Economic News Release

Extended Mass Layoffs (Quarterly) News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6392    USDL 08-0668
               http://www.bls.gov/mls/
                                          For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    Thursday, May 15, 2008



      (NOTE:  This news release was reissued on Friday, May 16, 2008, to 
    correct a data value shown in table 10.  The value for total private 
    nonfarm separations in the first quarter 2008 was corrected from 
    8,326 to 188,326.  Data in the other tables and other figures in the 
    text were not affected by this correction.) 



            EXTENDED MASS LAYOFFS IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2008


   In the first quarter of 2008, there were 1,111 mass layoff events that
resulted in the separation of 188,326 workers from their jobs for at least
31 days, according to preliminary figures released by the U.S. Department
of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics.  A strike at a transportation equip-
ment manufacturer was a contributing factor in 31 extended layoff events
affecting 19,887 workers at other firms.  The total number of layoff events
was essentially unchanged from the January-March 2007 time period, while
the number of associated separations was lower.  (See table A.)  First
quarter 2008 layoff data are preliminary and are subject to revision.  (See
the Technical Note.)

   Among the 7 categories of economic reasons for layoff, business demand
accounted for the highest share of events (47 percent) and number of separa-
tions (79,358) in January-March 2008.  (See table B.)  Layoff activity attri-
buted to business demand factors increased from the same period in 2007, when
these reasons were cited in 39 percent of layoff events and involved 62,693
laid-off workers.

   Since the collection of movement of work data began in 2004, a series
low 47 extended mass layoff events associated with 8,856 separated workers
were recorded in the first quarter of 2008.  (See table C.)  These events
accounted for 5 percent of the nonseasonal layoff events and 6 percent of
the nonseasonal separations.

   Permanent closure of worksites occurred in 12 percent of all extended mass
layoff events and affected 33,103 workers during the first quarter of 2008.
Forty-three percent of the employers reporting a layoff indicated they antici-
pated some type of recall.  Of those employers expecting to recall workers, a
record low 30 percent indicated that the offer would be extended to all employ-
ees.  Extended mass layoffs without an expectation of recall occurred mainly in
credit intermediation and related activities and in transportation equipment
manufacturing.

   The national unemployment rate averaged 5.3 percent, not seasonally adjusted,
in the first quarter of 2008, up from 4.8 percent a year earlier.  Private non-
farm payroll employment, not seasonally adjusted, increased by 0.4 percent, or
507,000 over the year.


     ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                                     |
    |                 Changes to Extended Mass Layoff Data                |
    |                                                                     |
    |   Effective with this news release, the Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS)|
    |program has switched the basis for their industry classification     |
    |from the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)  |
    |to the 2007 NAICS for extended mass layoff data.  The new classifi-  |
    |cation includes minor definitional changes within manufacturing;     |
    |telecommunications; financial activities; and professional, scienti- |
    |fic, and technical services.  Several industry titles and descrip-   |
    |tions also were updated.  For more information on the MLS program's  |
    |change to NAICS 2007, see http://www.bls.gov/mls/mls2007naics.htm.   |
    |                                                                     |
    |   For additional information on the 2007 NAICS, see http://www.     |
    |census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html.                                      |
    |                                                                     |
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------


                                   - 2 -



Table A.  Selected measures of extended mass layoff activity           
                                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      |               |             |                  
       Period         | Layoff events | Separations | Initial claimants
                      |               |             |                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      |               |             |                  
       2004           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|     1,339     |    276,503  |       238,392    
April-June ...........|     1,358     |    278,831  |       254,063    
July-September .......|       886     |    164,608  |       148,575    
October-December .....|     1,427     |    273,967  |       262,049    
                      |               |             |                  
       2005           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|     1,142     |    186,506  |       185,486    
April-June ...........|     1,203     |    246,099  |       212,673    
July-September .......|     1,136     |    201,878  |       190,186    
October-December .....|     1,400     |    250,178  |       246,188    
                      |               |             |                  
       2006           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|       963     |    183,089  |       193,510    
April-June ...........|     1,353     |    295,964  |       264,927    
July-September .......|       929     |    160,254  |       161,764    
October-December .....|     1,640     |    296,662  |       330,901    
                      |               |             |                  
       2007           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March (r).....|     1,110     |    225,600  |       199,250    
April-June (r)........|     1,421     |    278,719  |       259,082    
July-September (r)....|     1,019     |    160,830  |       173,518    
October-December (r)..|     1,814     |    301,377  |       346,030    
                      |               |             |                  
       2008           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March (p).....|     1,111     |    188,326  |       165,933    
                      |               |             |                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.



Industry Distribution of Extended Layoffs

   Manufacturing industries accounted for 31 percent of private nonfarm extended
mass layoff events and 40 percent of related separations in the first quarter
of 2008.  (See table 1.)  The largest number of separations was in transporta-
tion equipment manufacturing (31,340, mostly associated with automobile manufac-
turing), followed by food manufacturing (9,478).  A strike involving a transport-
ation equipment manufacturer was a contributing factor in 55 percent of the separ-
ations in that industry.

   The construction sector accounted for 26 percent of events and 16 percent of
separations during January-March 2008, largely in specialty trade contracting and
heavy and civil engineering construction.  Layoffs in the retail trade sector ac-
counted for 8 percent of all extended mass layoff events and 11 percent of separa-
tions and were concentrated in general merchandise stores.



                                   - 3 -



Table B.  Distribution of extended layoff events and separations
by economic reason categories, January-March 2008p
----------------------------------------------------------------
                        |   Layoff events  |    Separations     
        Category        |---------------------------------------
                        | Number | Percent |  Number |  Percent 
------------------------|---------------------------------------
                        |        |         |         |          
  Total ................|  1,111 |  100.0  | 188,326 |   100.0  
                        |        |         |         |          
Business demand.........|    520 |   46.8  |  79,358 |    42.1  
Organizational changes .|     91 |    8.2  |  18,675 |     9.9  
Financial issues .......|    106 |    9.5  |  22,972 |    12.2  
Production specific ....|     24 |    2.2  |  11,760 |     6.2  
Disaster/safety ........|      6 |     .5  |     968 |      .5  
Seasonal ...............|    226 |   20.3  |  38,540 |    20.5  
Other/miscellaneous ....|    138 |   12.4  |  16,053 |     8.5  
                        |        |         |         |          
----------------------------------------------------------------

   p = preliminary.



Reasons for Extended Layoffs

   Among the 7 categories of economic reasons for extended mass layoffs, events
related to business demand factors (contract cancellation, contract completion,
domestic competition, excess inventory, import competition, and slack work) ac-
counted for 47 percent of the extended layoffs and resulted in 79,358 separations
during the first quarter of 2008.  (See table 2.)  Business demand job cuts were
most numerous in transportation equipment manufacturing (motor vehicle manufact-
uring) and in specialty trade contracting (building equipment contractors).  About
one-quarter of all layoff events and separations were due to slack work, the high-
est proportion of events since first quarter 2002 and the highest proportion of
separations since third quarter 2001.  However, 11 percent of these slack work
events and 42 percent of the associated separations were strike-related cutbacks
in the transportation equipment manufacturing sector.

   Job losses related to seasonal factors (seasonal and vacation period) accounted
for 20 percent of the extended layoff events and resulted in 38,540 separations,
primarily in food manufacturing and general merchandise stores.

   Financial issues (bankruptcy, cost control, and financial difficulty) accounted
for 10 percent of events and resulted in 22,972 separations.  These layoffs were
most common among workers in credit intermediation and related activities and in
furniture and home furnishings stores.



                                  - 4 -



Table C.  Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected
measures, first quarter 2008(p)
                                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   |                 |                 
              Action               |  Layoff events  |    Separations  
                                   |                 |                 
-----------------------------------|-----------------|-----------------
                                   |                 |                 
Total, private nonfarm ............|      1,111      |       188,326   
                                   |                 |                 
   Total, excluding seasonal       |                 |                 
     and vacation events (1) ......|        885      |       149,786   
                                   |                 |                 
     Total events with movement    |                 |                 
       of work (2) ................|         47      |         8,856   
                                   |                 |                 
       Movement of work actions ...|         59      |          (3)    
         With separations reported.|         36      |         5,297   
         With separations unknown .|         23      |          (3)    
                                   |                 |                 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when
the reason for layoff was either seasonal work or vacation period.
   2 A layoff event can involve more than one movement of work action.
   3 Data are not available.
   p = preliminary.



Movement of Work

   Since the collection of movement of work data began in 2004, a series low 47
extended mass layoff events associated with 8,856 separated workers were recorded
in the first quarter of 2008.  (See table C.)  These movements of work were to
other domestic locations or to locations outside of the U.S., and they occurred
either within the same company or to other companies.  A year earlier, there were
70 layoff events and 11,438 separations associated with the movement of work.
(See table 10.)

   Among the 47 extended mass layoff events with reported relocation of work in
the first quarter of 2008, 64 percent were permanent closures of worksites, which
affected 6,566 workers.  In comparison, 12 percent of the total extended mass lay-
off events reported for the quarter involved the permanent closure of worksites
affecting 33,103 workers.

   Of the layoffs involving the movement of work, 60 percent of the events and
53 percent of the laid-off workers were from manufacturing industries during
the first quarter.  (See table 7.)  Among all private nonfarm extended layoffs,
manufacturing accounted for 31 percent of the events and 40 percent of the
separations.



                                   - 5 -



Table D.  Movement of work actions by type of separation where the
number of separations is known by employers, first quarter 2008(p)

--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   |               |                
              Activities           |  Actions (1)  |   Separations  
                                   |               |                
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   |               |                
   With separations reported ......|       36      |        5,297   
                                   |               |                
            By location            |               |                
                                   |               |                
      Out-of-country relocations ..|       13      |        1,181   
        Within company ............|       10      |          882   
        Different company .........|        3      |          299   
                                   |               |                
      Domestic relocations ........|       23      |        4,116   
        Within company ............|       21      |        3,201   
        Different company .........|        2      |          915   
                                   |               |                
             By company            |               |                
                                   |               |                
      Within company ..............|       31      |        4,083   
        Domestic ..................|       21      |        3,201   
        Out of country ............|       10      |          882   
                                   |               |                
      Different company ...........|        5      |        1,214   
        Domestic ..................|        2      |          915   
        Out of country ............|        3      |          299   
                                   |               |                
--------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement
of work were reported are shown.
   p = preliminary.



   While 18 percent of the extended mass layoff events in the total private non-
farm economy were because of either financial issues or organizational changes,
such reasons accounted for 66 percent of layoff events associated with work relo-
cation and resulted in 6,012 separations during the first quarter.  (See table 8.)

   Among the regions, the South accounted for the largest proportion of workers
affected by extended mass layoffs associated with the movement of work (38 per-
cent), followed by the West (28 percent), the Midwest (26 percent), and the 
Northeast (9 percent).  (See table 9.)

   Some extended mass layoff events involve more than one relocation of work ac-
tion.  For example, an extended mass layoff event at an employer may involve job
loss due to movement of work to both another domestic location of the company and
a location out of the country.  This would be counted as two movement of work ac-
tions.  The 47 extended layoff events with movement of work for the first quarter
of 2008 involved 59 identifiable relocations of work.  (See table C.)  An identi-
fiable relocation of work occurs when the employer provides sufficient information
on the new location of work and/or the number of workers affected by the movement.
Of the 59 relocations, employers were able to provide information on the specific
number of separations associated with the movement of work component of the layoff
in 36 actions involving 5,297 workers.  (See table 10.)

   In the 36 actions where employers were able to provide more complete separations
information, 86 percent of relocations (31 out of 36) occurred within the same com-
pany. (See table D.)  Sixty-four percent of these relocations (23 out of 36) were do-
mestic reassignments, while 36 percent involved out-of-country moves  (13 out of 36).
Domestic relocation of work--both within the company and to other companies--affected
4,116 workers.  Out-of-country relocations were associated with the separation of 1,181
workers, 1 percent of all nonseasonal and nonvacation extended mass layoff separations.
(See table 11.)



                                   - 6 -



Table E.  Summary of employer expectations of a recall from extended
layoff, first quarter 2007-first quarter 2008
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              |                                         
                              |            Percentage of events         
      Nature of the recall    |_________________________________________
                              |       |       |       |        |        
                              |   I   |   II  |   III |  IV    |   I    
                              |  2007 |  2007 |  2007 | 2007(r)| 2008(p)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              |       |       |       |        |        
   Anticipate a recall .......|  40.2 |  57.1 |  37.9 |   55.8 |  43.2  
                              |       |       |       |        |        
        Timeframe             |       |       |       |        |        
                              |       |       |       |        |        
   Within 6 months ...........|  83.6 |  87.5 |  83.9 |   87.9 |  71.7  
     Within 3 months .........|  51.3 |  59.7 |  62.7 |   34.2 |  46.7  
                              |       |       |       |        |        
          Size                |       |       |       |        |        
                              |       |       |       |        |        
   At least half .............|  87.2 |  93.3 |  86.0 |   90.5 |  74.6  
     All workers .............|  38.6 |  57.2 |  45.6 |   50.5 |  29.6  
                              |       |       |       |        |        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary. 



Recall Expectations

   Forty-three percent of employers reporting an extended layoff in the first quarter
of 2008 indicated they anticipated some type of recall, up slightly from a year earl-
ier.  (See table E.)  However, of those employers expecting to recall workers, a re-
cord low 30 percent indicated that the offer would be extended to all displaced employ-
ees.  For events without an expectation of recall, the highest number of separations
occurred in credit intermediation and related activities, in transportation equipment
manufacturing, and in general merchandise stores.  Seventy-two percent of employers
expected to recall the laid-off employees within 6 months, a record low for the series.
Seventy-five percent of employers anticipated extending the offer to at least half of
the workers.

   Excluding layoff events due to seasonal work and vacation period (in which 89 per-
cent of the employers expected a recall), employers anticipated recalling laid-off
workers in 32 percent of the events, up from 27 percent a year earlier.



                                         - 7 -



Table F.  Distribution of extended layoff events by size of layoff,
first quarter 2008(p)
                                                                   
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                           |                    |                  
                           |   Layoff events    |    Separations   
            Size           |---------------------------------------
                           |         |          |         |        
                           |  Number |  Percent |  Number | Percent
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                           |         |          |         |        
   Total ..................|   1,111 |   100.0  | 188,326 |  100.0 
                           |         |          |         |        
50-99 .....................|     519 |    46.7  |  36,653 |   19.5 
100-149 ...................|     268 |    24.1  |  31,555 |   16.8 
150-199 ...................|     102 |     9.2  |  17,092 |    9.1 
200-299 ...................|     106 |     9.5  |  24,500 |   13.0 
300-499 ...................|      67 |     6.0  |  25,165 |   13.4 
500-999 ...................|      33 |     3.0  |  20,132 |   10.7 
1,000 or more .............|      16 |     1.4  |  33,229 |   17.6 
-------------------------------------------------------------------

   p = preliminary.



Size of Extended Layoffs

   The average size of a layoff (as measured by separations per layoff event) in
the first quarter of 2008 was 170, compared to 203 per layoff in the first quarter
of 2007.  The average differed widely by industry, ranging from a low of 67 in
leather and allied products to a high of 776 in motion picture and sound recording
industries.

   Layoff events during January-March 2008 continued to be concentrated at the lower
end of the extended layoff-size spectrum, with 71 percent of the events involving fewer
than 150 workers.  Layoffs involving less than 150 workers accounted for 36 percent of
all separations during the period, compared to 29 percent in the first quarter of 2007.
Separations involving 500 or more workers, while comprising only 4 percent of the
events, accounted for 28 percent of all separations in the first quarter of 2008, down
from 41 percent a year earlier.  (See table F.)

Initial Claimant Characteristics

   A total of 165,933 initial claimants for unemployment insurance were associated with
extended mass layoffs in the first quarter of 2008. Of these claimants, 14 percent were
black, 18 percent were Hispanic, 35 percent were women, 35 percent were 30 to 44 years
of age, and 18 percent were 55 years of age or older.  (See table 3.)  Among persons
in the civilian labor force for the same period, 11 percent were black, 14 percent were
Hispanic, 47 percent were women, 33 percent were age 30 to 44, and 18 percent were
55 years of age or older.

Geographic Distribution

   Among the 4 census regions, the highest number of separations due to extended mass
layoff events in the first quarter of 2008 was in the Midwest, with 71,890, followed
by the West, with 65,141.  (See table 4.)  Extended mass layoffs in the Midwest were
largely in transportation equipment manufacturing and in administrative and support
services.  The Midwest region accounted for 38 percent of all separations, up from
25 percent in the same period last year.  Thirty-five percent of the extended layoffs
were reported by the West, a decrease from 46 percent in the first quarter of 2007.

   Among the 9 census regions, the highest number of separations during the first 
quarter of 2008 was in the East North Central, with 63,758, followed by the Pacific,
with 59,012.  (See table 4.)  Extended mass layoffs in the East North Central division
were largely in transportation equipment manufacturing.

   California recorded the largest number of worker separations (55,469), followed by
Ohio (19,420), Illinois (17,771), and Michigan (14,149).  These four states accounted
for 56 percent of total extended mass layoff events and 57 percent of total separa-
tions during the first quarter of 2008.  (See table 5.)  After excluding the substant-
ial impact of seasonal reasons, California still reported the highest number of job
cuts (46,437), largely due to layoffs in specialty trade contractors and in heavy and
civil engineering construction.

   California accounted for 29 percent of all separations in January-March 2008, down
sharply from 41 percent in 2007.  Ohio accounted for 10 percent of the separations in
the first quarter of 2008, up from 4 percent in 2007.

   In the first quarter of 2008, Michigan reported the largest number of separations
related to the transportation equipment manufacturing strike (7,107), followed by
Ohio (6,760) and Indiana (4,580).



                                   - 8 -

Table G.  Mass layoff events and separations, selected metropolitan areas
                                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            |                 |                 
                                            |     Events      |   Separations   
            Metropolitan area               |-----------------|-----------------
                                            |        |        |        |        
                                            |   I    |   I    |   I    |   I    
                                            | 2007(r)| 2008(p)| 2007(r)| 2008(p)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            |        |        |        |        
Total, nonmetropolitan areas ...............|   120  |   105  | 17,422 | 15,688 
                                            |        |        |        |        
Total, 369 metropolitan areas ..............|   624  |   587  | 86,443 | 92,165 
                                            |        |        |        |        
 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif. ..|    72  |    78  |  9,304 | 11,454 
 Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis. .|    59  |    47  |  8,689 |  7,746 
 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long          |        |        |        |        
  Island, N.Y.-N.J.-Pa. ....................|    47  |    35  |  6,886 |  5,660 
 San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, Calif. .....|    31  |    37  |  3,245 |  4,523 
 Detriot-Warren-Livonia, Mich. .............|    22  |    26  |  2,766 |  4,426 
 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, Calif. ....|     9  |    15  |    768 |  2,758 
 Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford, Va. ....|   (1)  |   (1)  |   (1)  |   (1)  
 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, Calif. ..|    23  |    19  |  2,746 |  2,250 
 St. Louis, Mo.-Ill. .......................|     9  |     7  |  2,704 |  1,902 
 Shreveport-Bossier City, La. ..............|   (1)  |     3  |   (1)  |  1,840 
                                            |        |        |        |        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The geographic boundaries of the metropolitan areas shown in
this table are defined in Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 08-01,
November 20, 2007.


   Fifty-three percent of events and 49 percent of separations (92,165) occurred in
metropolitan areas in the first quarter of 2008, compared with 56 percent of events
and 38 percent of separations (86,443) during the first quarter of 2007.  Among the
369 metropolitan areas, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif., reported the high-
est number of separations (11,454) in the first quarter of 2008.  Next were Chicago-
Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis., with 7,746 separations and New York-Northern New
Jersey-Long Island, N.Y.-N.J.-Pa., with 5,660 separations.  (See table G.)  Employers
located in nonmetropolitan areas separated 15,688 workers in extended mass layoffs.

Note

   The quarterly series on extended mass layoffs cover layoffs of at least 31-days
duration that involve 50 or more individuals from a single employer filing initial
claims for unemployment insurance during a consecutive 5-week period.  Approximately
30 days after a mass layoff is triggered, the employer is contacted for additional
information.  Data for the first quarter are preliminary and subject to revision.
This release also includes revised data for previous quarters.  Data are not sea-
sonally adjusted, but survey data suggest that there is a seasonal pattern to lay-
offs.  Thus, comparisons between consecutive quarters should not be used as an in-
dicator of trend.

   For additional information about the program, see the Technical Note.



                         ______________________________



   The report on Mass Layoffs in April 2008 is scheduled to be released on
Thursday, May 22.







                                  - 9 -



Technical Note

   The  Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS) program is a federal-state program 
which identifies, describes, and tracks the effects of major job cutbacks,
using data from each state's unemployment insurance database.  Employers
which have at least 50 initial claims filed against them during a con-
secutive 5-week period are contacted by the state agency to determine
whether these separations are of at least 31 days duration, and, if so,
information is obtained on the total number of persons separated and the
reasons for these separations.  Employers are identified according to in-
dustry classification and location, and unemployment insurance claimants
are identified by such demographic factors as age, race, gender, ethnic
group, and place of residence.  The program yields information on an
individual's entire spell of unemployment, to the point when regular
unemployment insurance benefits are exhausted.

Definitions

   Employer.  Employers in the MLS program include those covered by state
unemployment insurance laws.  Information on employers is obtained from the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, which is admini-
stered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   Extended layoff event.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment
insurance benefits from an employer during a 5-week period, with at least
50 workers separated for more than 30 days.

   Initial claimant.  A person who files any notice of unemployment to
initiate a request either for a determination of entitlement to and eligi-
bility for compensation, or for a subsequent period of unemployment within
a benefit year or period of eligibility.

   Layoff.  The separation of persons from an employer as part of a mass
layoff event.  (See below.)  Such layoffs involve both persons subject to
recall and those who are terminated by the establishment.

   Mass layoff.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment insurance
benefits from an employer beginning in a given month, regardless of dura-
tion.

   Worksite closure.  The complete closure of either multi-unit or single-
unit employers or the partial closure of a multi-unit employer where entire
worksites affected by layoffs are closed or planned to be closed.



                                  - 10 -



Revisions to preliminary data

The latest quarterly data in this news release are considered preliminary.
After the initial publication of quarterly information, more data are col-
lected as remaining employer interviews for the quarter are completed and
additional initial claimant information associated with extended layoff
events is received.

Movement of work concepts and questions

   Because of the employer interview component, the BLS decided to use
the MLS program as a vehicle for collecting additional information on
offshoring and outsourcing associated with job loss, by adding questions
that address movement of work.  The term "moving work" means that the
company experiencing the layoff has reassigned work activities that were
performed at a worksite by the company's employees (1) to another work-
site within the company; (2) to another company under formal arrangements 
at the same worksite; or (3) to another company under formal arrangements 
at another worksite.  The type of work activities subject to movement can
include accounting, customer service, cleaning, warehousing, etc.

   "Overseas relocation" is the movement of work from within the U.S. to
locations outside of the U.S. "Overseas relocation" can occur within the
same company and involve movement of work to a different location of that
company outside of the U.S., or to a different company altogether.

   "Domestic relocation" is the movement of work to other locations inside
the U.S., either within the same company or to a different company.

   "Overseas relocation" and "domestic relocation" are no longer used in the
same way as they were in earlier extended mass layoff news releases.  There-
fore, the data presented in this news release are not comparable to those
that were presented in earlier news releases.

   Questions on movement of work and location are asked for all identified
layoff events when the reason for separation is other than "seasonal work"
or "vacation period."  Seasonal and vacation layoff events were excluded
because movement of work appears unlikely.

   Questions on movement of work are asked after the analyst verifies that 
a layoff in fact occurred and lasted more than 30 days, and obtained the
total number of workers separated from jobs, the date the layoff began, and
the economic reason for the layoff.  If the reason for layoff is other than
seasonal or vacation, the employer was asked the following:

   (1) "Did this layoff include your company moving work from this loca-
tion(s) to a different geographic location(s) within your company?"

   (2) "Did this layoff include your company moving work that was performed
in-house by your employees to a different company, through contractual ar-
rangements?"

   A "yes" response to either question is followed by:

   "Is the location inside or outside of the U.S.?" and "How many of the
layoffs were a result of this relocation?"

   Layoff actions are classified as "overseas relocation" if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2, and indicates that the location(s)
was outside of the U.S.  Domestic relocation is determined if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2 and indicates that the location(s)
was within the U.S.

   After asking the movement of work questions, the employer interview
continues and responses are obtained for questions on recall expectations
and open/closed status of the worksite.



                                  - 11 - 



Reliability of the data

   The identification of employers and layoff events in the MLS program
and associated characteristics of claimants is based on administrative
data on covered establishments and unemployment insurance claims, and,
therefore, is not subject to issues associated with sampling error.
Nonsampling errors such as typographical errors may occur but are not
likely to be significant.  While the MLS employers and layoff events
are not subject to sampling error, and all such employers are asked the
interview questions, the employer responses are subject to nonsampling 
error.  Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the in-
ability to obtain information for all respondents, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made 
in the collection or processing of the data.  For the first quarter of
2008, outright refusal to participate in the employer interview accounted
for 3.9 percent of all private nonfarm events.  Although included in the
total number of instances involving the movement of work, for the first
quarter, employers in 23 relocations were unable to provide the number of
separations specifically associated with the movement of work, 7 of which
involved out-of-country moves.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1. Industry distribution: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, private
nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                            Initial claimants for  
                                                         Layoff events               Separations            unemployment insurance 
                      Industry                                                                                                     
                                                      I       IV      I          I        IV       I          I        IV       I  
                                                    2007r   2007r   2008p      2007r    2007r    2008p      2007r    2007r    2008p
                                                                                                                                   
      Total, private nonfarm (1) .................  1,110   1,814   1,111    225,600  301,377  188,326    199,250  346,030  165,933

    Mining .......................................      7      27    (2)         843    3,584     (2)         557    3,491     (2) 
    Utilities ....................................   (2)     (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)        (2)      (2)      (2) 
    Construction .................................    305     682     291     30,513   86,848   30,767     37,493  100,624   30,585
    Manufacturing ................................    369     442     343     68,797   80,539   74,453     82,529  117,512   68,254
         Food ....................................     64      71      43     10,176   17,131    9,478     11,999   16,912    6,535
         Beverage and tobacco products ...........      9     (2)       8      1,084      (2)    1,416      1,569      (2)    1,392
         Textile mills ...........................     10      10      11      1,716    1,799    1,063      2,992    4,834    2,558
         Textile product mills (3)................      4       5    (2)         603      968     (2)         785    1,806     (2) 
         Apparel (3) .............................     14      10      10      1,583    1,524      952      1,698    1,379      987
         Leather and allied products .............   (2)     (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)        (2)      (2)      (2) 
         Wood products ...........................     22      49      31      3,688    6,553    4,271      4,528    7,628    5,923
         Paper ...................................      7       6       5        820      899      457        724    1,045      472
         Printing and related support activities .     13      14       4      1,989    2,323      346      1,579    2,272      381
         Petroleum and coal products .............   (2)       18    (2)        (2)     2,760     (2)        (2)     2,925     (2) 

         Chemicals ...............................      9      11       5      1,610    2,892      933        995    2,354      425
         Plastics and rubber products (3) ........     15      19      18      3,167    2,998    2,799      1,542    2,724    1,981
         Nonmetallic mineral products ............     29      56      32      2,984    7,773    3,296      3,346    9,755    3,117
         Primary metals ..........................      9      14      11      1,282    2,456    2,451      1,650    3,131    1,801
         Fabricated metal products ...............     16      21      23      1,831    2,774    2,795      2,367    3,317    2,429
         Machinery (3) ...........................     16      22      19      3,304    4,364    3,040      3,346    6,548    2,704
         Computer and electronic products ........     24      12      21      4,326    1,857    3,444      3,687    1,738    2,538
         Electrical equipment and appliances .....      7      16      10        733    3,616    1,897      1,327    8,524    2,632
         Transportation equipment (3) ............     63      55      67     23,131   12,858   31,340     33,601   35,566   29,117
         Furniture and related products (3) ......     27      19      16      3,527    2,490    2,775      3,775    3,100    2,360
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) .........      6       7       5        803    1,648    1,229        482    1,028      447

    Wholesale trade ..............................     17      38      29      2,249    4,442    2,914      1,615    5,470    2,155
    Retail trade .................................     89      76      89     70,086   19,152   21,102     22,642   21,129   19,213
    Transportation and warehousing ...............     35      43      42      5,711    9,719    6,895      5,513    8,752    6,163
    Information ..................................     17      29      20      2,640    5,061    5,845      3,177    7,215    3,511
    Finance and insurance (3) ....................     57     104      74      8,993   18,575   12,190      9,692   18,927   11,457
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) .......      7       9       5        806    1,461      453        901    1,176      456
    Professional and technical services (3) ......     31      50      29      7,990    9,634    5,397      7,808    9,675    2,697
    Management of companies and enterprises ......      6       9       5      1,183    1,642      700        668    1,226      434
    Administrative and waste services (3) ........     72     136      82     13,448   21,525   12,142     13,808   24,702   10,181
    Educational services .........................   (2)     (2)        4       (2)      (2)      393        (2)      (2)       349
    Health care and social assistance ............     19      22      14      2,432    4,697    3,412      1,843    3,476    1,675
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation ..........     22      50      19      2,427   17,859    2,398      2,318    7,218    1,680
    Accommodation and food services ..............     47      73      52      6,267   12,843    7,940      7,389   11,819    5,971
    Other services, except public administration .      7      14       5        805    2,220      441        664    1,945      401

    Unclassified .................................      -       3       3        -        696      404        -        514      259

   1 For the first quarter of 2008, data on layoffs were reported by employers in all states and the District of Columbia.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.







Table 2. Reason for layoff: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, private
nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                         Initial claimants for   
                                             Layoff events                   Separations                 unemployment insurance  
         Reason for layoff                                                                                                       
                                        I        IV         I            I        IV         I            I        IV         I  
                                      2007r     2007r     2008p        2007r     2007r     2008p        2007r     2007r     2008p
                                                                                                                                 
   Total, private nonfarm (1) .....   1,110     1,814     1,111      225,600   301,377   188,326      199,250   346,030   165,933

Business demand ...................     437       613       520       62,693    83,995    79,358       84,844   137,224    80,248
  Contract cancellation ...........      23        17        16        3,503     2,564     2,264        3,269     3,384     1,775
  Contract completion .............     193       286       212       24,371    34,838    25,769       31,181    49,155    25,782
  Domestic competition ............       7      (2)        -            885      (2)        -            728      (2)        -  
  Excess inventory/saturated
   market .........................      15      (2)          6        3,525      (2)      1,380        3,834      (2)        653
  Import competition ..............      23        16        14        2,744     2,868     2,096        2,791     6,065     1,644
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
   non-seasonal business slowdown..     176       282       272       27,665    42,200    47,849       43,041    76,589    50,394

Organizational changes ............     127        92        91       68,354    22,626    18,675       18,814    20,535    13,602
  Business-ownership change .......      34        24        18       54,698     9,673     5,626        5,260     5,693     1,489
  Reorganization or restructuring
   of company .....................      93        68        73       13,656    12,953    13,049       13,554    14,842    12,113

Financial issues ..................      99       124       106       21,689    24,652    22,972       20,939    25,800    16,611
  Bankruptcy ......................      12        15        22        2,858     4,665     5,433        1,670     2,597     2,974
  Cost control/cost cutting/
   increase profitability .........      54        42        34       11,672     8,254     5,297       12,216    13,274     5,878
  Financial difficulty ............      33        67        50        7,159    11,733    12,242        7,053     9,929     7,759

Production specific ...............      24        25        24        5,959     3,935    11,760        7,295     4,864     8,051
  Automation/technological
    advances ......................    (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2) 
  Energy related ..................     -         -         -            -         -         -            -         -         -  
  Governmental regulations/
   intervention ...................       4      (2)       (2)           568      (2)       (2)           388      (2)       (2) 
  Labor dispute/contract
   negotiations/strike ............    (2)         10         4         (2)      1,457     5,054         (2)      2,386     2,186
  Material or supply shortage .....       9      (2)          5          803      (2)      4,289          955      (2)      3,977
  Model changeover ................    (2)       (2)        -           (2)       (2)        -           (2)       (2)        -  
  Plant or machine repair/
   maintenance ....................    (2)          8         5         (2)      1,360       507         (2)        972       399
  Product line discontinued .......       4      (2)          4          642      (2)      1,104          397       (2)       908

Disaster/safety ...................      20         6         6        1,639       778       968        1,615       809       568
  Hazardous work environment ......    (2)        -        (2)          (2)        -        (2)          (2)         -       (2) 
  Natural disaster (not weather
   related) .......................    (2)        -        (2)          (2)        -        (2)          (2)         -       (2) 
  Non-natural disaster ............    (2)        -         -           (2)        -         -           (2)         -        -  
  Extreme weather-related event ...      16         6      (2)         1,290       778      (2)         1,237       809      (2) 

Seasonal ..........................     261       752       226       39,255   129,733    38,540       40,110   119,180    31,356
  Seasonal ........................    (2)        747       226         (2)    129,317    38,540         (2)    118,616    31,356
  Vacation period-school related
   or otherwise ...................    (2)          5        -          (2)        416       -           (2)        564       -  

Other/miscellaneous ...............     142       202       138       26,011    35,658    16,053       25,633    37,618    15,497
  Other ...........................       9        12        15        1,454     2,091     1,363          950     3,150     1,691
  Data not provided: refusal ......      52        57        46        9,922    11,227     6,535        9,903    11,241     6,494
  Data not provided: does not
   know ...........................      81       133        77       14,635    22,340     8,155       14,780    23,227     7,312

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.







Table 3. State and selected claimant characteristics: Extended mass layoff events and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, 
private nonfarm sector, fourth quarter, 2007 and first quarter, 2008

                                                         Total                               Percent of total                       
                                                        initial                           Hispanic                    Persons age 55
                                   Layoff events       claimants           Black           origin          Women         and over   
              State                                                                                                                 
                                    IV      I         IV        I        IV     I       IV      I       IV      I       IV      I   
                                  2007r   2008p      2007r    2008p    2007r  2008p    2007r  2008p    2007r  2008p    2007r  2008p 
                                                                                                                                    
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .  1,814   1,111    346,030  165,933     12.4   14.3     16.4   18.1     29.5   34.7     16.7   17.9

Alabama ........................      9      11      1,867    1,730     59.4   51.3      2.5    5.2     46.7   46.8     20.4   16.2
Alaska .........................      8    (2)      1,373      (2)      3.4     3.8     14.2   15.4     25.9   25.0     17.0   21.2
Arizona ........................      7       3      1,079      287     11.6   15.0     30.7   31.0     40.6   35.2      9.6   11.1
Arkansas .......................      8       3      3,229      331     19.5   41.4      1.2    2.4     36.5   65.9     24.1   20.2
California .....................    435     402     79,551   52,822      7.1    8.6     38.0   39.3     34.7   34.7     13.8   14.0
Colorado .......................     18       9      2,308    1,324      2.3    7.2     41.9   17.5     12.3   34.2     18.4   16.9
Connecticut ....................      8       3      1,231      246     13.2    8.9      7.4    8.5     33.5   43.9     22.4   32.9
Delaware .......................      3     -          209      -       29.7     -       9.1     -      23.9     -      41.1     - 
District of Columbia ...........   (2)      -         (2)       -       50.0     -      18.0     -      51.6     -      13.9     - 
Florida ........................     61      15      7,122    1,329     13.9   12.9     25.2   24.5     40.4   31.9     21.6   22.0
Georgia ........................     15      19      6,450    3,149     28.7   29.2     11.2    9.3     42.3   47.3     16.0   17.6
Hawaii .........................      4       6        495      603      7.9    8.1     10.7   12.8     19.0   12.3     12.7   10.6
Idaho ..........................     14       6      2,041      683       .4     .3     18.2   14.6     23.2   23.7     15.6   16.5

Illinois .......................    178      98     27,605   13,287     14.4   24.8     21.6   15.9     21.5   37.3     13.0   15.4
Indiana ........................     54      23     17,360    7,658     10.1    9.1      4.5    4.3     24.3   27.4     15.8   20.4
Iowa ...........................     27       9      6,287    2,321      2.3    1.2      3.8    1.6     24.0   37.5     17.5   16.4
Kansas .........................      8       6      1,335      663     12.7   14.9      6.3    2.9     26.7   46.9     18.3   18.1
Kentucky .......................     18      16      2,179    1,660      2.2   13.3       -      .3     11.2   30.5     16.7   17.9
Louisiana ......................     12       7      1,296    2,252     62.7   42.7      1.9    3.2     26.5   27.0     15.3   25.9
Maine ..........................      8    (2)       1,388     (2)       3.2    3.1       .3     .3     35.1   52.9     20.0   21.8
Maryland .......................     25       6      3,285      853     34.9   19.6       .5    4.5     38.0   33.2     18.8   29.0
Massachusetts ..................     26      18      3,554    2,008      9.1   12.1       .7    1.4     31.1   43.3     21.6   16.7
Michigan .......................     95      56     32,411   14,190     22.6   19.5      6.0    2.7     24.4   27.7     17.4   22.5
Minnesota ......................     75      15     11,285    1,252      3.1    3.7      9.1    3.4     16.1   25.8     16.3   15.7
Mississippi ....................      5       7        747      558     67.1   54.3       .3    1.1     32.3   36.4     20.3   19.5
Missouri .......................     40      19      5,015    1,634      7.7   14.5       .4     .4     33.6   43.1     26.9   17.7

Montana ........................     10       3      1,379      280       .4     -       3.6    2.5      9.9   18.2     17.8   26.8
Nebraska .......................      6    (2)         580     (2)       2.1     .6      9.0   23.6      7.8    2.5     31.6   18.0
Nevada .........................     13       9      3,121    1,200      9.5    4.3     17.5   32.3     28.6   35.9     19.2   19.6
New Hampshire ..................      3    (2)         369     (2)       1.1     .7      1.6    3.7      5.7   41.5     29.0    9.6
New Jersey .....................     54      28      7,609    3,152     17.4   22.5      9.2   11.1     42.3   44.4     23.5   22.8
New Mexico .....................      3       5        428      660      1.4    2.7     79.7   37.4     50.5   26.8     29.7   36.8
New York .......................    106      47     19,864    6,329      9.6   10.8      8.6    7.9     24.0   28.6     19.3   17.5
North Carolina .................      6      13        992    1,795     39.9   61.6      3.9    4.2     40.5   52.0     25.6   24.7
North Dakota ...................      8     -        1,166      -         .5     -       3.9     -      13.2     -      18.2     - 
Ohio ...........................    116      64     22,436   13,598     13.3   17.0      2.8    3.1     24.1   30.4     14.5   18.2
Oklahoma .......................   (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)       3.5   17.4      5.3    3.1     29.8   56.7      5.3    8.7
Oregon .........................     24      10      6,795    3,009      1.2     .5     26.7   26.4     40.8   35.5     18.2   21.2
Pennsylvania ...................     78      61     21,399    9,125      7.1    6.9      4.2    5.0     36.9   34.2     19.6   23.3

Rhode Island ...................      6       3        726      218      2.8    1.4     12.5    7.8     31.4   34.9     16.0   40.4
South Carolina .................     13       7      1,942      728     69.8   43.3       .1     .1     58.9   47.7      8.4    3.7
South Dakota ...................   (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)        -     5.6     14.7   16.7     34.7   68.9     37.3   10.0
Tennessee ......................     28      16      6,770    1,462     33.9   21.5       .1     -      40.8   58.2     28.8   19.3
Texas ..........................     29      22      5,552    2,456     21.6   18.6     39.7   33.3     36.5   34.6     11.7   20.4
Utah ...........................     11       5      2,105      465      1.0    3.9     13.8   24.1      9.5   50.1     12.5    8.4
Vermont ........................      4    (2)         423     (2)        -     1.0       .5     -      27.4   31.6     22.9   20.7
Virginia .......................     21      14      2,656    2,819     42.0   26.0      5.0    1.3     52.5   44.4     19.5   23.1
Washington .....................     25       5      3,907      550      4.1    4.7     24.3    4.4     31.9   42.4     16.8   18.0
West Virginia ..................      8       4        921      551       .4     .2       -      -      11.7   44.6     14.9   18.3
Wisconsin ......................     76      26     13,802    5,321      4.1    4.1      8.2   11.6     16.8   35.6     15.4   20.6
Wyoming ........................   (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)       2.3      -       -     1.5     25.8   35.4     30.3   26.2

Puerto Rico ....................      9       8      2,088    1,741       -      .1     98.0   97.8     54.1   58.5     11.1    6.3

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.







Table 4. Census region and division: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment
insurance, private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                    Initial claimants for  
                                         Layoff events                    Separations               unemployment insurance 
   Census region and division                                                                                              
                                    I        IV         I           I         IV         I            I       IV        I  
                                  2007r     2007r     2008p        2007r     2007r     2008p        2007r    2007r    2008p
                                                                                                                           
        United States (1) .....   1,110     1,814     1,111      225,600   301,377   188,326      199,250  346,030  165,933

Northeast .....................     198       293       165       28,100    49,004    21,741       32,564   56,563   21,695

    New England ...............      39        55        29        7,381    11,348     4,264        4,964    7,691    3,089
    Middle Atlantic ...........     159       238       136       20,719    37,656    17,477       27,600   48,872   18,606

South .........................     196       263       162       37,709    45,153    29,554       37,962   45,396   22,063

    South Atlantic ............     109       153        78       18,113    24,182    13,454       20,970   23,699   11,224
    East South Central ........      51        60        50       10,752    12,757     8,202       10,221   11,563    5,410
    West South Central ........      36        50        34        8,844     8,214     7,898        6,771   10,134    5,429

Midwest .......................     314       684       319       55,894   114,726    71,890       65,252  139,357   60,175

    East North Central ........     256       519       267       46,550    88,794    63,758       56,418  113,614   54,054
    West North Central ........      58       165        52        9,344    25,932     8,132        8,834   25,743    6,121

West ..........................     402       574       465      103,897    92,494    65,141       63,472  104,714   62,000

    Mountain ..................      39        78        41        4,705    16,135     6,129        3,970   12,593    4,964
    Pacific ...................     363       496       424       99,192    76,359    59,012       59,502   92,121   57,036
                                                                                                                           

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are:  New England:  
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey,  New York, and
Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:  Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Virginia, and  West Virginia; East South Central:  Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central:
Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West
North Central:  Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain:  Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific:  Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. 







Table 5. State distribution: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, private
nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                        Initial claimants for   
                                           Layoff events                     Separations                unemployment insurance  
              State                                                                                                             
                                       I        IV         I            I        IV         I            I        IV         I  
                                     2007r     2007r     2008p        2007r     2007r     2008p        2007r     2007r     2008p
                                                                                                                                
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .     1,110     1,814     1,111      225,600   301,377   188,326      199,250   346,030   165,933

Alabama ........................         8         9        11        1,448     1,693     1,267        1,335     1,867     1,730
Alaska .........................       -           8      (2)           -       1,916      (2)           -       1,373      (2) 
Arizona ........................         4         7         3          538     1,364       253          382     1,079       287
Arkansas .......................         3         8         3          821     1,193       500          562     3,229       331
California .....................       321       435       402       92,008    64,718    55,469       53,242    79,551    52,822
Colorado .......................         7        18         9          567     3,588     2,098          573     2,308     1,324
Connecticut ....................         6         8         3        1,895     1,624       247        1,509     1,231       246
Delaware .......................       -           3       -            -         231       -            -       209         -  
District of Columbia ...........       -        (2)        -            -        (2)        -            -       (2)         -  
Florida ........................        38        61        15        6,989     9,110     1,506        6,384     7,122     1,329
Georgia ........................        14        15        19        2,115     2,813     2,112        2,743     6,450     3,149
Hawaii .........................         4         4         6          602       563       555          525       495       603
Idaho ..........................         9        14         6        1,073     2,218       610          799     2,041       683

Illinois .......................        94       178        98       15,633    30,467    17,771       15,171    27,605    13,287
Indiana ........................        27        54        23        3,429     8,797     7,485        4,859    17,360     7,658
Iowa ...........................         9        27         9        1,352     4,559     1,404        1,326     6,287     2,321
Kansas .........................         3         8         6          925     1,066       810        1,163     1,335       663
Kentucky .......................        12        18        16        1,224     2,716     1,812        1,187     2,179     1,660
Louisiana ......................         6        12         7          875     2,080     2,975          629     1,296     2,252
Maine ..........................         9         8      (2)         2,769     1,827      (2)           908     1,388      (2) 
Maryland .......................        12        25         6        1,071     3,115       986        1,105     3,285       853
Massachusetts ..................        19        26        18        2,025     6,181     2,486        2,024     3,554     2,008
Michigan .......................        58        95        56       14,826    16,433    14,149       21,743    32,411    14,190
Minnesota ......................        22        75        15        3,004    12,047     1,957        3,284    11,285     1,252
Mississippi ....................         9         5         7        2,234       782     1,834        1,695       747       558
Missouri .......................        19        40        19        3,569     6,019     3,371        2,602     5,015     1,634

Montana ........................      (2)         10         3         (2)      1,385       280         (2)      1,379       280
Nebraska .......................       -           6      (2)           -         859      (2)           -         580      (2) 
Nevada .........................         9        13         9        1,412     2,780     1,020        1,390     3,121     1,200
New Hampshire ..................      (2)          3      (2)          (2)        415      (2)          (2)        369      (2) 
New Jersey .....................        37        54        28        6,205     9,257     5,344        5,630     7,609     3,152
New Mexico .....................         3         3         5          219       434       518          224       428       660
New York .......................        53       106        47        6,615    17,570     6,377        6,592    19,864     6,329
North Carolina .................        20         6        13        2,629       553     2,101        5,140       992     1,795
North Dakota ...................         3         8       -            319     1,166       -            319     1,166       -  
Ohio ...........................        55       116        64        7,940    20,000    19,420        9,673    22,436    13,598
Oklahoma .......................         7      (2)       (2)         3,129      (2)       (2)         1,899      (2)       (2) 
Oregon .........................        16        24        10        3,035     6,535     1,752        2,901     6,795     3,009
Pennsylvania ...................        69        78        61        7,899    10,829     5,756       15,378    21,399     9,125

Rhode Island ...................      (2)          6         3         (2)        779       243         (2)        726       218
South Carolina .................         5        13         7          565     2,001       910          528     1,942       728
South Dakota ...................      (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2) 
Tennessee ......................        22        28        16        5,846     7,566     3,289        6,004     6,770     1,462
Texas ..........................        20        29        22        4,019     4,840     3,949        3,681     5,552     2,456
Utah ...........................         5        11         5          724     2,004     1,150          486     2,105       465
Vermont ........................      (2)          4      (2)          (2)       522       (2)          (2)       423       (2) 
Virginia .......................        17        21        14        4,494     5,250     5,136        4,846     2,656     2,819
Washington .....................        22        25         5        3,547     2,627       536        2,834     3,907       550
West Virginia ..................         3         8         4          250       987       703          224       921       551
Wisconsin ......................        22        76        26        4,722    13,097     4,933        4,972    13,802     5,321
Wyoming ........................      (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2) 

Puerto Rico ....................        12         9         8          902       755       493        3,022     2,088     1,741

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero. 







Table 6. Information technology-producing industries: Extended mass layoff events and separations, private nonfarm sector, 2001-2008

                                                                Information technology-producing industries (1)                     
                        Total extended                                                                                              
        Year             mass layoffs                                                                                               
                                                 Computer              Software and          Communications        Communications   
                                               hardware (2)        computer services (3)      equipment (4)         services (5)    

                     Layoff                 Layoff                 Layoff                  Layoff                Layoff             
                     events   Separations   events    Separations  events     Separations  events   Separations  events   Separations
        2001                                                                                                                        

First quarter ....    1,546      304,171       91       20,991        32         5,558       22        4,441       13        3,317
Second quarter ...    1,828      430,499      161       38,986        69         9,563       36       12,109       15        3,519
Third quarter ....    1,629      330,391      142       24,813        45         5,724       39        8,200       21        5,350
Fourth quarter ...    2,372      459,771      109       17,797        50         7,667       43       10,124       38        9,889

    Total ........    7,375    1,524,832      503      102,587       196        28,512      140       34,874       87       22,075

        2002                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,611      299,266       84       18,574        34         3,770       32        8,192       28        4,346
Second quarter ...    1,624      344,606       69       11,764        39         4,326       27        4,870       34        5,643
Third quarter ....    1,186      255,152       76       15,017        36         4,359       34        6,529       33        5,496
Fourth quarter ...    1,916      373,307       74       14,298        26         5,709       19        3,645       31        7,643

    Total ........    6,337    1,272,331      303       59,653       135        18,164      112       23,236      126       23,128

        2003                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,502      286,947       71       11,900        27         5,097       23        4,402       26        4,513
Second quarter ...    1,799      368,273       54        9,221        19         2,741       21        3,098       22        4,169
Third quarter ....    1,190      236,333       46        6,488        24         4,189        9        1,289        8          842
Fourth quarter ...    1,690      325,333       25        5,080         8         1,167        9        1,619       23        5,774

    Total ........    6,181    1,216,886      196       32,689        78        13,194       62       10,408       79       15,298

        2004                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,339      276,503       27        3,222        13         2,786        8          894       14        2,832
Second quarter ...    1,358      278,831       18        2,959        15         2,775        -            -       15        3,250
Third quarter ....      886      164,608       13        2,288        14         1,467        4          430       11        3,792
Fourth quarter ...    1,427      273,967       18        3,055        10         1,547        4          563       20        3,143

    Total ........    5,010      993,909       76       11,524        52         8,575       16        1,887       60       13,017

        2005                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,142      186,506       13        1,526         9         2,355        4          439       12        2,400
Second quarter ...    1,203      246,099       20        2,973        13         1,558        4          842        7        1,331
Third quarter ....    1,136      201,878       23        3,307         7         1,034      (6)          (6)        3          304
Fourth quarter ...    1,400      250,178       19        4,122         3           720      (6)          (6)        5          845

    Total ........    4,881      884,661       75       11,928        32         5,667       13        3,000       27        4,880

        2006                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....      963      183,089       12        1,159         6           744      (6)          (6)      (6)          (6)
Second quarter ...    1,353      295,964       10        3,294         7         1,564        8          988      (6)          (6)
Third quarter ....      929      160,254       14        3,544         6           487      (6)          (6)        8        1,222
Fourth quarter ...    1,640      296,662       12        4,039         4           708        5        1,482        8          947

    Total ........    4,885      935,969       48       12,036        23         3,503       19        3,753       23        3,406

        2007                                                                                                                      

First quarter(r) .    1,110      225,600       19        3,007         5           875        3          415        5          885
Second quarter ...    1,421      278,719       22        3,634         4           413        5          433        3          315
Third quarter(r) .    1,019      160,830       22        5,279         6         1,030        4          403        3          276
Fourth quarter(r)     1,814      301,377        9        1,459         4           473        3          381        7          870

    Total(r) .....    5,364      966,526       72       13,379        19         2,791       15        1,632       18        2,346

        2008                                                                                                                      

First quarter(p) .    1,111      188,326       18        2,921         5           543      (6)          (6)      (6)          (6)

   1 Information technology-producing industries are defined in Digital Economy 2003, (U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics
and Statistics Administration, 2003).  In the MLS program, however, computer and software merchant wholesalers and computer and
software stores are only included in the computer hardware industry.  Beginning with first quarter 2008 data, the MLS program
switched to the 2007 NAICS.  The industry groups defined by the Digital Economy 2003 are based on 2002 NAICS.  Due to these
differences, historical data were subject to revision.
   2 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
semiconductor machinery manufacturing; office machinery manufacturing; electronic computer manufacturing; computer storage device
manufacturing; computer terminal manufacturing; other computer peripheral equipment mfg.; electron tube manufacturing; bare
printed circuit board manufacturing; semiconductors and related device mfg.; electronic capacitor manufacturing; electronic
resistor manufacturing; electronic coils, transformers, and inductors; electronic connector manufacturing; printed circuit
assembly manufacturing; other electronic component manufacturing; industrial process variable instruments; electricity and signal
testing instruments; analytical laboratory instrument mfg.; computer and software merchant wholesalers; and computer and software
stores.
   3 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
software publishers; internet service providers; web search portals; data processing and related services; computer and software
merchant wholesalers; computer and software stores; custom computer programming  services; computer systems design services;
computer facilities management services; other computer related services; office equipment rental and leasing; and computer and
office machine repair.
   4 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
telephone apparatus manufacturing; audio and video equipment manufacturing; broadcast and wireless communications equip.; fiber
optic cable manufacturing; software reproducing; and magnetic and optical recording media mfg.
   5 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
wired telecommunications carriers; cellular and other wireless carriers; telecommunications resellers; cable and other program
distribution; satellite telecommunications; other telecommunications; and communication equipment repair.
   6 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.







Table 7. Industry distribution: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work, selected
quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                               Layoff events                            Separations           
                     Industry                                                                                                 
                                                        I          IV            I             I            IV             I  
                                                      2007        2007r        2008p          2007         2007r         2008p
                                                                                                                              
      Total, private nonfarm (1) ................       70           69           47        11,438        11,302         8,856

    Mining ......................................      (2)           -            -           (2)            -             -  
    Utilities ...................................       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Construction ................................       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Manufacturing ...............................       50           48           28         8,147         7,980         4,735
         Food ...................................        4            5           -            374         1,232           -  
         Beverage and tobacco products ..........      (2)           -           (2)          (2)            -            (2) 
         Textile mills ..........................       -           (2)          (2)           -            (2)           (2) 
         Textile product mills (3) ..............      (2)          (2)           -           (2)           (2)            -  
         Apparel (3) ............................       8            -           (2)         1,023           -            (2) 
         Leather and allied products ............      (2)           -           (2)          (2)            -            (2) 
         Wood products ..........................      (2)           -            3           (2)            -             390
         Paper ..................................        3          (2)          (2)           405          (2)           (2) 
         Printing and related support activities         5            3          (2)           913           411          (2) 
         Petroleum and coal products ............        -           -            -            -             -             -  

         Chemicals ..............................        3          (2)          (2)           998          (2)           (2) 
         Plastics and rubber products (3) .......      (2)            3          (2)          (2)           382           (2) 
         Nonmetallic mineral products ...........      (2)          (2)           -           (2)           (2)            -
         Primary metals .........................      (2)            3          (2)          (2)           390           (2) 
         Fabricated metal products ..............      (2)            5          (2)          (2)           879           (2) 
         Machinery (3) ..........................      (2)          (2)           -           (2)           (2)            -  
         Computer and electronic products .......        3            3            5           916          620          1,195
         Electrical equipment and appliances ....      (2)            6          (2)          (2)         1,360           (2) 
         Transportation equipment (3) ...........        5           10            6           775        1,438            958
         Furniture and related products (3) .....      (2)          (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)            (2)
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) ........        3            -            -           524           -              - 

    Wholesale trade .............................      (2)          (2)            3           (2)           (2)           244
    Retail trade ................................      (2)            3          (2)           (2)           334           (2)
    Transportation and warehousing ..............        3          (2)            3           538           (2)           284
    Information .................................      (2)            3          (2)           (2)           252           (2)
    Finance and insurance (3) ...................        6            5            6         1,230           861         1,312
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) ......        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Professional and technical services (3) .....        -            4          (2)             -           647           (2)
    Management of companies and enterprises .....      (2)          (2)            -           (2)           (2)             -
    Administrative and waste services (3) .......        3          (2)          (2)           495           (2)           (2)
    Educational services ........................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Health care and social assistance ...........        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation .........        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Accommodation and food services .............        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Other services, except public administration       (2)          (2)            -           (2)           (2)             -

    Unclassified ................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
                                                                                                                              

    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
    3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE: Dash represents zero.


Table 8. Reason for layoff: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work, selected
quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                               Layoff events                                  Separations              


         Reason for layoff              I          IV           I                 I               IV                I  
                                      2007r       2007r       2008p             2007r            2007r            2008p

   Total, private nonfarm (1) .....       70          69          47            11,438           11,302            8,856

Business demand ...................       13          17         (2)             1,684            2,492             (2) 
  Contract cancellation ...........      (2)         (2)          -               (2)              (2)               -  
  Contract completion .............       -          (2)          -                -               (2)               -  
  Domestic competition ............      (2)          -           -               (2)               -                -  
  Excess inventory/saturated
   market .........................      (2)          -           -               (2)               -                -  
  Import competition ..............      (2)           7         (2)              (2)            1,167              (2) 
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
   non-seasonal business slowdown .      (2)           7         (2)              (2)              950              (2) 

Organizational changes ............       39          30          15             6,766            5,110            2,958
  Business-ownership change .......        7           5           5             2,091            1,326            1,495
  Reorganization or restructuring
   of company .....................       32          25          10             4,675            3,784            1,463

Financial issues ..................       14          21          16             2,425            3,600            3,054
  Bankruptcy ......................      (2)          -           -               (2)               -                -  
  Cost control/cost cutting/
   increase profitability .........      (2)         (2)           9              (2)              (2)             1,056
  Financial difficulty ............      (2)         (2)           7              (2)              (2)             1,998

Production specific ...............      (2)          -          (2)              (2)               -               (2) 
  Automation/technological 
   advances .......................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Energy related ..................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Governmental regulations/
   intervention ...................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Labor dispute/contract
   negotiations/strike ............       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Material or supply shortage .....       -           -          (2)               -                -               (2) 
  Model changeover ................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Plant or machine repair/
   maintenance ....................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Product line discontinued .......      (2)          -           -               (2)               -                -  

Disaster/safety ...................       -           -          (2)               -                -               (2) 
  Hazardous work environment ......       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Natural disaster (not weather
   related) .......................       -           -          (2)               -                -               (2) 
  Non-natural disaster ............       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Extreme weather-related event ...       -           -           -                -                -                -  

Other/miscellaneous ...............      (2)         (2)         (2)              (2)              (2)              (2) 
  Other ...........................      (2)         (2)         (2)              (2)              (2)              (2) 
  Data not provided: refusal ......       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Data not provided: does not
   know ...........................       -           -           -                -                -                -  

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.







Table 9. Census region and division: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the
movement of work, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                       Layoff events                            Separations             
 Census region and division                                                                             
                                 I         IV           I              I             IV              I  
                               2007       2007r       2008p          2007           2007r          2008p
                                                                                                        
        United States (1) .     70           69          47         11,438         11,302          8,856

Northeast .................     17           11           4          2,834          1,726          1,176
 
    New England ...........    (2)            3         (2)           (2)             562           (2) 
    Middle Atlantic .......    (2)            8         (2)           (2)           1,164           (2) 

South .....................     26           16          18          3,466          2,105          2,753

    South Atlantic ........     15            8           8          1,827            903            947
    East South Central ....    (2)            5           7           (2)             512          1,140
    West South Central ....    (2)            3           3           (2)             690            666

Midwest ...................     16           30          12          2,781          5,847          2,700

    East North Central ....     13           23         (2)          2,416          4,190           (2) 
    West North Central ....      3            7         (2)            365          1,657           (2) 

West ......................     11           12          13          2,357          1,624          2,227

    Mountain ..............      5          (2)         (2)            844           (2)            (2) 
    Pacific ...............      6          (2)         (2)          1,513           (2)            (2) 
                                                                                                        

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are:  New
England:  Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic:
New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:  Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South  Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central:
Alabama,  Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas: East North Central: Illinois, Indiana,  Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central:  Iowa,
Kansas,  Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain:  Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific:  Alaska, California, Hawaii,
Oregon, and Washington. 







Table 10. Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected measures, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                  Layoff events                               Separations               
                Action                                                                                                  
                                               I          IV            I              I               IV            I  
                                             2007        2007r        2008p           2007            2007r        2008p
                                                                                                                        
Total, private nonfarm (1) .............    1,110        1,814        1,111         225,600         301,377      188,326

    Total, excluding seasonal                                                                                           
     and vacation events (2)............      849        1,062          885         186,345         171,644      149,786
                                                                                                                        
        Total, movement of work (3) ....       70           69           47          11,438          11,302        8,856
                                                                                                                        
          Movement of work actions .....       86           90           59            (4)             (4)          (4) 
            With separations reported ..       61           66           36           8,467           7,152        5,297
             With separations unknown ..       25           24           23            (4)             (4)          (4) 

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when the reason for layoff was either seasonal work
or vacation period.
   3 Movement of work can involve more than one action.
   4 Data are not available.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.







Table 11. Movement of work actions by type of separation where number of separations is known by
employers, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                              Actions (1)                        Separations         
           Activities                                                                                
                                       I        IV          I              I          IV          I  
                                     2007      2007r      2008p           2007       2007r      2008p
                                                                                                     
With separations reported (2) .        61         66         36           8,467      7,152      5,297

           By location                                                                               

  Out-of-country relocations ..        14         27         13           2,135      2,997      1,181
      Within company ..........        13         26         10           2,086      2,910        882
      Different company .......         1          1          3              49         87        299

  Domestic relocations ........        46         39         23           6,261      4,155      4,116
      Within company ..........        41         38         21           5,221      3,975      3,201
      Different company .......         5          1          2           1,040        180        915

  Unable to assign place of                                                                          
   relocation .................         1         -          -              71         -          -  

           By company                                                                                

  Within company ..............        55         64         31           7,378      6,885      4,083
      Domestic ................        41         38         21           5,221      3,975      3,201
      Out of country ..........        13         26         10           2,086      2,910        882
      Unable to assign ........         1         -          -               71        -          -  

  Different company ...........         6          2          5           1,089        267      1,214
      Domestic ................         5          1          2           1,040        180        915
      Out of country ..........         1          1          3              49         87        299
      Unable to assign ........        -          -          -              -          -          -  
                                                                                                     

   1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement of work were reported are
shown.
   2 See footnote 1, table 1 
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   Note: Dash represents zero.






Last Modified Date: May 16, 2008
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