897           1.3      1.3      1.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,713    1,727    1,825           1.5      1.5      1.6
  Natural resources and mining..................      7        5       10            .9       .6      1.2
  Construction..................................    216      295      343           2.8      4.0      4.7
  Manufacturing.................................    174      173      282           1.3      1.3      2.1
   Durable goods................................    105      112      191           1.2      1.3      2.3
   Nondurable goods.............................     70       61       91           1.4      1.2      1.8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    340      330      367           1.3      1.3      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     77       80       80           1.3      1.3      1.3
   Retail trade.................................    207      177      226           1.3      1.2      1.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     55       73       61           1.1      1.4      1.2
  Information...................................     13       25       30            .4       .9      1.0
  Financial activities..........................     86       73       68           1.0       .9       .8
   Finance and insurance........................     53       40       23            .9       .7       .4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     34       32       45           1.6      1.5      2.1
  Professional and business services............    431      350      319           2.4      2.0      1.8
  Education and health services.................    110      113      113            .6       .6       .6
   Educational services.........................     11       15       21            .4       .5       .7
   Health care and social assistance............     99       98       92            .6       .6       .6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    280      297      240           2.1      2.2      1.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     94       84       90           4.8      4.1      4.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     186      214      150           1.6      1.8      1.3
  Other services................................     56       65       51           1.0      1.2       .9

 Government.....................................     74      124       72            .3       .6       .3
  Federal.......................................     10        6       10            .4       .2       .4
  State and local...............................     64      117       62            .3       .6       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    280      332      251           1.1      1.3      1.0
  South.........................................    603      597      632           1.2      1.2      1.3
  Midwest.......................................    404      399      453           1.3      1.3      1.4
  West..........................................    500      523      560           1.6      1.7      1.8


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Oct.     Sept.    Oct.          Oct.     Sept.    Oct.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................    246      290      273           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    217      237      235            .2       .2       .2
  Natural resources and mining..................      2        2        2            .3       .2       .2
  Construction..................................     15       12       17            .2       .2       .2
  Manufacturing.................................     21       32       36            .2       .2       .3
   Durable goods................................     11       21       26            .1       .2       .3
   Nondurable goods.............................     10       11       10            .2       .2       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     53       72       64            .2       .3       .2
   Wholesale trade..............................      8       14        8            .1       .2       .1
   Retail trade.................................     30       37       39            .2       .2       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     14       21       17            .3       .4       .3
  Information...................................      9        5        3            .3       .2       .1
  Financial activities..........................     15       23       21            .2       .3       .3
   Finance and insurance........................      8       22       15            .1       .4       .3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      7        1        6            .3      (4)       .3
  Professional and business services............     34       35       39            .2       .2       .2
  Education and health services.................     35       27       34            .2       .1       .2
   Educational services.........................      2        3        3            .1       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     33       24       31            .2       .1       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     22       17       14            .2       .1       .1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      3        5        1            .1       .3       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      20       11       13            .2       .1       .1
  Other services................................     10       12        6            .2       .2       .1

 Government.....................................     29       53       38            .1       .2       .2
  Federal.......................................      7        7        5            .2       .2       .2
  State and local...............................     23       46       33            .1       .2       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     55       55       47            .2       .2       .2
  South.........................................     99      104      114            .2       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     47       60       57            .1       .2       .2
  West..........................................     45       70       56            .1       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: December 09, 2008
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