Economic News Release

Extended Mass Layoffs (Quarterly) News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6392     USDL 09-0151
               http://www.bls.gov/mls/
                                           For release:  10:00 A.M. (EST)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902     Friday, February 13, 2009
                                   
                                   
          EXTENDED MASS LAYOFFS IN THE FOURTH QUARTER OF 2008
                      AND ANNUAL TOTALS FOR 2008


   Employers initiated 3,140 mass layoff events in the fourth quarter
of 2008 that resulted in the separation of 508,859 workers from their
jobs for at least 31 days, according to preliminary figures released
by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Extended 
mass layoff events and separations reached their highest levels in pro-
gram history (with data available back to 1995).  The total number of 
layoff events in the fourth quarter 2008 was 1,326 higher than the 
same period a year earlier, and the number of associated separations 
increased by 207,267 over the year.  (See table A.)  The construction 
and manufacturing industries experienced record highs in both the num-
ber of layoff events and separations for any quarter in program history.  
Separations due to business demand reasons more than doubled over the 
year to 207,609, with those related specifically to slack work/insuf-
ficient demand more than tripling to 152,279.  Forty-five percent of 
employers reporting an extended layoff in the fourth quarter of 2008 
indicated they anticipated some recall of workers, the lowest fourth 
quarter proportion since 2001.  Fourth quarter 2008 layoff data are 
preliminary and are subject to revision.  (See the Technical Note.)

   The national unemployment rate averaged 6.6 percent, not seasonally
adjusted, in the fourth quarter of 2008, up from 4.6 percent a year
earlier.  Private nonfarm payroll employment, not seasonally adjust-
ed, decreased by 2.0 percent (-2,362,000) over the year.

   For all of 2008, the total number of extended mass layoff events
reached a program high at 7,818, and associated worker separations
were at its highest level since 2001 at 1,383,553.  Four major indus-
try sectors reported program highs in terms of events and separations 
in 2008--construction; finance and insurance; educational services; and
accommodation and food services (with annual data available back to
1996).  In 2008, eight states reached program highs in terms of numbers 
of separations--Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Missouri, 
New Jersey, and Wyoming.  Additional information on the annual data is 
available starting on page 6 of this release.

                               - 2 -

Table A. Selected measures of extended mass layoff activity


     Period                  Layoff events       Separations     Initial claimants

     2004

January-March ..........          1,339            276,503            238,392
April-June .............          1,358            278,831            254,063
July-September .........            886            164,608            148,575
October-December .......          1,427            273,967            262,049

     2005

January-March ..........          1,142            186,506            185,486
April-June .............          1,203            246,099            212,673
July-September .........          1,136            201,878            190,186
October-December .......          1,400            250,178            246,188

     2006

January-March ..........            963            183,089            193,510
April-June .............          1,353            295,964            264,927
July-September .........            929            160,254            161,764
October-December .......          1,640            296,662            330,954

     2007

January-March ..........          1,110            225,600            199,250
April-June .............          1,421            278,719            259,234
July-September .........          1,018            160,024            173,077
October-December (r) ...          1,814            301,592            347,151

     2008

January-March (r) ......          1,340            229,952            259,084
April-June (r) .........          1,756            354,690            339,184
July-September (r) .....          1,582            290,052            300,337
October-December (p) ...          3,140            508,859            463,715
 

    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.





Industry Distribution of Extended Layoffs

   Manufacturing firms reported 1,103 extended mass layoff events in-
volving 185,686 separations, the highest levels for the industry on
record.  Manufacturing industries were responsible for 35 percent of
private nonfarm extended layoff events and 36 percent of related
separations in the fourth quarter of 2008.  A year earlier, manufac-
turing made up 24 percent of events and 27 percent of separations.  
(See table 1.)  The largest numbers of separations within manufac-
turing were associated with transportation equipment manufacturing 
(56,341, mostly associated with automobile manufacturing) and food 
manufacturing (21,863).
   
   Construction firms recorded 843 extended mass layoff events and
100,922 separations, the highest levels for the industry on record.
While most construction layoff events were due to the end of seasonal
work and the completion of contracts, the number of layoff events due
to slack work/insufficient demand more than doubled over the year.

                               - 3 -

Table B.  Distribution of extended layoff events and separations by 
economic reason categories, October-December 2008(p)


                                     Layoff events                 Separations
    Category
                                  Number      Percent          Number      Percent

     Total ..................      3,140       100.0           508,859      100.0

Business demand .............      1,387        44.2           207,609       40.8
Organizational changes ......        139         4.4            26,434        5.2
Financial issues ............        300         9.6            65,034       12.8
Production specific .........         21         0.7             3,694        0.7
Disaster/safety .............         12         0.4             1,346        0.3
Seasonal ....................        808        25.7           135,500       26.6
Other/miscellaneous .........        473        15.1            69,242       13.6


    p = preliminary.





   In the fourth quarter 2008, thirteen major industry sectors re-
ported fourth quarter program highs in terms of extended mass layoff
events--construction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; retail trade;
transportation and warehousing; real estate and rental and leasing;
management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste
services; educational services; health care and social assistance;
arts, entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services;
and other services, except public administration.
   

Reasons for Extended Layoffs

   Among the seven categories of economic reasons for extended mass
layoffs, business demand factors (contract cancellation, contract com-
pletion, domestic competition, excess inventory, import competition, and 
slack work) accounted for 44 percent of the extended layoff events and 
41 percent of separations during the fourth quarter of 2008  (See table B.)
This compared to 34 percent of events and 28 percent of separations in the 
same period a year earlier.  Separations related to these business demand 
factors more than doubled over the year from 83,996 to 207,609, with those 
due to slack work/insufficient demand/nonseasonal business slowdown more 
than tripling from 42,201 to 152,279.  (See table 2.)

   Job losses stemming from financial issues (bankruptcy, cost control, 
and financial difficulty) more than doubled from 124 events associated 
with 24,652 separations in the fourth quarter 2007 to 300 events and 
65,034 separations in the fourth quarter 2008.  These layoffs accounted 
for 10 percent of the events and 13 percent of separations during the 
fourth quarter of 2008, compared to 7 and 8 percent, respectively, a 
year earlier.  Seasonal factors (seasonal and vacation period) resulted 
in 26 percent of the extended layoff events and 27 percent of the sepa-
rations in October-December 2008.

Movement of Work

   In the fourth quarter of 2008, 110 extended mass layoffs involved
the movement of work and were associated with 24,236 separated workers.  
(See table C.)  These movements of work were to other domestic locations 
or to locations outside of the U.S., and they occurred either within the 
same company or to other companies.  Movement of work layoffs accounted 
for 5 percent of nonseasonal layoff events in the fourth quarter of 2008.  
A year earlier, there were 69 layoff events and 11,302 separations asso-
ciated with the movement of work.  (See table 10.)

   Among the 110 extended mass layoff events with reported relocation of 
work in the fourth quarter of 2008, 64 percent were permanent closures of 
worksites, which affected 16,849 workers.  In comparison, 9 percent of 
the total extended mass layoff events reported for the quarter involved 
the permanent closure of worksites and affected 71,111 workers.

   Of the layoffs involving the movement of work, 68 percent of the
events and 61 percent of the laid-off workers were from manufacturing
industries during the fourth quarter.  (See table 7.)  Among all pri-
vate nonfarm extended layoffs, manufacturing accounted for 35 percent 
of the events and 36 percent of separations.

                               - 4 -

Table C. Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected measures,
fourth quarter 2008(p)


        Action                             Layoff events       Separations

   Total, private nonfarm ................     3,140             508,859

     Total, excluding seasonal and 
       vacation events (1) ...............     2,332             373,359

        Total events with movement
           of work (2) ...................       110              24,236

           Movement of work actions ......       150                (3)
              With separations reported ..       111              16,061
              With separations unknown ...        39                (3)


   1 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when the reason
for layoff was either seasonal work or vacation period.
   2 A layoff event can involve more than one movement of work action.
   3 Data are not available.
   p = preliminary.





   While only 4 percent of the extended mass layoff events in the
total private nonfarm economy were because of organizational change,
such reasons accounted for 44 percent of layoff events associated with
work relocation and resulted in 8,706 separations during the fourth
quarter.  (See table 8.)

   Among the regions, the Midwest accounted for the largest proportion
of workers affected by extended mass layoffs associated with the move-
ment of work (59 percent), followed by the West and the South (16 percent 
each).  (See table 9.)  Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, 
Ohio accounted for the largest proportion of workers affected by extended 
mass layoffs associated with the movement of work (24 percent), followed 
by Illinois (14 percent) and California (9 percent).

   Some extended mass layoff events involve more than one relocation of 
work action.  For example, an extended mass layoff event at an employer 
may involve job loss due to movement of work to both another domestic 
location of the company and a location out of the country; this would be 
counted as two movement of work actions.  The 110 extended layoff events 
with movement of work for the fourth quarter of 2008 involved 150 identi-
fiable relocations of work.  An identifiable relocation of work occurs 
when the employer provides sufficient information on the new location of 
work and/or the number of workers affected by the movement.  Of the 150 
relocations, employers were able to provide information on the specific 
number of separations associated with the movement of work component of 
the layoff in 111 actions involving 16,061 workers.  (See table 10.)

   Of the 111 actions where employers were able to provide more complete 
separations information, 90 percent of relocations occurred within the 
same company and 70 percent of relocations were domestic reassignments.  
(See table D.)  Domestic relocation of work affected 12,286 workers, and 
out-of-country relocations were associated with 3,775 separations, 1 per-
cent of all nonseasonal and nonvacation extended mass layoff separations.
(See table 11.)

                               - 5 -

Table D. Movement of work actions by type of separation where the
number of separations is known by employers, fourth quarter 2008(p)


         Activities                         Actions(1)       Separations

 With separations reported ..........          111              16,061


        By location

   Out-of-country relocations .......           33               3,775
      Within company ................           28               3,436
      Different company .............            5                 339

   Domestic relocations .............           78              12,286
      Within company ................           72               6,844
      Different company .............            6               5,442


        By company

   Within company ...................          100              10,280
      Domestic ......................           72               6,844
      Out of country ................           28               3,436

   Different company ................           11               5,781
      Domestic ......................            6               5,442
      Out of country ................            5                 339


    1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement of
work were reported are shown.
    p = preliminary.





Recall Expectations

   Forty-five percent of employers reporting an extended layoff in the
fourth quarter of 2008 indicated they anticipated some type of recall,
down from 56 percent a year earlier and the lowest fourth quarter propor-
tion since 2001.  (See table E.)  Of those employers expecting to recall 
workers, 36 percent indicated that the offer would be extended to all 
displaced employees, and 79 percent of employers anticipated extending 
the offer to at least half of the workers.  Seventy-eight percent of em-
ployers expecting to recall laid-off employees intend to do so within 6 
months.  Excluding layoff events due to seasonal work and vacation period 
in which 96 percent of the employers expected a recall, employers antici-
pated recalling laid-off workers in 43 percent of the events, the lowest 
fourth quarter proportion since 1997.

Size of Extended Layoffs

   The average size of a layoff (as measured by separations per layoff
event) in the fourth quarter of 2008 was 162, compared to 166 per layoff 
in fourth quarter 2007.  Layoff events continued to be increasingly con-
centrated at the lower end of the extended layoff-size spectrum, with 46 
percent of events involving between 50 and 99 workers and 70 percent of 
events with less than 150 workers.  This was the fourth consecutive 
fourth quarter that both of these proportions increased.  Similarly, the 
proportion of events involving more than 500 workers, less than 4 percent, 
has also decreased each fourth quarter since 2004.

   Layoffs involving between 50 and 99 workers accounted for 20 percent 
of all separations during the period, and layoffs with less than 150 sepa-
rated workers accounted for 37 percent.  These proportions are up from 18 
and 36 percent from a year earlier, respectively, and have been increasing 
for the last four consecutive fourth quarters.  Separations involving 500 
or more workers accounted for 24 percent of all separations in the fourth 
quarter of 2008, up slightly from a year earlier.  (See table F.)

                               - 6 -

Table E. Summary of employer expectations of a recall from extended layoff,
fourth quarter 2007-fourth quarter 2008


                                                       Percentage of events

   Nature of the recall                      IV        I         II        III       IV
                                            2007      2008      2008      2008(r)   2008(p)

 Anticipate a recall .............          55.8      40.1      51.1      28.6      44.8


        Timeframe

     Within 6 months .............          87.9      69.8      84.5      71.0      78.0
        Within 3 months ..........          34.2      45.4      59.1      53.8      34.1


        Size

     At least half ...............          90.5      73.2      88.3      77.0      78.9
        All workers ..............          50.5      28.5      51.7      37.6      36.2


    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.





Initial Claimant Characteristics

   A total of 463,715 initial claimants for unemployment insurance were 
associated with extended mass layoffs in the fourth quarter of 2008.  Of 
these claimants, 12 percent were black, 16 percent were Hispanic, 30 per-
cent were women, 36 percent were 30 to 44 years of age, and 16 percent 
were 55 years of age or older.  (See table 3.)  Among persons in the ci-
vilian labor force for the same period, 11 percent were black, 14 percent 
were Hispanic, 47 percent were women, 33 percent were age 30 to 44, and 
18 percent were 55 years of age or older.

Geographic Distribution

   Among the 4 census regions, the Midwest recorded the highest number
of separations (202,392) due to extended mass layoff events in the
fourth quarter of 2008, followed by the West with 164,717.  Both re-
gions recorded program highs in terms of numbers of separations in the 
fourth quarter.  (See table 4.)  Among the 9 census divisions, the high-
est number of separations during the fourth quarter of 2008 was in the 
East North Central division (156,100).  The Pacific division had the next 
highest level of separations with 132,747.  (See table 4.)  Five divi-
sions reported program highs in terms of numbers of separations in the 
fourth quarter--the East North Central, West North Central, East South 
Central, Mountain, and Pacific.

   California recorded the largest number of worker separations (103,470), 
followed by Illinois (55,229), Michigan (38,820), and Ohio (30,295).  (See 
table 5.)  After excluding the impact of seasonal reasons, California still 
reported the highest number of job cuts (88,075).  Seventeen states reported 
fourth quarter program highs in terms of numbers of separations--Arkansas, 
California, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Vermont.

   Forty-six percent of extended mass layoff events and 43 percent of sepa-
rations (217,268) occurred in metropolitan areas in the fourth quarter of 
2008, compared with 50 percent of events and 45 percent of separations 
(136,573) during the fourth quarter of 2007.  Among the 369 metropolitan 
areas, Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis., reported the highest num-
ber of separations (19,894) in the fourth quarter of 2008.  Next were Detroit-
Warren-Livonia, Mich., with 14,714 separations and Los Angeles-Long Beach-
Santa Ana, Calif., with 12,438 separations.  (See table G.)  Employers lo-
cated in nonmetropolitan areas separated 62,879 workers in extended mass 
layoffs.

Review of 2008

   For all of 2008, employers reported 7,818 extended mass layoff actions, 
affecting 1,383,553 workers.  Compared to 2007, the number of events was 
up 46 percent (+2,455 from 5,363), and the number of separations increased 
by 43 percent (+417,618 from 965,935).  (See table H.)  The annual average 
national unemployment rate increased from 4.6 percent in 2007 to 5.8 per-
cent in 2008, and private nonfarm payroll employment decreased by 0.7 per-
cent, or 812,000.

                               - 7 -

Table F. Distribution of extended layoff events by size of layoff,
fourth quarter 2008(p)


                                      Layoff events                Separations
     Size
                                   Number      Percent         Number       Percent

 Total .....................        3,140       100.0          508,859       100.0

   50-99 ...................        1,447        46.1          100,859        19.8
   100-149 .................          737        23.5           86,250        16.9
   150-199 .................          320        10.2           52,983        10.4
   200-299 .................          335        10.7           77,182        15.2
   300-499 .................          184         5.9           67,198        13.2
   500-999 .................           81         2.6           54,916        10.8
   1,000 or more ...........           36         1.1           69,471        13.7

   p = preliminary.





   In 2008, employers expected a recall in 42 percent of the mass layoff 
events, down from 50 percent of events in 2007.  Eleven percent of extended 
events in 2008 were permanent closures, the same proportion as in 2007.  
Permanent closures were most numerous in the manufacturing industry, pri-
marily in transportation equipment manufacturing, and in retail trade, pri-
marily in general merchandise stores.  When compared with 2007, events as-
sociated with permanent closures in 2008 increased 45 percent from 594 to 
860, and separations increased 65 percent from 125,836 to 208,103.


Industry Distribution of Extended Layoffs

   In 2008, four major industry sectors reported program highs in terms of 
extended mass layoff events and separations--construction; finance and in-
surance; educational services; and accommodation and food services.  Manu-
facturing industries had the largest share of extended mass layoff events 
and separations (31 percent each).  Within manufacturing, separations 
were most numerous in transportation equipment manufacturing (133,474, 
mainly in automobile manufacturing) and in food manufacturing (61,295, 
largely in fruit and vegetable canning).  The largest over-the-year increases  
occurred in transportation equipment manufacturing (+73,560) and food manu-
facturing (+17,735).  The construction sector accounted for 21 percent of 
all events and 14 percent of the associated separations in 2008.  Separa-
tions were concentrated in specialty trade contracting (78,983) and heavy 
and civil engineering construction (77,609).

Reasons for Extended Layoffs

   From 2007 to 2008, the number of extended mass layoff events increased 
in all seven categories of economic reasons for layoffs.  In 2008, job 
losses related to business demand accounted for the largest proportion of 
extended mass layoff activity.  Events related to business demand increased 
69 percent over the year from 1,888 to 3,195 and associated separations 
nearly doubled from 248,056 to 476,302.  In 2008, layoffs due to business 
demand factors occurred primarily in transportation equipment manufacturing, 
administrative and support services, and specialty trade contracting.

                               - 8 -

Table G. Mass layoff events and separations, selected metropolitan areas


                                                       Events               Separations
            
            Metropolitan area                         IV      IV            IV        IV
                                                    2007(r) 2008(p)       2007(r)   2008(p)

Total, nonmetropolitan areas ....................     225     409          41,331    62,879

Total, 369 metropolitan areas ...................     914   1,452         136,573   217,268

    Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis. ...     100     114          15,687    19,894
    Detroit-Warren-Livonia, Mich. ...............      45      96           9,541    14,714
    Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif. ....      92     112          12,518    12,438
    Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington,
          Minn.-Wis. ............................      37      59           5,874    10,676
    New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island,
          N.Y.-N.J.-Pa. .........................      60      39           9,673     7,306
    San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, Calif. .......      35      52           2,979     6,394
    St. Louis, Mo.-Ill. .........................      11      24           1,352     6,208
    Las Vegas-Paradise, Nev. ....................       7      37           1,817     6,205
    San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, Calif. ......      16      29           3,591     4,870
    Rockford, Ill. ..............................       7      12           1,224     4,179


    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  The geographic boundaries of the metropolitan areas shown in this table are 
defined in Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 08-01, November 20, 2007.





   Job loss due to seasonal factors remained nearly unchanged, but the
relative proportion of these layoffs dropped significantly due to higher 
layoff activity related to other reasons.  Seasonal layoffs occurred largely 
among food services and drinking places; heavy and civil engineering con-
struction; transit and ground passenger transportation; and professional 
and technical services.
  
Movement of Work
  
   In 2008, there were 324 extended mass layoff events that involved work 
moving within the same company or to a different company, domestically 
or out of the U.S.  The events involving movement of work were associated 
with the separation of 64,805 workers, about 6 percent of all separations 
resulting from nonseasonal/nonvacation extended mass layoff events.  Sixty 
percent of events with movement of work involved the permanent closure 
of a worksite, affecting 42,779 workers.  Manufacturing industries accounted 
for 66 percent of the events and 62 percent of the separations involving 
movement of work, mostly in transportation equipment manufacturing and in 
computer and electronic product manufacturing.  Among the regions, the 
Midwest accounted for the largest proportion of laid-off workers associated
with the movement of work (45 percent), followed by the South (22 percent).
  
   As part of the 324 layoff events, 432 identifiable movement-of-work
actions were taken by employers.  Employers were able to provide informa-
tion on specific separations associated with the movement-of-work component 
of the layoff in 308 actions (out of the 432), which totaled 39,218 laid- 
off workers.  Of these movement-of-work actions for which complete informa-
tion is available, 70 percent were to other locations within the U.S., and 
89 percent involved moving work within the company.  The separation of 
11,147 workers was associated with out-of-country relocations, which ac-
counts for 28 percent of the separations related to the movement of work 
and 1 percent of all separations in nonseasonal/nonvacation extended mass 
layoff events.
  
Geographic Distribution
  
   Compared to 2007, all 4 geographic regions reported an increase in
workers separated due to extended mass layoffs in 2008, with the largest 
increase in the Midwest (+149,800).  The Midwest reported more workers af-
fected by extended mass layoffs in 2008 (428,283) than any other region.  
In the Midwest, transportation equipment manufacturing and administrative 
and waste services had the largest number of separations.  The Northeast 
region reported the lowest annual number of separations with 216,060.

                               - 9 -

Table H. Selected measures of mass layoff activity, 1996-2008


   Period                  Layoff events       Separations     Initial claimants

    1996 ................       4,760             948,122             805,810
    1997 ................       4,671             947,843             879,831
    1998 ................       4,859             991,245           1,056,462
    1999 ................       4,556             901,451             796,917
    2000 ................       4,591             915,962             846,267
    2001 ................       7,375           1,524,832           1,457,512
    2002 ................       6,337           1,272,331           1,218,143
    2003 ................       6,181           1,216,886           1,200,811
    2004 ................       5,010             993,909             903,079
    2005 ................       4,881             884,661             834,533
    2006 (r) ............       4,885             935,969             951,155
    2007 (r) ............       5,363             965,935             978,712
    2008 (p) ............       7,818           1,383,553           1,362,320


    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.





   Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, California reported 
the largest number of separated workers in 2008 (330,003).  States with 
the next highest number of separations due to extended mass layoffs were 
Illinois (119,692), Florida (88,213), Ohio (78,852), and Michigan (72,946).  
California recorded the largest over-the-year increase in the number of 
separations (+72,697), while Virginia recorded the largest over-the-year 
decrease in separations (-4,569).  Eight states reported program highs in 
terms of numbers of separations in 2008--Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, 
Indiana, Missouri, New Jersey, and Wyoming.

   Among the 369 metropolitan areas, Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-
Wis., reported the highest number of separations, 46,455.  The next highest 
numbers of separations were in Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif., 
with 45,904 and New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, N.Y.-N.J.-Pa., 
with 39,182.  Employers located in nonmetropolitan areas separated 135,626 
workers in mass layoffs during 2008, up from 106,129 in 2007.

Note
   
   The quarterly series on extended mass layoffs cover layoffs of at least 
31-days duration that involve 50 or more individuals from a single employer 
filing initial claims for unemployment insurance during a consecutive 5-week 
period.  Approximately 30 days after a mass layoff is triggered, the employer 
is contacted for additional information.  Data for the fourth quarter are 
preliminary and subject to revision.  This release also includes revised data 
for previous quarters.  Data are not seasonally adjusted, but survey data sug-
gest that there is a seasonal pattern to layoffs.  Thus, comparisons between 
consecutive quarters should not be used as an indicator of trend.

   For additional information about the program, see the Technical Note.


                     _____________________________


   The report on Mass Layoffs in January 2009 is scheduled to be released 
on Wednesday, February 25.







                                 - 10 -


Technical Note

   The  Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS) program is a federal-state program 
which identifies, describes, and tracks the effects of major job cutbacks,
using data from each state's unemployment insurance database.  Employers
which have at least 50 initial claims filed against them during a con-
secutive 5-week period are contacted by the state agency to determine
whether these separations are of at least 31 days duration, and, if so,
information is obtained on the total number of persons separated and the
reasons for these separations.  Employers are identified according to in-
dustry classification and location, and unemployment insurance claimants
are identified by such demographic factors as age, race, gender, ethnic
group, and place of residence.  The program yields information on an
individual's entire spell of unemployment, to the point when regular
unemployment insurance benefits are exhausted.

Definitions

   Employer.  Employers in the MLS program include those covered by state
unemployment insurance laws.  Information on employers is obtained from the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, which is admin-
istered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   Extended layoff event.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment
insurance benefits from an employer during a 5-week period, with at least
50 workers separated for more than 30 days.

   Initial claimant.  A person who files any notice of unemployment to
initiate a request either for a determination of entitlement to and eligi-
bility for compensation, or for a subsequent period of unemployment within
a benefit year or period of eligibility.

   Layoff.  The separation of persons from an employer as part of a mass
layoff event.  (See below.)  Such layoffs involve both persons subject to
recall and those who are terminated by the establishment.

   Mass layoff.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment insurance
benefits from an employer beginning in a given month, regardless of dura-
tion.

   Worksite closure.  The complete closure of either multi-unit or single-
unit employers or the partial closure of a multi-unit employer where entire
worksites affected by layoffs are closed or planned to be closed.


                                  - 11 -


Revisions to preliminary data

The latest quarterly data in this news release are considered preliminary.
After the initial publication of quarterly information, more data are col-
lected as remaining employer interviews for the quarter are completed and
additional initial claimant information associated with extended layoff
events is received.

Movement of work concepts and questions

   Because of the employer interview component, the BLS decided to use
the MLS program as a vehicle for collecting additional information on
offshoring and outsourcing associated with job loss, by adding questions
that address movement of work.  The term "moving work" means that the
company experiencing the layoff has reassigned work activities that were
performed at a worksite by the company's employees (1) to another work-
site within the company; (2) to another company under formal arrangements 
at the same worksite; or (3) to another company under formal arrangements 
at another worksite.  The type of work activities subject to movement can
include accounting, customer service, cleaning, warehousing, etc.

   "Overseas relocation" is the movement of work from within the U.S. to
locations outside of the U.S. "Overseas relocation" can occur within the
same company and involve movement of work to a different location of that
company outside of the U.S., or to a different company altogether.

   "Domestic relocation" is the movement of work to other locations inside
the U.S., either within the same company or to a different company.

   "Overseas relocation" and "domestic relocation" are no longer used in the
same way as they were in earlier extended mass layoff news releases.  There-
fore, the data presented in this news release are not comparable to those
that were presented in earlier news releases.

   Questions on movement of work and location are asked for all identified
layoff events when the reason for separation is other than "seasonal work"
or "vacation period."  Seasonal and vacation layoff events were excluded
because movement of work appears unlikely.

   Questions on movement of work are asked after the analyst verifies that 
a layoff in fact occurred and lasted more than 30 days, and obtained the
total number of workers separated from jobs, the date the layoff began, and
the economic reason for the layoff.  If the reason for layoff is other than
seasonal or vacation, the employer was asked the following:

   (1) "Did this layoff include your company moving work from this loca-
tion(s) to a different geographic location(s) within your company?"

   (2) "Did this layoff include your company moving work that was performed
in-house by your employees to a different company, through contractual ar-
rangements?"

   A "yes" response to either question is followed by:

   "Is the location inside or outside of the U.S.?" and "How many of the
layoffs were a result of this relocation?"

   Layoff actions are classified as "overseas relocation" if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2, and indicates that the location(s)
was outside of the U.S.  Domestic relocation is determined if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2 and indicates that the location(s)
was within the U.S.

   After asking the movement of work questions, the employer interview
continues and responses are obtained for questions on recall expectations
and open/closed status of the worksite.


                                  - 12 - 


Reliability of the data

   The identification of employers and layoff events in the MLS program
and associated characteristics of claimants is based on administrative
data on covered establishments and unemployment insurance claims, and,
therefore, is not subject to issues associated with sampling error.
Nonsampling errors such as typographical errors may occur but are not
likely to be significant.  While the MLS employers and layoff events
are not subject to sampling error, and all such employers are asked the
interview questions, the employer responses are subject to nonsampling 
error.  Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the in-
ability to obtain information for all respondents, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made 
in the collection or processing of the data.  For the fourth quarter of
2008, outright refusal to participate in the employer interview accounted
for 3.1 percent of all private nonfarm events.  Although included in the
total number of instances involving the movement of work, for the fourth
quarter, employers in 39 relocations were unable to provide the number of
separations specifically associated with the movement of work, 8 of which
involved out-of-country moves.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone:  1-800-877-8339.







Table 1. Industry distribution: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                            Initial claimants for  
                                                         Layoff events              Separations             unemployment insurance 
                      Industry                                                                                                     
                                                     IV      III     IV        IV       III      IV         IV       III      IV   
                                                    2007r   2008r   2008p     2007r    2008r    2008p      2007r    2008r    2008p 
                                                                                                                                   
      Total, private nonfarm (1) .................  1,814   1,582   3,140    301,592  290,052  508,859    347,151  300,337  463,715

    Mining .......................................     27       4      36      3,584    1,014    5,108      3,494      834    4,520
    Utilities ....................................    (2)     (2)       3        (2)      (2)      746        (2)      (2)      531
    Construction .................................    682     229     843     86,900   26,924  100,922    100,731   37,449   97,246
    Manufacturing ................................    442     498   1,103     80,567   95,193  185,686    117,632  104,320  199,563
         Food ....................................     71      48      95     17,131   13,058   21,863     17,015    8,407   19,475
         Beverage and tobacco products ...........    (2)       5      11        (2)      684    1,196        (2)      784    1,115
         Textile mills ...........................     10       7      23      1,799    1,592    4,338      4,840    2,380    5,533
         Textile product mills (3) ...............      5       5      12        968      779    1,340      1,808      884    1,665
         Apparel (3) .............................     10      13     (2)      1,524    1,482      (2)      1,379    1,784      (2)
         Leather and allied products .............    (2)     (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)
         Wood products ...........................     49      38      81      6,553    6,080    9,973      7,628    6,184   11,649
         Paper ...................................      6      10      26        899    3,544    3,389      1,059    2,481    3,208
         Printing and related support activities .     14      11      14      2,331    1,336    2,073      2,280      952    2,212
         Petroleum and coal products .............     18     (2)      17      2,760      (2)    2,421      2,925      (2)    2,315

         Chemicals ...............................     11      15      26      2,892    1,358    3,795      2,393    1,402    3,553
         Plastics and rubber products (3) ........     19      23      70      2,998    3,654    8,335      2,633    3,497    9,075
         Nonmetallic mineral products ............     56      16      95      7,773    2,080   13,367      9,755    2,358   12,409
         Primary metals ..........................     14      14      68      2,456    1,647   11,123      3,131    2,206   11,377
         Fabricated metal products ...............     21      33     109      2,774    3,967   12,375      3,317    5,021   13,595
         Machinery (3) ...........................     22      35      65      4,384    9,123    9,551      6,568   11,626   13,116
         Computer and electronic products ........     12      47      58      1,857    8,286    9,656      1,738    7,061    9,046
         Electrical equipment and appliances .....     16      16      33      3,616    3,066    5,741      8,528    2,855    6,109
         Transportation equipment (3) ............     55     124     238     12,858   27,610   56,341     35,573   37,199   65,292
         Furniture and related products (3) ......     19      24      37      2,490    4,180    4,956      3,108    5,242    5,139
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) .........      7      11      16      1,648    1,306    2,507      1,028    1,696    2,532

    Wholesale trade ..............................     38      33      78      4,442    4,543    9,808      5,470    3,721    8,503
    Retail trade .................................     76      92     170     19,175   20,887   44,850     21,293   22,541   23,329
    Transportation and warehousing ...............     43     131     109      9,724   24,199   21,014      8,758   23,303   13,588
    Information ..................................     29      54      54      5,061   10,553    6,404      7,215   10,923    5,769
    Finance and insurance (3) ....................    104     104      98     18,575   19,812   16,497     19,424   20,420   14,727
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) .......      9      11      25      1,461    1,458    2,841      1,176    1,368    2,680
    Professional and technical services (3) ......     50      50      74      9,634    8,877    9,719      9,675    9,297    8,373
    Management of companies and enterprises ......      9     (2)      12      1,642      (2)    2,427      1,229      (2)    1,774
    Administrative and waste services (3) ........    136     142     280     21,629   31,757   52,484     24,906   33,205   46,322
    Educational services .........................    (2)      18       4        (2)    2,635      608        (2)    2,545      311
    Health care and social assistance ............     22      74      34      4,697    8,360    6,160      3,476    6,597    4,451
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation ..........     50      39      58     17,859   11,161   13,551      7,226    5,121    6,506
    Accommodation and food services ..............     73      84     132     12,846   20,184   27,019     11,824   15,856   22,767
    Other services, except public administration .     14      15      26      2,220    1,980    2,942      1,949    2,084    2,682

    Unclassified .................................      3       -       1        696        -       73        514        -       73
                                                                                                                                   
       1 For the fourth quarter of 2008, data on layoffs were reported by employers in all states and the District of Columbia. 
       2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
       3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
       r = revised.
       p = preliminary.
       NOTE:  Dash represents zero.    







Table 2. Reason for layoff: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, 
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                         Initial claimants for   
                                             Layoff events                   Separations                 unemployment insurance  
         Reason for layoff                                                                                                       
                                       IV        III       IV          IV        III       IV           IV        III       IV   
                                      2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p 
                                                                                                                                 
   Total, private nonfarm (1) .....   1,814     1,582     3,140      301,592   290,052   508,859      347,151   300,337   463,715

Business demand ...................     613       642     1,387       83,996    97,183   207,609      137,912   125,986   219,894
  Contract cancellation ...........      17        44        46        2,564     7,298    11,059        3,292     6,984     6,247
  Contract completion .............     286       195       280       34,838    32,262    38,617       49,165    41,736    39,291
  Domestic competition ............     (2)       (2)         5          (2)       (2)       752          (2)       (2)       735
  Excess inventory/saturated 
    market ........................     (2)       (2)        13          (2)       (2)     3,134          (2)       (2)     2,687
  Import competition ..............      16        12        13        2,868     3,197     1,768        6,203     3,223     2,010
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
    non-seasonal business slowdown.     282       382     1,030       42,201    52,328   152,279       77,221    71,164   168,924

Organizational changes ............      92       122       139       22,626    33,567    26,434       20,648    29,498    20,320
  Business-ownership change .......      24        20        29        9,673    14,033     7,939        5,695     4,849     4,105
  Reorganization or restructuring 
    of company ....................      68       102       110       12,953    19,534    18,495       14,953    24,649    16,215

Financial issues ..................     124       192       300       24,652    37,051    65,034       25,849    30,421    44,005
  Bankruptcy ......................      15        42        40        4,665    13,032     9,087        2,598     7,858     5,295
  Cost control/cost cutting/
    increase profitability ........      42        92       156        8,254    12,179    23,227       13,322    12,764    23,222
  Financial difficulty ............      67        58       104       11,733    11,840    32,720        9,929     9,799    15,488

Production specific ...............      25        30        21        3,935     5,998     3,694        4,864     7,013     3,011
  Automation/technological 
    advances ......................     (2)         4       (2)          (2)       760       (2)          (2)       822       (2)
  Energy related ..................       -         6       (2)            -       720       (2)            -     2,656       (2)
  Governmental regulations/
    intervention ..................     (2)         5         6          (2)       806     1,395          (2)       475       795
  Labor dispute/contract 
    negotiations/strike ...........      10         4         4        1,457     1,880       520        2,386     1,169       478
  Material or supply shortage .....     (2)         4         -          (2)       466         -          (2)       371         -
  Model changeover ................     (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)
  Plant or machine repair/
    maintenance ...................       8         3         4        1,360       685       671          972       433       480
  Product line discontinued .......     (2)       (2)         3          (2)       (2)       590          (2)       (2)       623

Disaster/safety ...................       6        32        12          778     4,988     1,346          809     4,233     1,076
  Hazardous work environment ......       -         -         -            -         -         -            -         -         -
  Natural disaster (not weather 
    related) ......................       -       (2)         -            -       (2)         -            -       (2)         -
  Non-natural disaster ............       -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)
  Extreme weather-related event ...       6       (2)       (2)          778       (2)       (2)          809       (2)       (2)

Seasonal ..........................     752       216       808      129,784    43,920   135,500      119,288    36,532   105,091
  Seasonal ........................     747       116       803      129,368    27,566   134,237      118,724    21,395   103,926
  Vacation period-school related 
    or otherwise ..................       5       100         5          416    16,354     1,263          564    15,137     1,165

Other/miscellaneous ...............     202       348       473       35,821    67,345    69,242       37,781    66,654    70,318
  Other ...........................      12        23        23        2,091     4,444     2,991        3,150     4,440     4,622
  Data not provided: refusal ......      57        53       104       11,259    13,033    20,838       11,273    12,988    20,639
  Data not provided: does not 
    know ..........................     133       272       346       22,471    49,868    45,413       23,358    49,226    45,057


    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
    r = revised.    
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 3. State and selected claimant characteristics: Extended mass layoff events and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, 
private nonfarm sector, third and fourth quarters, 2008

                                                         Total                              Percent of total                       
                                                        initial                          Hispanic                    Persons age 55
                                  Layoff events        claimants          Black           origin          Women         and over   
              State                                                                                                                
                                   III     IV        III      IV        III    IV       III    IV       III    IV       III    IV  
                                  2008r   2008p     2008r    2008p     2008r  2008p    2008r  2008p    2008r  2008p    2008r  2008p
                                                                                                                                   
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .  1,582   3,140    300,337  463,715     16.4   11.7     18.2   16.3     39.8   29.7     17.8   16.2

Alabama ........................      9      16      3,044    6,134     45.9   42.9      3.4    2.4     52.9   39.2     13.9   11.7
Alaska .........................      3      12      1,331    2,142      3.7    4.1     22.2   13.3     33.7   29.5     26.0   22.0
Arizona ........................      9      23      1,211    2,924      6.8    5.5     27.7   38.0     45.4   27.5     14.4   12.1
Arkansas .......................      7      18      1,352    2,184     46.8   20.6      1.8    4.1     51.8   36.5     12.9   17.9
California .....................    466     734     78,628   88,393     10.1    6.9     33.6   41.3     38.8   34.2     15.3   14.5
Colorado .......................      7      28        686    3,223      6.7    4.1     23.3   37.3     44.9   17.8     18.5   19.2
Connecticut ....................     11      11      1,384    1,519     18.0    9.3     21.7   10.4     53.6   17.8     18.2   19.0
Delaware .......................      -       6          -      768        -   13.8        -    4.2        -   13.3        -   21.5
District of Columbia ...........      -     (2)          -      (2)        -   98.0        -     .7        -   65.1        -   11.4
Florida ........................    127     123     26,565   19,331     15.8   14.3     28.9   27.8     41.6   34.8     18.0   16.8
Georgia ........................     22      59      4,614    9,274     58.9   40.2      2.1    5.1     46.3   36.5     15.6   15.6
Hawaii .........................      7      10      1,112    1,217      3.5    3.2     13.3   12.7     37.4   21.6     17.4   14.8
Idaho ..........................     14      29      2,020    5,268       .5     .3     25.8   13.6     45.4   36.1     20.0   15.1

Illinois .......................     97     285     18,560   40,614     27.7   15.9     15.7   17.5     44.5   25.8     15.4   14.3
Indiana ........................     57     120     15,055   23,165      9.5    7.5      4.1    4.2     33.4   27.0     14.2   14.8
Iowa ...........................     10      42      3,466    7,091      1.6    1.9      2.5    4.4     33.7   21.2     20.5   19.8
Kansas .........................      8      25        754    2,749     13.5    8.5      4.6    3.8     44.2   30.5     19.9   14.6
Kentucky .......................     22      42      3,079    8,729      7.0    7.2       .3     .4     17.7   18.6     15.3   13.0
Louisiana ......................     41      20      6,085    3,191     58.4   53.3      3.0    2.0     46.6   31.3     15.0   16.3
Maine ..........................      3       3        187      544      2.1     .9        -     .2     25.1   11.8     20.9   24.1
Maryland .......................     10       3      1,132      326     57.6   59.2      2.4     .9     58.6   35.6     16.8   26.4
Massachusetts ..................     21      42      2,896    4,357     11.1    8.0      3.8    1.1     51.8   33.9     25.8   22.0
Michigan .......................     41     211      7,867   43,556      9.2   16.3      5.6    5.0     36.3   27.3     15.9   15.8
Minnesota ......................     11     120      2,128   16,079      6.7    3.6      2.1    6.9     23.0   17.6     14.6   16.0
Mississippi ....................     14      21      1,660    3,229     72.2   47.4      1.9    3.1     36.6   43.9     14.2   14.1
Missouri .......................     31      99      4,068   12,678     20.2   12.8       .3     .2     45.5   35.3     20.6   17.8

Montana ........................      4      11        348    1,869       .3     .1      2.6    3.0     22.7   12.6     22.7   17.6
Nebraska .......................    (2)       8        (2)      683     13.0    1.5      2.3    8.3     21.4   14.3     20.6   29.3
Nevada .........................     22      46      4,979    8,964      9.8    9.2     27.5   35.5     32.1   45.7     16.9   16.7
New Hampshire ..................    (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)      6.7    1.0     11.2      -     27.0   18.6     14.6   33.8
New Jersey .....................     49      73      6,578    9,935     23.3   18.2      8.4    8.5     57.8   38.2     23.7   19.4
New Mexico .....................      8      17      1,429    1,736      2.9    1.7     39.7   50.6     33.9   35.1     13.4   18.7
New York .......................    118      91     22,462   14,091     18.2    9.1     17.8    9.7     54.9   34.8     27.3   19.7
North Carolina .................     14      27      2,895    3,426     28.3   32.3      7.2    5.5     55.4   34.2     22.9   19.7
North Dakota ...................    (2)      10        (2)    1,024        -    1.5        -    3.3     24.3   19.3      9.0   17.2
Ohio ...........................     49     138      9,847   22,870     15.9   11.0      3.4    3.4     28.9   24.6     19.1   16.7
Oklahoma .......................      5      21      1,179    2,972      8.6    8.1      2.7    6.3     28.2   32.3     20.0   16.9
Oregon .........................     19      70      4,627   15,706       .8     .8     12.6   16.4     31.3   26.3     18.3   18.2
Pennsylvania ...................     98     183     22,213   25,975      3.9    5.2      2.4    3.7     32.3   26.1     22.8   20.2

Rhode Island ...................    (2)       6        (2)      560      6.7    1.8     24.2   21.8     52.6   20.9     25.8   23.9
South Carolina .................     12      21      3,659    3,816     71.6   56.9       .2    1.0     50.2   41.6      2.9    9.0
South Dakota ...................      -       3          -      213        -     .5        -     .9        -   32.4        -   19.7
Tennessee ......................     31      67      5,945    6,235     34.1   23.4       .1     .1     47.3   38.9     23.6   20.3
Texas ..........................     51      40     12,683    6,868     19.0   21.5     41.7   38.6     31.5   31.1     10.5   14.3
Utah ...........................    (2)      18        (2)    3,100      2.6    1.5     18.1   16.0     65.0   27.3     14.0    9.6
Vermont ........................    (2)       7        (2)    1,058       .7     .7       .7     .3     22.8   24.1     22.8   20.4
Virginia .......................      6      14        885    1,298     38.8   25.7      3.5    5.5     21.6   37.5     31.0   21.1
Washington .....................     21      76      2,803    9,833      5.3    4.1     11.7   17.4     31.0   29.2     14.7   18.0
West Virginia ..................    (2)       6        (2)      431        -     .2        -      -     59.5   13.0     13.7   11.8
Wisconsin ......................     15      79      7,613   11,746      3.2    2.6      2.5    9.6     28.0   15.5     21.8   16.8
Wyoming ........................    (2)       3        (2)      268        -    1.5        -     .4     17.2   32.8     10.8   34.0

Puerto Rico ....................     12       7      2,477      694       .1     .6     98.5   97.7     58.5   45.2      8.4   14.3
                                                                                                                                   
    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
    3 Data are not available.           
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 4. Census region and division: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, 
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                    Initial claimants for  
                                         Layoff events                   Separations                unemployment insurance 
   Census region and division                                                                                              
                                   IV        III       IV          IV        III       IV           IV       III      IV   
                                  2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r    2008r    2008p 
                                                                                                                           
        United States (1) .....   1,814     1,582     3,140      301,592   290,052   508,859      347,151  300,337  463,715

Northeast .....................     293       304       418       49,004    60,295    61,160       56,569   56,139   58,243

    New England ...............      55        39        71       11,348     5,043     9,932        7,697    4,886    8,242
    Middle Atlantic ...........     238       265       347       37,656    55,252    51,228       48,872   51,253   50,001

South .........................     263       373       505       45,367    75,443    80,590       45,929   74,945   78,361

    South Atlantic ............     153       193       260       24,190    42,491    43,217       23,862   39,918   38,819
    East South Central ........      60        76       146       12,963    12,134    20,983       11,933   13,728   24,327
    West South Central ........      50       104        99        8,214    20,818    16,390       10,134   21,299   15,215

Midwest .......................     684       322     1,140      114,727    59,679   202,392      139,345   69,600  182,468

    East North Central ........     519       259       833       88,795    50,322   156,100      113,563   58,942  141,951
    West North Central ........     165        63       307       25,932     9,357    46,292       25,782   10,658   40,517

West ..........................     574       583     1,077       92,494    94,635   164,717      105,308   99,653  144,643

    Mountain ..................      78        67       175       16,135    11,415    31,970       12,593   11,152   27,352
    Pacific ...................     496       516       902       76,359    83,220   132,747       92,715   88,501  117,291
                                                                                                                           
 
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are:  New England:
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and
Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Virginia, and  West Virginia; East South Central:  Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and  Tennessee;  West South Central:
Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas:  East North Central:  Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West
North Central:  Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. 







Table 5. State distribution: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                        Initial claimants for   
                                           Layoff events                     Separations                unemployment insurance  
              State                                                                                                             
                                      IV        III       IV          IV        III       IV           IV        III       IV   
                                     2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p 
                                                                                                                                
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .     1,814     1,582     3,140      301,592   290,052   508,859      347,151   300,337   463,715

Alabama ........................         9         9        16        1,693     2,769     4,393        1,867     3,044     6,134
Alaska .........................         8         3        12        1,916     3,460     3,329        1,373     1,331     2,142
Arizona ........................         7         9        23        1,364     1,255     2,977        1,079     1,211     2,924
Arkansas .......................         8         7        18        1,193     1,394     2,870        3,229     1,352     2,184
California .....................       435       466       734       64,718    70,898   103,470       80,145    78,628    88,393
Colorado .......................        18         7        28        3,588     1,229     5,131        2,308       686     3,223
Connecticut ....................         8        11        11        1,624     1,724     1,746        1,237     1,384     1,519
Delaware .......................         3         -         6          231         -       858          209         -       768
District of Columbia ...........       (2)         -       (2)          (2)         -       (2)          (2)         -       (2)
Florida ........................        61       127       123        9,110    31,391    24,816        7,122    26,565    19,331
Georgia ........................        15        22        59        2,813     3,635     8,310        6,450     4,614     9,274
Hawaii .........................         4         7        10          563       840     1,196          495     1,112     1,217
Idaho ..........................        14        14        29        2,218     2,111     5,114        2,041     2,020     5,268

Illinois .......................       178        97       285       30,467    19,992    55,229       27,607    18,560    40,614
Indiana ........................        54        57       120        8,797    10,363    17,713       17,268    15,055    23,165
Iowa ...........................        27        10        42        4,559     1,220     5,452        6,287     3,466     7,091
Kansas .........................         8         8        25        1,066       710     2,889        1,335       754     2,749
Kentucky .......................        18        22        42        2,716     3,578     6,694        2,179     3,079     8,729
Louisiana ......................        12        41        20        2,080     6,540     3,797        1,296     6,085     3,191
Maine ..........................         8         3         3        1,827       267       648        1,388       187       544
Maryland .......................        25        10         3        3,122     1,238       220        3,295     1,132       326
Massachusetts ..................        26        21        42        6,181     2,553     5,806        3,554     2,896     4,357
Michigan .......................        95        41       211       16,434     5,852    38,820       32,450     7,867    43,556
Minnesota ......................        75        11       120       12,047     2,219    20,893       11,285     2,128    16,079
Mississippi ....................         5        14        21          782     2,330     3,621          747     1,660     3,229
Missouri .......................        40        31        99        6,019     4,687    14,839        5,054     4,068    12,678

Montana ........................        10         4        11        1,385       390     1,471        1,379       348     1,869
Nebraska .......................         6       (2)         8          859       (2)       958          580       (2)       683
Nevada .........................        13        22        46        2,780     4,421     7,907        3,121     4,979     8,964
New Hampshire ..................         3       (2)       (2)          415       (2)       (2)          369       (2)       (2)
New Jersey .....................        54        49        73        9,257     8,637    12,525        7,609     6,578     9,935
New Mexico .....................         3         8        17          434     1,431     2,326          428     1,429     1,736
New York .......................       106       118        91       17,570    27,855    15,458       19,864    22,462    14,091
North Carolina .................         6        14        27          553     1,377     3,069        1,132     2,895     3,426
North Dakota ...................         8       (2)        10        1,166       (2)     1,024        1,166       (2)     1,024
Ohio ...........................       116        49       138       20,000    10,187    30,295       22,436     9,847    22,870
Oklahoma .......................       (2)         5        21          (2)     2,549     3,014          (2)     1,179     2,972
Oregon .........................        24        19        70        6,535     4,494    12,374        6,795     4,627    15,706
Pennsylvania ...................        78        98       183       10,829    18,760    23,245       21,399    22,213    25,975

Rhode Island ...................         6       (2)         6          779       (2)       612          726       (2)       560
South Carolina .................        13        12        21        2,001     3,744     3,398        1,942     3,659     3,816
South Dakota ...................       (2)         -         3          (2)         -       237          (2)         -       213
Tennessee ......................        28        31        67        7,772     3,457     6,275        7,140     5,945     6,235
Texas ..........................        29        51        40        4,840    10,335     6,709        5,552    12,683     6,868
Utah ...........................        11       (2)        18        2,004       (2)     3,700        2,105       (2)     3,100
Vermont ........................         4       (2)         7          522       (2)       825          423       (2)     1,058
Virginia .......................        21         6        14        5,251       862     1,937        2,669       885     1,298
Washington .....................        25        21        76        2,627     3,528    12,378        3,907     2,803     9,833
West Virginia ..................         8       (2)         6          987       (2)       460          921       (2)       431
Wisconsin ......................        76        15        79       13,097     3,928    14,043       13,802     7,613    11,746
Wyoming ........................       (2)       (2)         3          (2)       (2)     3,344          (2)       (2)       268

Puerto Rico ....................         9        12         7          755     1,118       383        2,088     2,477       694
                                                                                                                                
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero. 







Table 6. Information technology-producing industries: Extended mass layoff events and separations, private nonfarm sector, 2001-2008

                                                               Information technology-producing industries(1)                     
                        Total extended                                                                                            
        Year             mass layoffs                                                                                             
                                                 Computer              Software and          Communications        Communications 
                                                hardware(2)         computer services(3)       equipment(4)          services(5)  

                     Layoff                 Layoff                  Layoff                 Layoff                Layoff              
                     events    Separations  events   Separations    events   Separations   events  Separations   events  Separations
        2001                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,546      304,171       91       20,991        32         5,558       22        4,441       13        3,317
Second quarter ...    1,828      430,499      161       38,986        69         9,563       36       12,109       15        3,519
Third quarter ....    1,629      330,391      142       24,813        45         5,724       39        8,200       21        5,350
Fourth quarter ...    2,372      459,771      109       17,797        50         7,667       43       10,124       38        9,889

    Total ........    7,375    1,524,832      503      102,587       196        28,512      140       34,874       87       22,075

        2002                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,611      299,266       84       18,574        34         3,770       32        8,192       28        4,346
Second quarter ...    1,624      344,606       69       11,764        39         4,326       27        4,870       34        5,643
Third quarter ....    1,186      255,152       76       15,017        36         4,359       34        6,529       33        5,496
Fourth quarter ...    1,916      373,307       74       14,298        26         5,709       19        3,645       31        7,643

    Total ........    6,337    1,272,331      303       59,653       135        18,164      112       23,236      126       23,128

        2003                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,502      286,947       71       11,900        27         5,097       23        4,402       26        4,513
Second quarter ...    1,799      368,273       54        9,221        19         2,741       21        3,098       22        4,169
Third quarter ....    1,190      236,333       46        6,488        24         4,189        9        1,289        8          842
Fourth quarter ...    1,690      325,333       25        5,080         8         1,167        9        1,619       23        5,774

    Total ........    6,181    1,216,886      196       32,689        78        13,194       62       10,408       79       15,298

        2004                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,339      276,503       27        3,222        13         2,786        8          894       14        2,832
Second quarter ...    1,358      278,831       18        2,959        15         2,775        -            -       15        3,250
Third quarter ....      886      164,608       13        2,288        14         1,467        4          430       11        3,792
Fourth quarter ...    1,427      273,967       18        3,055        10         1,547        4          563       20        3,143

    Total ........    5,010      993,909       76       11,524        52         8,575       16        1,887       60       13,017

        2005                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,142      186,506       13        1,526         9         2,355        4          439       12        2,400
Second quarter ...    1,203      246,099       20        2,973        13         1,558        4          842        7        1,331
Third quarter ....    1,136      201,878       23        3,307         7         1,034      (6)          (6)        3          304
Fourth quarter ...    1,400      250,178       19        4,122         3           720      (6)          (6)        5          845

    Total ........    4,881      884,661       75       11,928        32         5,667       13        3,000       27        4,880

        2006                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....      963      183,089       12        1,159         6           744      (6)          (6)      (6)          (6)
Second quarter ...    1,353      295,964       10        3,294         7         1,564        8          988      (6)          (6)
Third quarter ....      929      160,254       14        3,544         6           487      (6)          (6)        8        1,222
Fourth quarter ...    1,640      296,662       12        4,039         4           708        5        1,482        8          947

    Total ........    4,885      935,969       48       12,036        23         3,503       19        3,753       23        3,406

        2007                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,110      225,600       19        3,007         5           875        3          415        5          885
Second quarter ...    1,421      278,719       22        3,634         4           413        5          433        3          315
Third quarter ....    1,018      160,024       22        5,279         6         1,030        4          403        3          276
Fourth quarter ...    1,814      301,592        9        1,459         4           473        3          381        7          870

    Total ........    5,363      965,935       72       13,379        19         2,791       15        1,632       18        2,346

        2008                                                                                                                      

First quarter(r) .    1,340      229,952       19        3,040         9           987      (6)          (6)        3          329
Second quarter(r).    1,756      354,690       25        4,018         7           969      (6)          (6)       16        2,545
Third quarter(r) .    1,582      290,052       37        6,774        20         3,015        6        1,331       11        1,906
Fourth quarter(p).    3,140      508,859       48        8,007        17         1,738        6          937        9          986

    Total(p) .....    7,818    1,383,553      129       21,839        53         6,709       16        2,953       39        5,766
                                                                                                                                  
 
   1 Information technology-producing industries are defined in Digital Economy 2003, (U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and
Statistics Administration, 2003).  In the MLS program, however, computer and software merchant wholesalers and computer and
software stores are only included in the computer hardware industry.
   2 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
semiconductor machinery manufacturing; office machinery manufacturing; electronic computer manufacturing; computer storage device
manufacturing; computer terminal manufacturing; other computer peripheral equipment mfg.; electron tube manufacturing; bare
printed circuit board manufacturing; semiconductors and related device mfg.; electronic capacitor manufacturing; electronic
resistor manufacturing; electronic coils, transformers, and inductors; electronic connector manufacturing; printed circuit
assembly manufacturing; other electronic component manufacturing; industrial process variable instruments; electricity and signal
testing instruments; analytical laboratory instrument mfg.; computer and software merchant wholesalers; and computer and software
stores.
   3 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
software publishers; internet service providers; web search portals; data processing and related services; custom computer 
programming services; computer systems design services; computer facilities management services; other computer related services;
office equipment rental and leasing; and computer and office machine repair.
   4 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
telephone apparatus manufacturing; audio and video equipment manufacturing; broadcast and wireless communications equip.; fiber
optic cable manufacturing; software reproducing; and magnetic and optical recording media mfg.
   5 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
wired telecommunications carriers; cellular and other wireless carriers; telecommunications resellers; cable and other program
distribution; satellite telecommunications; other telecommunications; and communication equipment repair.
   6 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 7. Industry distribution: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                               Layoff events                            Separations           
                     Industry                                                                                                 
                                                        IV           III         IV           IV            III           IV   
                                                       2007         2008r       2008p        2007          2008r         2008p 
                                                                                                                              
      Total, private nonfarm (1) ................       69           84          110        11,302        14,938        24,236

    Mining ......................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Utilities ...................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Construction ................................        -            -          (2)             -             -           (2)
    Manufacturing ...............................       48           56           75         7,980        10,949        14,688
         Food ...................................        5            4            3         1,232         1,302           425
         Beverage and tobacco products ..........        -            -          (2)             -             -           (2)
         Textile mills ..........................      (2)            3          (2)           (2)           314           (2)
         Textile product mills (3) ..............      (2)            -          (2)           (2)             -           (2)
         Apparel (3) ............................        -          (2)          (2)             -           (2)           (2)
         Leather and allied products ............        -          (2)            -             -           (2)             -
         Wood products ..........................        -            -          (2)             -             -           (2)
         Paper ..................................      (2)            3            4           (2)           391           602
         Printing and related support activities         3          (2)          (2)           411           (2)           (2)
         Petroleum and coal products ............        -            -            -             -             -             -

         Chemicals ..............................      (2)          (2)            4           (2)           (2)         1,125
         Plastics and rubber products (3) .......        3            3            4           382           292           555
         Nonmetallic mineral products ...........      (2)            -          (2)           (2)             -           (2)
         Primary metals .........................        3            -            3           390             -         1,795
         Fabricated metal products ..............        5          (2)            5           879           (2)           665
         Machinery (3) ..........................      (2)            4            5           (2)           776         1,118
         Computer and electronic products .......        3            9            9           620         1,527         1,323
         Electrical equipment and appliances ....        6            6            7         1,360         1,278           789
         Transportation equipment (3) ...........       10           13           16         1,438         3,378         3,973
         Furniture and related products (3) .....      (2)          (2)            3           (2)           (2)           456
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) ........        -          (2)            3             -           (2)           509

    Wholesale trade .............................      (2)            3            7           (2)           539           804
    Retail trade ................................        3          (2)            6           334           (2)           682
    Transportation and warehousing ..............      (2)            4            4           (2)           684         5,606
    Information .................................        3            4            3           252           557           581
    Finance and insurance (3) ...................        5            8            6           861           938           700
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) ......        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Professional and technical services (3) .....        4          (2)          (2)           647           (2)           (2)
    Management of companies and enterprises .....      (2)            -            -           (2)             -             -
    Administrative and waste services (3) .......      (2)            3            4           (2)           479           545
    Educational services ........................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Health care and social assistance ...........        -          (2)          (2)             -           (2)           (2)
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation .........        -          (2)            -             -           (2)             -
    Accommodation and food services .............        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Other services, except public administration       (2)            -          (2)           (2)             -           (2)

    Unclassified ................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
                                                                                                                              

       1 See footnote 1, table 1.
       2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
       r = revised. 
       p = preliminary.
       NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 8. Reason for layoff: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work, 
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                               Layoff events                                  Separations              


         Reason for layoff               IV         III         IV               IV               III              IV   
                                        2007       2008r       2008p            2007             2008r            2008p 

   Total, private nonfarm (1) ....       69          84         110            11,302           14,938           24,236

Business demand ..................      (2)         (2)          33               (2)              (2)           10,710
  Contract cancellation ..........      (2)         (2)         (2)               (2)              (2)              (2)
  Contract completion ............      (2)           -         (2)               (2)                -              (2)
  Domestic competition ...........        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)
  Excess inventory/saturated 
    market .......................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Import competition .............        7         (2)           9             1,167              (2)            1,417
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
    non-seasonal business slowdown        7          12          20               950            3,130            4,032

Organizational changes ...........       30          47          48             5,110            8,445            8,706
  Business-ownership change ......        5           6           9             1,326            1,628            1,498
  Reorganization or restructuring 
    of company ...................       25          41          39             3,784            6,817            7,208

Financial issues .................       21          19          25             3,600            2,669            4,038
  Bankruptcy .....................        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)
  Cost control/cost cutting/
    increase profitability .......      (2)         (2)          22               (2)              (2)            2,852
  Financial difficulty ...........      (2)         (2)         (2)               (2)              (2)              (2)

Production specific ..............        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)
  Automation/technological 
    advances .....................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Energy related .................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Governmental regulations/
    intervention .................        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)
  Labor dispute/contract 
    negotiations/strike ..........        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Material or supply shortage ....        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Model changeover ...............        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)
  Plant or machine repair/
    maintenance ..................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Product line discontinued ......        -           -           -                 -                -                -

Disaster/safety ..................        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)
  Hazardous work environment .....        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Natural disaster (not weather 
    related) .....................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Non-natural disaster ...........        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Extreme weather-related event ..        -           -         (2)                 -                -              (2)

Other/miscellaneous ..............      (2)         (2)           -               (2)              (2)                -
  Other ..........................      (2)         (2)           -               (2)              (2)                -
  Data not provided: refusal .....        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Data not provided: does not 
    know .........................        -           -           -                 -                -                -

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 9. Census region and division: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                       Layoff events                             Separations            
 Census region and division                                                                             
                                IV          III         IV            IV             III             IV  
                               2007        2008r       2008p         2007           2008r           2008p
                                                                                                        
        United States (1) .     69           84         110         11,302         14,938         24,236

Northeast .................     11           14          14          1,726          2,306          2,106

    New England ...........      3          (2)           4            562            (2)            686
    Middle Atlantic .......      8          (2)          10          1,164            (2)          1,420

South .....................     16           13          22          2,105          2,238          3,848

    South Atlantic ........      8            5           7            903            704            843
    East South Central ....      5            4          10            512            472          1,425
    West South Central ....      3            4           5            690          1,062          1,580

Midwest ...................     30           42          47          5,847          8,162         14,306

    East North Central ....     23           32          33          4,190          6,105         11,564
    West North Central ....      7           10          14          1,657          2,057          2,742

West ......................     12           15          27          1,624          2,232          3,976

    Mountain ..............    (2)          (2)         (2)            (2)            (2)            (2)
    Pacific ...............    (2)          (2)         (2)            (2)            (2)            (2)
                                                                                                        
 
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are:  New
England:  Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic:
New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:  Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South  Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central:
Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas: East North Central:  Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central:  Iowa,
Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain:  Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and  Wyoming; and Pacific:  Alaska, California, Hawaii,
Oregon, and Washington. 







Table 10. Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected measures, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                  Layoff events                                Separations              
                Action                                                                                                  
                                           IV          III          IV             IV              III             IV   
                                          2007        2008r        2008p          2007            2008r           2008p 
                                                                                                                        
Total, private nonfarm (1) .........     1,814        1,582        3,140         301,592         290,052         508,859

    Total, excluding seasonal                                                                                           
        and vacation events (2) ....     1,062        1,366        2,332         171,808         246,132         373,359

                                                                                                                        
        Total, movement of work (3).        69           84          110          11,302          14,938          24,236

                                                                                                                        
             Movement of work 
               actions .............        90          106          150            (4)             (4)             (4)
                  With separations 
                    reported .......        66           78          111           7,152           9,631          16,061
                  With separations 
                    unknown ........        24           28           39            (4)             (4)             (4)

    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when the reason for layoff was either seasonal work
or vacation period.
    3 Movement of work can involve more than one action. 
    4 Data are not available.
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary. 







Table 11. Movement of work actions by type of separation where number of separations is known by employers,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                              Actions(1)                         Separations         
           Activities                                                                                
                                       IV         III       IV             IV         III        IV  
                                      2007       2008r     2008p          2007       2008r      2008p
                                                                                                     
With separations reported (2) .        66         78        111           7,152      9,631     16,061

           By location                                                                               

  Out-of-country relocations ..        27         19         33           2,997      2,312      3,775
      Within company ..........        26         17         28           2,910      2,135      3,436
      Different company .......         1          2          5              87        177        339

  Domestic relocations ........        39         59         78           4,155      7,319     12,286
      Within company ..........        38         50         72           3,975      6,522      6,844
      Different company .......         1          9          6             180        797      5,442

  Unable to assign place of                                                                          
     relocation ...............         -          -          -              -          -          - 

           By company                                                                                

  Within company ..............        64         67        100           6,885      8,657     10,280
      Domestic ................        38         50         72           3,975      6,522      6,844
      Out of country ..........        26         17         28           2,910      2,135      3,436
      Unable to assign ........         -          -          -              -          -          - 

  Different company ...........         2         11         11             267        974      5,781
      Domestic ................         1          9          6             180        797      5,442
      Out of country ..........         1          2          5              87        177        339
      Unable to assign ........         -          -          -              -          -          - 

                                                                                                     
 
    1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement of work were reported are
shown.
    2 See footnote 1, table 1. 
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    Note:  Dash represents zero.






Last Modified Date: February 13, 2009
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