Economic News Release

Extended Mass Layoffs (Quarterly) News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6392    USDL 08-1146
               http://www.bls.gov/mls/
                                          For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    Friday, August 15, 2008
                                   
                                   
          EXTENDED MASS LAYOFFS IN THE SECOND QUARTER OF 2008

                                   
   In the second quarter of 2008, employers initiated 1,534 mass
layoff events that resulted in the separation of 299,886 workers from
their jobs for at least 31 days, according to preliminary figures
released by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Both layoff events and separations reached their highest levels for
the second quarter since 2003.  The total number of layoff events was
113 higher in the second quarter of 2008 than the same period a year
earlier, and the number of associated separations increased by 21,167.
(See table A.)  Second quarter 2008 layoff data are preliminary and
are subject to revision.  (See the Technical Note.)
   
   Mass layoff activity in professional and technical services and in
finance and insurance reached second quarter program highs in 2008.
Layoffs in professional and technical services were due largely to
seasonal job cuts in tax preparation services.  Finance and insurance
layoffs continued to be concentrated in credit intermediation and
related activities, largely in the real estate credit industry.
   
   Among the 7 categories of economic reasons for layoff, seasonal
reasons accounted for the highest share of events (38 percent) and
number of separations (141,562) in April-June 2008.  (See table B.)
These seasonal layoffs were due, in part, to the end of the school
year.  The largest over-the-year increases in the number of separations 
occurred in layoff events attributed to business demand factors (+18,868) 
and organizational changes (+18,356).  Within these 2 categories, layoffs 
because of slack work more than doubled over the year to 40,300 separa-
tions, and changes in business ownership more than quadrupled to 16,852.
   
   Permanent closure of worksites occurred in 10 percent of all
extended mass layoff events and affected 33,695 workers during the
second quarter of 2008.  Fifty-three percent of employers reporting a
layoff indicated they anticipate some type of recall, down from 57
percent a year earlier and the lowest second quarter proportion since
2003.
   
   The national unemployment rate averaged 5.2 percent, not seasonally
adjusted, in the second quarter of 2008, up from 4.4 percent a year
earlier.  Private nonfarm payroll employment, not seasonally adjusted,
decreased by 0.1 percent (-124,000) over the year.



                                  - 2 -

Table A.  Selected measures of extended mass layoff activity           
                                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      |               |             |                  
       Period         | Layoff events | Separations | Initial claimants
                      |               |             |                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                      |               |             |                  
       2004           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|     1,339     |    276,503  |       238,392    
April-June ...........|     1,358     |    278,831  |       254,063    
July-September .......|       886     |    164,608  |       148,575    
October-December .....|     1,427     |    273,967  |       262,049    
                      |               |             |                  
       2005           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|     1,142     |    186,506  |       185,486    
April-June ...........|     1,203     |    246,099  |       212,673    
July-September........|     1,136     |    201,878  |       190,186    
October-December .....|     1,400     |    250,178  |       246,188    
                      |               |             |                  
       2006           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|       963     |    183,089  |       193,510    
April-June ... .......|     1,353     |    295,964  |       264,927    
July-September .......|       929     |    160,254  |       161,764    
October-December (r)..|     1,640     |    296,662  |       330,954    
                      |               |             |                  
       2007           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March ........|     1,110     |    225,600  |       199,250    
April-June (r) .......|     1,421     |    278,719  |       259,234    
July-September (r)....|     1,018     |    160,024  |       173,077    
October-December (r) .|     1,814     |    301,592  |       347,146    
                      |               |             |                  
       2008           |               |             |                  
                      |               |             |                  
January-March (r) ....|     1,340     |    229,870  |       256,697    
April-June (p) .......|     1,534     |    299,886  |       215,808    
                      |               |             |                  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.



 Industry Distribution of Extended Layoffs
   
   Manufacturing industries accounted for 22 percent of private
nonfarm extended layoff events and 19 percent of related separations
in the second quarter of 2008; a year earlier, manufacturing made up
20 percent of events and 17 percent of separations.  (See table 1.)
Manufacturing had 334 extended layoff events in the second quarter 
of 2008, the highest second quarter total since 2003, and 56,212
separations.  The largest numbers of separations were in transporta-
tion equipment manufacturing (16,073, mostly associated with heavy 
duty truck manufacturing) and food manufacturing (10,569).
   
   Professional and technical services accounted for 5 percent of
events and 12 percent of separations in the second quarter of 2008,
the highest proportion of separations recorded in the program.  These
job cuts were due largely to seasonal layoffs in the tax preparation
industry.  Layoffs in transportation and warehousing accounted for 10
percent of all events and 12 percent of separations and were concen-
trated in school and employee bus transportation.



                                 - 3 -

Table B.  Distribution of extended layoff events and separations
by economic reason categories, April-June 2008p
----------------------------------------------------------------
                        |   Layoff events  |    Separations     
        Category        |---------------------------------------
                        | Number | Percent |  Number |  Percent 
------------------------|---------------------------------------
                        |        |         |         |          
  Total ................| 1,534  |  100.0  | 299,886 |   100.0  
                        |        |         |         |          
Business demand.........|   528  |   34.4  |  70,967 |    23.7  
Organizational changes .|   107  |    7.0  |  33,828 |    11.3  
Financial issues .......|   104  |    6.8  |  24,853 |     8.3  
Production specific ....|   (1)  |    (1)  |    (1)  |     (1)  
Disaster/safety ........|   (1)  |    (1)  |    (1)  |     (1)  
Seasonal ...............|   582  |   37.9  | 141,562 |    47.2  
Other/miscellaneous ....|   195  |   12.7  |  26,211 |     8.7  
                        |        |         |         |          
----------------------------------------------------------------
   1 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   p = preliminary.



Reasons for Extended Layoffs
   
   Among the seven categories of economic reasons for extended mass
layoffs, events related to seasonal factors (seasonal and vacation
period) accounted for 38 percent of the extended layoffs and 47 per-
cent of separations during the second quarter of 2008.  (See table 2.)  
The numbers of workers terminated because of seasonal reasons were 
highest in tax preparation, school and employee bus transportation, 
skiing facilities, food service contractors, and child daycare serv-
ices.
   
   Job losses related to business demand (contract cancellation,
contract completion, domestic competition, excess inventory, import
competition, and slack work) accounted for 34 percent of the extended
layoff events and resulted in 70,967 separations.  Separations asso-
ciated with business demand reasons registered the largest over-
the-year increase (+18,868), as those related to slack work/insuffi-
cient demand/nonseasonal business slowdown more than doubled.
   
   Organizational changes (business-ownership change and reorganiza-
tion or restructuring of company) accounted for 7 percent of events 
and resulted in 33,828 separations during the second quarter of 2008, 
more than double the number of separations due to organizational change 
for the second quarter of 2007.  This increase was due largely to busi-
ness-ownership changes in the real estate credit industry.



                                  - 4 -

Table C.  Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected
measures, second quarter 2008p
                                                                       
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   |                 |                 
             Action                |  Layoff events  |    Separations  
                                   |                 |                 
-----------------------------------|-----------------|-----------------
                                   |                 |                 
Total, private nonfarm ............|      1,534      |       299,886   
                                   |                 |                 
   Total, excluding seasonal       |                 |                 
     and vacation events (1) ......|        952      |       158,324   
                                   |                 |                 
     Total events with movement    |                 |                 
       of work (2) ................|         60      |        10,957   
                                   |                 |                 
       Movement of work actions ...|         84      |           (3)   
         With separations reported.|         62      |         6,516   
         With separations unknown .|         22      |           (3)   
                                   |                 |                 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when
the reason for layoff was either seasonal work or vacation period.
   2 A layoff event can involve more than one movement of work action.
   3 Data are not available.
   p = preliminary.



Movement of Work
   
   In the second quarter of 2008, 60 extended mass layoffs involved
the movement of work and were associated with 10,957 separated work-
ers.  (See table C.)  These movements of work were to other domestic 
locations or to locations outside of the U.S., and they occurred 
either within the same company or to other companies.  Movement of 
work layoffs accounted for 6 percent of nonseasonal layoff events in 
the second quarter of 2008.  A year earlier, there were 65 layoff 
events and 11,352 separations associated with the movement of work.  
(See table 10.)
   
   Among the 60 extended mass layoff events with reported relocation
of work in the second quarter of 2008, 63 percent were permanent
closures of worksites, which affected 6,864 workers.  In comparison,
10 percent of the total extended mass layoff events reported for the
quarter involved the permanent closure of worksites affecting 33,695
workers.
   
   Of the layoffs involving the movement of work, 67 percent of the
events and 60 percent of the laid-off workers were from manufacturing
industries during the second quarter.  (See table 7.)  Among all pri-
vate nonfarm extended layoffs, manufacturing accounted for 22 percent 
of the events and 19 percent of separations.
   
   While only 7 percent of the extended mass layoff events in the
total private nonfarm economy were because of organizational change,
such reasons accounted for 53 percent of layoff events associated with
work relocation and resulted in 4,798 separations during the second
quarter.  (See table 8.)



                                  - 5 -

Table D.  Movement of work actions by type of separation where the
number of separations is known by employers, second quarter 2008p

--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   |               |                
              Activities           |  Actions (1)  |   Separations  
                                   |               |                
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                   |               |                
   With separations reported ......|       62      |        6,516   
                                   |               |                
            By location            |               |                
                                   |               |                
      Out-of-country relocations ..|       19      |        2,761   
        Within company ............|       17      |        2,537   
        Different company .........|        2      |          224   
                                   |               |                
      Domestic relocations ........|       42      |        3,480   
        Within company ............|       40      |        3,338   
        Different company .........|        2      |          142   
                                   |               |                
      Unable to assign place of    |               |                
       relocation ................ |        1      |          275   
                                   |               |                
             By company            |               |                
                                   |               |                
      Within company ..............|       57      |        5,875   
        Domestic ..................|       40      |        3,338   
        Out of country ............|       17      |        2,537   
                                   |               |                
      Different company ...........|        5      |          641   
        Domestic ..................|        2      |          142   
        Out of country ............|        2      |          224   
        Unable to assign ..........|        1      |          275   
--------------------------------------------------------------------

   1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement
of work were reported are shown.
   p = preliminary.



   Among the regions, the South (30 percent) and the West (29 percent)
accounted for the largest proportions of workers affected by extended
mass layoffs associated with the movement of work, followed by the
Midwest (26 percent) and the Northeast (14 percent).  (See table 9.)
   
   Some extended mass layoff events involve more than one relocation
of work action.  For example, an extended mass layoff event at an
employer may involve job loss due to movement of work to both another
domestic location of the company and a location out of the country.
This would be counted as two movement of work actions.  The 60 ex-
tended layoff events with movement of work for the second quarter of
2008 involved 84 identifiable relocations of work.  (See table C.)  
An identifiable relocation of work occurs when the employer provides 
sufficient information on the new location of work and/or the number 
of workers affected by the movement.  Of the 84 relocations, employers 
were able to provide information on the specific number of separations 
associated with the movement of work component of the layoff in 62 
actions involving 6,516 workers.  (See table 10.)



                                  - 6 -

Table E.  Summary of employer expectations of a recall from extended
layoff, second quarter 2007-second quarter 2008
                                                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              |                                         
                              |            Percentage of events         
      Nature of the recall    |_________________________________________
                              |       |       |       |        |        
                              |   II  |  III  |   IV  |   I    |  II    
                              |  2007 |  2007 |  2007 | 2008(r)| 2008(p)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              |       |       |       |        |        
   Anticipate a recall .......|  57.1 |  37.9 |  55.8 |   40.1 |   52.6 
                              |       |       |       |        |        
        Timeframe             |       |       |       |        |        
                              |       |       |       |        |        
   Within 6 months ...........|  87.5 |  83.9 |  87.9 |   69.8 |   83.6 
     Within 3 months .........|  59.7 |  62.7 |  34.2 |   45.4 |   56.9 
                              |       |       |       |        |        
          Size                |       |       |       |        |        
                              |       |       |       |        |        
   At least half .............|  93.3 |  86.0 |  90.5 |   73.2 |   87.7 
     All workers .............|  57.2 |  45.6 |  50.5 |   28.5 |   50.8 
                              |       |       |       |        |        
------------------------------------------------------------------------

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.



   In the 62 actions where employers were able to provide more com-
plete separations information, 92 percent of relocations (57 out of
62) occurred within the same company.  (See table D.)  Sixty-eight
percent of relocations (42 out of 62) were identified as domestic
reassignments, while 31 percent (19 out of 62) involved out-of-country
moves.  Domestic relocation of work--both within the company and to
other companies--affected 3,480 workers.  Out-of-country relocations
were associated with the separation of 2,761 workers, 2 percent of all
nonseasonal and nonvacation extended mass layoff separations.  (See
table 11.)

Recall Expectations
   
   Fifty-three percent of employers reporting an extended layoff in
the second quarter of 2008 indicated they anticipated some type of
recall, down from 57 percent a year earlier and the lowest second
quarter proportion since 2003.  (See table E.)  Of those employers
expecting to recall workers, 51 percent indicated that the offer 
would be extended to all displaced employees, the lowest second 
quarter proportion since 2003, and 88 percent of employers antici-
pated extending the offer to at least half of the workers.  Eighty-
four percent of employers expecting to recall laid-off employees 
intend to do so within 6 months.
   


                                  - 7 -

Table F.  Distribution of extended layoff events by size of layoff,
second quarter 2008p
                                                                   
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                           |                    |                  
                           |   Layoff events    |    Separations   
            Size           |---------------------------------------
                           |         |          |         |        
                           |  Number |  Percent |  Number | Percent
-------------------------------------------------------------------
                           |         |          |         |        
   Total ..................|  1,534  |   100.0  | 299,886 |  100.0 
                           |         |          |         |        
50-99 .....................|    716  |    46.7  |  49,735 |   16.6 
100-149 ...................|    319  |    20.8  |  37,286 |   12.4 
150-199 ...................|    150  |     9.8  |  25,197 |    8.4 
200-299 ...................|    163  |    10.6  |  37,946 |   12.7 
300-499 ...................|     94  |     6.1  |  34,664 |   11.6 
500-999 ...................|     64  |     4.2  |  43,413 |   14.5 
1,000 or more .............|     28  |     1.8  |  71,645 |   23.9 
-------------------------------------------------------------------

   p = preliminary.



   Excluding layoff events due to seasonal work and vacation period
(in which 97 percent of the employers expected a recall), employers
anticipated recalling laid-off workers in 25 percent of the events,
about the same as a year earlier (24 percent).
   
Size of Extended Layoffs
   
   The average size of a layoff (as measured by separations per lay-
off event) in the second quarter of 2008 was 195, compared to 196 per
layoff in second quarter 2007.  Layoff events continued to be concen-
trated at the lower end of the extended layoff-size spectrum, with 47 
percent of events involving between 50 and 99 workers and 67 percent 
of events with less than 150 workers.
   
   Layoffs involving less than 150 workers accounted for 29 percent of
all separations during the period, the same percentage recorded a year
earlier.  Separations involving 500 or more workers, while comprising 
only 6 percent of the events, accounted for 38 percent of all separa-
tions in the second quarter of 2008, up from 36 percent a year earlier.  
(See table F.)
   
Initial Claimant Characteristics
   
   A total of 215,808 initial claimants for unemployment insurance
were associated with extended mass layoffs in the second quarter of
2008.  Of these claimants, 16 percent were black, 17 percent were
Hispanic, 52 percent were women, 33 percent were 30 to 44 years of
age, and 23 percent were 55 years of age or older.  (See table 3.)
Among persons in the civilian labor force for the same period, 12
percent were black, 14 percent were Hispanic, 46 percent were women,
33 percent were 30 to 44 years of age, and 18 percent were 55 years 
of age or older.

                                  - 8 -

Table G.  Mass layoff events and separations, selected metropolitan areas
                                                                                
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            |                 |                 
                                            |     Events      |   Separations   
            Metropolitan area               |-----------------|-----------------
                                            |        |        |        |        
                                            |   II   |   II   |   II   |   II   
                                            | 2007(r)| 2008(p)| 2007(r)| 2008(p)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            |        |        |        |        
Total, nonmetropolitan areas ...............|   195  |   179  | 32,057 | 29,857 
                                            |        |        |        |        
Total, 369 metropolitan areas ..............|   718  |   715  |107,310 |109,698 
                                            |        |        |        |        
 Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis. .|    31  |    41  |  6,199 |  8,603 
 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif. ..|    91  |    75  | 13,719 |  8,027 
 Detriot-Warren-Livonia, Mich. .............|    17  |    35  |  3,458 |  6,459 
 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long          |        |        |        |        
  Island, N.Y.-N.J.-Pa. ....................|    45  |    20  |  6,394 |  4,139 
 San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, Calif. .....|    19  |    28  |  1,518 |  3,678 
 Salt Lake City, Utah ......................|     4  |     6  |    541 |  3,245 
 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, Calif. ..|    20  |    25  |  2,922 |  3,065 
 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, Pa.-N.J.-  |        |        |        |        
  Del.-Md. .................................|    22  |    18  |  2,587 |  3,030 
 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, Fla. .|    12  |    22  |  2,378 |  3,022 
 Cincinnati-Middletown, Ohio-Ky.-Ind. ......|     3  |     7  |  1,000 |  2,509 
                                            |        |        |        |        
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The geographic boundaries of the metropolitan areas shown in
this table are defined in Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 08-01,
November 20, 2007.



Geographic Distribution
   
   Among the 4 census regions, the West recorded the highest number of
separations (119,388) due to extended mass layoff events in the second
quarter of 2008, followed by the Midwest (86,410).  (See table 4.)
Separations in the West, which reached a program high this quarter,
occurred largely in amusements, gambling, and recreation and in credit
intermediation and related activities.  The West accounted for 40 per-
cent of all separations, up from 34 percent in the same period last
year.
   
   Among the 9 census divisions, the highest number of separations
during the second quarter of 2008 was in the Pacific (92,614).  The
East North Central division had the next-highest level of separations
(72,140).  (See table 4.)
   
   California recorded the largest number of worker separations
(77,751), followed by Illinois (26,475), Ohio (19,683), and Florida
(17,216).  (See table 5.)  After excluding the substantial impact of
seasonal reasons, California still reported the highest number of job
cuts (59,685), the highest second quarter level since 2003.
   
   California accounted for 26 percent of all separations in the
second quarter of 2008, up from 21 percent in 2007.  Illinois ac-
counted for 9 percent of the separations in the second quarter of
2008, about the same as last year (8 percent).
   
   Forty-seven percent of events and 37 percent of separations
(109,698) occurred in metropolitan areas in the second quarter of
2008, compared with 51 percent of events and 39 percent of separa-
tions (107,310) during the second quarter of 2007.  Among the 369
metropolitan areas, Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis.,
reported the highest number of separations (8,603) in the second
quarter of 2008.  Next were Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif.,
with 8,027 separations and Detroit-Warren-Livonia, Mich., with 6,459
separations.  (See table G.)  Employers located in nonmetropolitan
areas separated 29,857 workers in extended mass layoffs.
   
Note
   
   The quarterly series on extended mass layoffs cover layoffs of 
at least 31-days duration that involve 50 or more individuals from 
a single employer filing initial claims for unemployment insurance
during a consecutive 5-week period.  Approximately 30 days after a
mass layoff is triggered, the employer is contacted for additional
information.  Data for the second quarter are preliminary and sub-
ject to revision.  This release also includes revised data for pre-
vious quarters.  Data are not seasonally adjusted, but survey data 
suggest that there is a seasonal pattern to layoffs.  Thus, compari-
sons between consecutive quarters should not be used as an indicator 
of trend.
   
   For additional information about the program, see the Technical
Note.
                                   
                    ______________________________
                                   
                                   
   The report on Mass Layoffs in July 2008 is scheduled to be released
on Friday, August 22.







                                  - 9 -



Technical Note

   The  Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS) program is a federal-state program 
which identifies, describes, and tracks the effects of major job cutbacks,
using data from each state's unemployment insurance database.  Employers
which have at least 50 initial claims filed against them during a con-
secutive 5-week period are contacted by the state agency to determine
whether these separations are of at least 31 days duration, and, if so,
information is obtained on the total number of persons separated and the
reasons for these separations.  Employers are identified according to in-
dustry classification and location, and unemployment insurance claimants
are identified by such demographic factors as age, race, gender, ethnic
group, and place of residence.  The program yields information on an
individual's entire spell of unemployment, to the point when regular
unemployment insurance benefits are exhausted.

Definitions

   Employer.  Employers in the MLS program include those covered by state
unemployment insurance laws.  Information on employers is obtained from the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, which is admin-
istered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   Extended layoff event.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment
insurance benefits from an employer during a 5-week period, with at least
50 workers separated for more than 30 days.

   Initial claimant.  A person who files any notice of unemployment to
initiate a request either for a determination of entitlement to and eligi-
bility for compensation, or for a subsequent period of unemployment within
a benefit year or period of eligibility.

   Layoff.  The separation of persons from an employer as part of a mass
layoff event.  (See below.)  Such layoffs involve both persons subject to
recall and those who are terminated by the establishment.

   Mass layoff.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment insurance
benefits from an employer beginning in a given month, regardless of dura-
tion.

   Worksite closure.  The complete closure of either multi-unit or single-
unit employers or the partial closure of a multi-unit employer where entire
worksites affected by layoffs are closed or planned to be closed.



                                  - 10 -



Revisions to preliminary data

The latest quarterly data in this news release are considered preliminary.
After the initial publication of quarterly information, more data are col-
lected as remaining employer interviews for the quarter are completed and
additional initial claimant information associated with extended layoff
events is received.

Movement of work concepts and questions

   Because of the employer interview component, the BLS decided to use
the MLS program as a vehicle for collecting additional information on
offshoring and outsourcing associated with job loss, by adding questions
that address movement of work.  The term "moving work" means that the
company experiencing the layoff has reassigned work activities that were
performed at a worksite by the company's employees (1) to another work-
site within the company; (2) to another company under formal arrangements 
at the same worksite; or (3) to another company under formal arrangements 
at another worksite.  The type of work activities subject to movement can
include accounting, customer service, cleaning, warehousing, etc.

   "Overseas relocation" is the movement of work from within the U.S. to
locations outside of the U.S. "Overseas relocation" can occur within the
same company and involve movement of work to a different location of that
company outside of the U.S., or to a different company altogether.

   "Domestic relocation" is the movement of work to other locations inside
the U.S., either within the same company or to a different company.

   "Overseas relocation" and "domestic relocation" are no longer used in the
same way as they were in earlier extended mass layoff news releases.  There-
fore, the data presented in this news release are not comparable to those
that were presented in earlier news releases.

   Questions on movement of work and location are asked for all identified
layoff events when the reason for separation is other than "seasonal work"
or "vacation period."  Seasonal and vacation layoff events were excluded
because movement of work appears unlikely.

   Questions on movement of work are asked after the analyst verifies that 
a layoff in fact occurred and lasted more than 30 days, and obtained the
total number of workers separated from jobs, the date the layoff began, and
the economic reason for the layoff.  If the reason for layoff is other than
seasonal or vacation, the employer was asked the following:

   (1) "Did this layoff include your company moving work from this loca-
tion(s) to a different geographic location(s) within your company?"

   (2) "Did this layoff include your company moving work that was performed
in-house by your employees to a different company, through contractual ar-
rangements?"

   A "yes" response to either question is followed by:

   "Is the location inside or outside of the U.S.?" and "How many of the
layoffs were a result of this relocation?"

   Layoff actions are classified as "overseas relocation" if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2, and indicates that the location(s)
was outside of the U.S.  Domestic relocation is determined if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2 and indicates that the location(s)
was within the U.S.

   After asking the movement of work questions, the employer interview
continues and responses are obtained for questions on recall expectations
and open/closed status of the worksite.



                                  - 11 - 



Reliability of the data

   The identification of employers and layoff events in the MLS program
and associated characteristics of claimants is based on administrative
data on covered establishments and unemployment insurance claims, and,
therefore, is not subject to issues associated with sampling error.
Nonsampling errors such as typographical errors may occur but are not
likely to be significant.  While the MLS employers and layoff events
are not subject to sampling error, and all such employers are asked the
interview questions, the employer responses are subject to nonsampling 
error.  Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the in-
ability to obtain information for all respondents, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made 
in the collection or processing of the data.  For the second quarter of
2008, outright refusal to participate in the employer interview accounted
for 2.6 percent of all private nonfarm events.  Although included in the
total number of instances involving the movement of work, for the second
quarter, employers in 22 relocations were unable to provide the number of
separations specifically associated with the movement of work, 4 of which
involved out-of-country moves.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1. Industry distribution: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                            Initial claimants for  
                                                         Layoff events              Separations             unemployment insurance 
                      Industry                                                                                                     
                                                     II       I      II         II        I       II         II        I       II  
                                                    2007r   2008r   2008p      2007r    2008r    2008p      2007r    2008r    2008p
                                                                                                                                   
      Total, private nonfarm (1) .................  1,421   1,340   1,534    278,719  229,870  299,886    259,234  256,697  215,808
                                                                                                                                   
    Mining .......................................   (2)        5       3       (2)       474      627       (2)       428      335
    Utilities ....................................   (2)     (2)        4       (2)      (2)       757       (2)      (2)       717
    Construction .................................    191     337     227     20,673   36,917   24,789     26,179   45,227   25,431
    Manufacturing ................................    286     422     334     48,619   84,411   56,212     55,393  105,759   47,168
         Food ....................................     56      65      55     10,419   14,777   10,569     10,159   15,120    6,475
         Beverage and tobacco products ...........   (2)        8    (2)        (2)     1,436     (2)        (2)     2,003     (2) 
         Textile mills ...........................     10      12    (2)       1,462    1,758     (2)       1,327    8,042     (2) 
         Textile product mills (3) ...............   (2)     (2)        6       (2)      (2)      720        (2)      (2)       591
         Apparel (3) .............................      9      10       9      1,431      952    1,164      1,493    1,270    1,088
         Leather and allied products .............   (2)     (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)        (2)      (2)      (2) 
         Wood products ...........................     10      41      29        988    5,408    3,728        926    7,583    3,621
         Paper ...................................     11       7      11      1,063      595    1,359      1,036      814    1,138
         Printing and related support activities .      8       6      10      1,197      584    1,230      1,004      620    1,534
         Petroleum and coal products .............   (2)     (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)        (2)      (2)      (2)

         Chemicals ...............................     10       9      11      1,314    1,289    1,430      1,107      762    1,048
         Plastics and rubber products (3) ........     11      21      17      1,347    2,963    2,651      1,198    2,590    2,328
         Nonmetallic mineral products ............      5      39      12        431    4,269    1,599        510    4,562    1,101
         Primary metals ..........................      9      14       7      1,150    2,659      613      1,552    2,489      949
         Fabricated metal products ...............     16      27      16      2,246    3,466    1,753      2,527    4,067    1,669
         Machinery (3) ...........................     20      20      23      2,934    3,152    4,055      4,889    3,371    3,016
         Computer and electronic products ........     21      23      16      2,479    3,614    2,136      2,710    3,098    1,674
         Electrical equipment and appliances .....      5      11       9        698    1,994    2,666        889    3,192    2,001
         Transportation equipment (3) ............     54      78      74     15,225   30,245   16,073     20,456   41,582   14,528
         Furniture and related products (3) ......     19      20      17      2,551    3,183    3,136      2,129    3,199    3,249
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) .........      7       7       6        960    1,555      625        735      834      613

    Wholesale trade ..............................     24      35      30      3,904    3,745    4,218      3,183    3,555    2,789
    Retail trade .................................     64     107      71     20,215   24,119   12,574     17,061   30,260   11,417
    Transportation and warehousing ...............    172      49     155     40,230   10,260   35,381     43,915    8,512   30,085
    Information ..................................     29      27      37      3,271    7,330    5,649      3,699    5,697    4,904
    Finance and insurance (3) ....................     79      99      69     13,760   18,548   23,839     14,403   19,473    8,904
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) .......      4       5       7        380      612      611        361      746      594
    Professional and technical services (3) ......     55      39      73     26,456    7,346   36,411     14,864    5,806   14,847
    Management of companies and enterprises ......      5    (2)        4        478     (2)       398        415     (2)       263
    Administrative and waste services (3) ........     77      96      99     12,504   15,642   15,791     12,410   15,799   14,818
    Educational services .........................     14       5      11      1,691      595      982      1,467      618      883
    Health care and social assistance ............    170      20     166     23,511    5,302   20,468     20,235    2,643   16,713
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation ..........     45      20      51     18,804    2,504   22,126      4,831    1,833    4,528
    Accommodation and food services ..............    143      63     141     36,079   10,694   32,309     32,724    8,752   25,790
    Other services, except public administration .     59       5      51      7,484      524    6,279      7,504      588    5,448

    Unclassified .................................     -        1       1         -       250      465         -       133      174
                                                                                                                                   
   1 For the second quarter of 2008, data on layoffs were reported by employers in all states and the District of Columbia. 
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   
   
   
   
   
   


Table 2. Reason for layoff: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                         Initial claimants for   
                                             Layoff events                   Separations                 unemployment insurance  
         Reason for layoff                                                                                                       
                                       II         I        II           II         I        II           II         I        II  
                                      2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p
                                                                                                                                 
   Total, private nonfarm (1) .....   1,421     1,340     1,534      278,719   229,870   299,886      259,234   256,697   215,808

Business demand ...................     417       600       528       52,099    91,595    70,967       63,520   124,330    71,209
  Contract cancellation ...........      18        18        18        2,778     2,417     2,387        2,370     2,201     2,070
  Contract completion .............     217       227       199       27,921    28,319    25,479       32,770    36,085    25,184
  Domestic competition ............       4        -       (2)           561        -       (2)           519        -       (2) 
  Excess inventory/saturated
    market ........................       6         7      (2)           892     1,559      (2)         1,072       876      (2) 
  Import competition ..............      18        15        11        2,704     2,796     1,433        2,880     2,558     1,071
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
    non-seasonal business slowdown.     154       333       291       17,243    56,504    40,300       23,909    82,610    41,808

Organizational changes ............      79       114       107       15,472    21,674    33,828       17,161    22,606    13,586
  Business-ownership change .......      16        22        17        3,553     4,990    16,852        1,771     2,796     1,381
  Reorganization or restructuring
    of company ....................      63        92        90       11,919    16,684    16,976       15,390    19,810    12,205

Financial issues ..................     110       122       104       26,754    26,681    24,853       22,101    23,856    14,684
  Bankruptcy ......................      17        26        21        3,035     6,488     8,546        2,065     3,782     4,277
  Cost control/cost cutting/
    increase profitability ........      44        40        46        8,387     6,509     8,752        7,743     9,833     4,904
  Financial difficulty ............      49        56        37       15,332    13,684     7,555       12,293    10,241     5,503

Production specific ...............      20        29      (2)         5,887    11,823      (2)         8,365     8,459      (2) 
  Automation/technological
    advances ......................    (2)          4         3         (2)        579       264         (2)        557       248
  Energy related ..................    (2)         -       (2)          (2)         -       (2)          (2)         -       (2) 
  Governmental regulations/
    intervention ..................       4         5         3          684     2,083       267          335       654       245
  Labor dispute/contract
    negotiations/strike ...........       4         5         3        1,395     5,194       704        1,657     3,026       643
  Material or supply shortage .....    (2)          6         3         (2)      2,356       215          (2)     2,826       215
  Model changeover ................       4        -       (2)         2,286        -       (2)         4,614        -       (2) 
  Plant or machine repair/
    maintenance ...................    (2)          5      (2)          (2)        507      (2)          (2)        416      (2) 
  Product line discontinued .......    (2)          4      (2)          (2)      1,104      (2)          (2)        980      (2) 

Disaster/safety ...................       3         8      (2)          306      1,979      (2)          248      1,891      (2) 
  Hazardous work environment ......      -        (2)       -            -        (2)        -            -        (2)        -  
  Natural disaster (not weather
    related) ......................      -         -       (2)           -         -        (2)           -         -        (2) 
  Non-natural disaster ............       3       (2)       -           306       (2)        -           248       (2)        -  
  Extreme weather-related event ...      -          5      (2)           -        986       (2)           -       1,188      (2) 

Seasonal ..........................     649       246       582      154,876    43,107   141,562      124,628    42,230    88,743
  Seasonal ........................     349       246       346       98,808    43,107   103,207       66,396    42,230    54,178
  Vacation period-school related
    or otherwise ..................     300        -        236       56,068       -      38,355       58,232       -      34,565

Other/miscellaneous ...............     143       221       195       23,325    33,011    26,211       23,211    33,325    25,291
  Other ...........................      11        23        17        1,776     3,466     2,957        1,809     4,685     2,498
  Data not provided: refusal ......      53        63        42       10,888    12,282     6,715       10,843    11,902     6,476
  Data not provided: does not
    know ..........................      79       135       136       10,661    17,263    16,539       10,559    16,738    16,317

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r =revised.     
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   
   
   
   
   
   


Table 3. State and selected claimant characteristics: Extended mass layoff events and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, first and second quarters, 2008

                                                          Total                              Percent of total                      
                                                         initial                          Hispanic                   Persons age 55
                                   Layoff events        claimants          Black           origin          Women         and over  
              State                                                                                                                
                                    I      II          I       II        I     II        I     II        I     II        I     II  
                                  2008r   2008p      2008r    2008p    2008r  2008p    2008r  2008p    2008r  2008p    2008r  2008p
                                                                                                                                   
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .  1,340   1,534    256,697  215,808     14.8   15.9     18.1   17.1     36.1   51.9     18.1   22.7

Alabama ........................     13      20      2,825    3,470     57.2   48.8      4.6    2.1     49.8   61.7     17.3   22.2
Alaska .........................   (2)        6       (2)     1,110      8.8    5.0     20.9   17.4     29.3   43.9     26.5   27.6
Arizona ........................      5      12        607    1,546     10.4    1.8     22.2   72.5     38.2   57.2      9.6   21.9
Arkansas .......................     10       6      3,194      521     34.7   34.4      9.6    2.3     51.9   88.7     11.3   19.8
California .....................    467     437     77,332   50,319      9.1    9.5     38.9   38.3     36.4   40.9     13.9   16.1
Colorado .......................      9      12      1,480    1,493      7.0    6.3     18.3   30.5     35.2   65.0     16.2   22.3
Connecticut ....................      3      22        320    3,205     10.9   14.8      8.4   12.1     45.3   60.9     29.4   28.4
Delaware .......................    -         4        -        215       -    43.3       -     9.3       -   83.3        -    34.9
District of Columbia ...........      3       4        185      337     48.1   86.9     16.8    6.2     36.2   68.0     25.9   18.1
Florida ........................     60     109      8,531   13,605     13.9   17.8     29.6   31.8     37.7   48.8     22.5   24.3
Georgia ........................     19      14      8,376    1,266     21.7   49.8     11.4    3.1     46.5   46.8     16.6   18.8
Hawaii .........................      6       9        659    2,461      7.9    3.2     13.1    7.2     12.1   42.1     10.9   18.1
Idaho ..........................      8       9        940      769       .2     .1     14.3    4.8     27.7   35.8     17.4   20.8

Illinois .......................     98     110     17,166   21,486     25.4   23.0     15.2   10.3     39.1   58.4     15.1   21.2
Indiana ........................     26      44      7,397    6,399      8.0    9.4      4.4    3.0     32.5   48.1     17.6   22.5
Iowa ...........................     10       8      3,445    1,077      2.7   11.6      2.0    1.6     37.2   61.2     17.3   24.8
Kansas .........................      7      15      1,619    1,249     15.3   16.4      5.1    1.8     43.5   62.7     19.1   23.2
Kentucky .......................     18      19      1,886    1,790     12.0    5.1       .3     -      27.4   25.1     17.4   22.4
Louisiana ......................     11      18      2,641    2,024     45.7   70.6      3.0    1.3     28.7   81.1     24.7   22.6
Maine ..........................   (2)        5       (2)       569      2.8    1.1       .5     .2     53.5   36.2     22.0   25.3
Maryland .......................     10    (2)       1,206     (2)      26.7   40.7      4.1     .4     26.0   54.2     27.7   18.3
Massachusetts ..................     18      23      2,633    3,134     12.7   14.2      1.4    2.3     45.3   61.7     16.3   31.0
Michigan .......................     57      74     20,781   12,061     19.3   18.8      2.5    3.5     26.2   58.3     25.0   19.5
Minnesota ......................     16      22      1,694    2,486      4.5    9.5      3.2    6.4     26.4   46.6     15.2   23.0
Mississippi ....................      9      12        796    1,115     62.6   56.4       .9    1.6     32.4   44.8     24.7   15.7
Missouri .......................     26      34      4,650    5,721     19.2   19.0       .6     .3     35.4   71.3     22.5   28.3

Montana ........................      5       9        440      653       .5     -       5.0    3.5     14.5   54.8     20.9   31.4
Nebraska .......................      4       5        565      706       .4   10.9     19.3    6.5     21.2   33.4     21.2   32.3
Nevada .........................     11      13      1,791    1,619      5.8   11.2     29.6   28.4     40.6   48.1     21.0   23.1
New Hampshire ..................   (2)        4       (2)       337      1.3     -       3.3     .6     41.8   45.7     10.5   34.4
New Jersey .....................     33      37      5,326    8,485     26.7   17.7      8.8    5.8     49.1   66.2     21.3   33.9
New Mexico .....................      5       8        799      613      2.3    2.6     33.9   40.0     23.9   34.1     33.8   20.6
New York .......................     78      21     12,880    3,197     11.9   11.0      9.5   10.7     30.9   57.0     18.5   36.0
North Carolina .................     13      10      2,669    2,302     61.4   34.9      5.3    2.5     50.2   31.0     25.4   15.4
North Dakota ...................    -       -          -        -         -      -        -      -        -      -        -      - 
Ohio ...........................     64      81     16,669   12,250     17.0   14.3      3.0    3.0     32.1   51.9     19.4   20.8
Oklahoma .......................   (2)        4        (2)      550     15.6    8.9      2.8    2.0     42.6   42.5      4.3   15.8
Oregon .........................     11      23      3,658    4,712       .7    1.5     23.9   10.4     34.6   56.1     20.3   28.8
Pennsylvania ...................     75      95     16,182   17,335      6.7    9.5      4.9    3.6     35.3   53.0     23.7   32.9

Rhode Island ...................      4       9        345    1,084      1.2    5.5      5.8   18.5     50.4   80.1     36.2   36.3
South Carolina .................      9      14        978    1,661     50.7   70.2       .1     .8     53.9   69.3      7.2    9.8
South Dakota ...................   (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)       4.2     -      16.8    1.0     65.8   86.0     15.3   47.0
Tennessee ......................     16      22      2,844    2,728     23.9   29.5       -      -      50.3   57.7     18.9   38.7
Texas ..........................     22      51      4,363    7,654     17.8   16.2     39.7   49.0     30.3   46.1     18.2   15.0
Utah ...........................      5       9        608    1,213      3.6    1.6     22.5   15.7     52.0   41.5     10.7   10.1
Vermont ........................   (2)        5        (2)      731      1.0    1.0       -      .3     33.2   37.2     20.6   18.7
Virginia .......................     14      14      3,881    1,527     22.1   55.7      1.6    4.8     38.5   74.7     21.5   20.9
Washington .....................     21       6      3,072      694      5.7    5.2      9.8   13.4     37.8   73.8     16.3   29.8
West Virginia ..................      4       7        712      684       .1     .7       .1     -      38.9   36.1     18.0   12.3
Wisconsin ......................     27      35      7,102    5,198      4.8   11.6     10.1    3.5     36.4   59.9     18.9   33.5
Wyoming ........................   (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)        -      -       1.3     -      32.9   27.0     25.3    2.7

Puerto Rico ....................     10      12      2,315    2,590       -      .1     97.6   98.1     57.5   58.9      7.3    9.0
                                                                                                                                   
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   3 Data are not available.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   
   
   
   
   
   


Table 4. Census region and division: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment 
insurance, private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                    Initial claimants for  
                                         Layoff events                   Separations                unemployment insurance 
   Census region and division                                                                                              
                                   II        I         II          II        I         II           II       I        II   
                                  2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r    2008r    2008p 
                                                                                                                           
        United States (1) .....   1,421     1,340     1,534      278,719   229,870   299,886      259,234  256,697  215,808

Northeast .....................     293       217       221       59,017    32,465    40,813       66,551   38,511   38,077

    New England ...............      63        31        68       13,777     4,839    13,692       10,036    4,123    9,060
    Middle Atlantic ...........     230       186       153       45,240    27,626    27,121       56,515   34,388   29,017

South .........................     303       232       330       48,599    42,117    53,275       45,673   45,228   41,722

    South Atlantic ............     170       132       178       27,930    23,492    28,895       25,125   26,538   21,870
    East South Central ........      63        56        73       10,293    10,277    10,565       10,270    8,351    9,103
    West South Central ........      70        44        79       10,376     8,348    13,815       10,278   10,339   10,749

Midwest .......................     363       336       429       75,305    73,442    86,410       74,665   81,278   68,733

    East North Central ........     270       272       344       58,772    61,305    72,140       57,026   69,115   57,394
    West North Central ........      93        64        85       16,533    12,137    14,270       17,639   12,163   11,339

West ..........................     462       555       554       95,798    81,846   119,388       72,345   91,680   67,276

    Mountain ..................      65        49        73       22,257     7,547    26,774        7,482    6,744    7,980
    Pacific ...................     397       506       481       73,541    74,299    92,614       64,863   84,936   59,296
                                                                                                                           

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England:
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic:  New Jersey,  New York, and
Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:  Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Virginia, and  West Virginia; East South Central:  Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and  Tennessee; West South Central:
Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas: East North Central:  Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West
North Central:  Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain:  Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific:  Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.







Table 5. State distribution: Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                        Initial claimants for   
                                           Layoff events                     Separations                unemployment insurance  
              State                                                                                                             
                                      II         I        II           II         I        II           II         I        II  
                                     2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p
                                                                                                                                
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .     1,421     1,340     1,534      278,719   229,870   299,886      259,234   256,697   215,808

Alabama ........................        14        13        20        2,739     2,182     3,295        2,919     2,825     3,470
Alaska .........................         7      (2)          6        3,953      (2)      3,707        1,328      (2)      1,110
Arizona ........................        19         5        12        5,141       474     2,295        2,675       607     1,546
Arkansas .......................        14        10         6        2,233     1,809       521        1,875     3,194       521
California .....................       340       467       437       59,345    66,895    77,751       53,458    77,332    50,319
Colorado .......................        13         9        12       13,630     2,141    14,347        1,451     1,480     1,493
Connecticut ....................        17         3        22        5,489       296     5,008        3,449       320     3,205
Delaware .......................         3       -           4          252       -         239          270       -         215
District of Columbia ...........      (2)          3         4         (2)        340       337         (2)        185       337
Florida ........................        70        60       109       12,996    10,358    17,216       10,562     8,531    13,605
Georgia ........................        13        19        14        1,718     2,112     1,384        1,895     8,376     1,266
Hawaii .........................         7         6         9        1,396     2,019     4,300        1,076       659     2,461
Idaho ..........................         5         8         9          543       783       829          462       940       769

Illinois .......................        89        98       110       22,131    17,736    26,475       20,615    17,166    21,486
Indiana ........................        24        26        44        3,006     4,396     8,125        3,714     7,397     6,399
Iowa ...........................         4        10         8          358     1,458       952          509     3,445     1,077
Kansas .........................        13         7        15        1,938     1,389     2,043        1,241     1,619     1,249
Kentucky .......................        17        18        19        2,873     2,049     2,034        3,120     1,886     1,790
Louisiana ......................        19        11        18        2,493     2,100     2,590        2,152     2,641     2,024
Maine ..........................         9      (2)          5        1,767      (2)      1,739          825      (2)        569
Maryland .......................        29        10      (2)         3,153     1,255      (2)         3,835     1,206      (2) 
Massachusetts ..................        13        18        23        2,426     2,771     4,545        1,666     2,633     3,134
Michigan .......................        51        57        74       17,445    14,915    12,246       15,850    20,781    12,061
Minnesota ......................        28        16        22        3,714     2,107     3,399        3,600     1,694     2,486
Mississippi ....................        11         9        12        1,207     2,207     1,280          995       796     1,115
Missouri .......................        42        26        34        9,564     6,326     6,923       11,570     4,650     5,721

Montana ........................         9         5         9          675       442       670          713       440       653
Nebraska .......................         3         4         5          550       607       745          421       565       706
Nevada .........................         6        11        13          768     1,708     2,646          731     1,791     1,619
New Hampshire ..................         6      (2)          4          779      (2)        426          779      (2)        337
New Jersey .....................        69        33        37       21,452     6,498    12,308       16,263     5,326     8,485
New Mexico .....................         6         5         8          705       649       624          705       799       613
New York .......................        77        78        21       11,049    13,084     4,380       18,145    12,880     3,197
North Carolina .................        15        13        10        3,279     2,113     4,384        2,561     2,669     2,302
North Dakota ...................      (2)        -         -           (2)        -         -           (2)        -         -  
Ohio ...........................        78        64        81       12,050    18,236    19,683       12,613    16,669    12,250
Oklahoma .......................      (2)       (2)          4         (2)       (2)        923         (2)       (2)        550
Oregon .........................        22        11        23        5,798     1,913     6,157        5,856     3,658     4,712
Pennsylvania ...................        84        75        95       12,739     8,044    10,433       22,107    16,182    17,335

Rhode Island ...................         9         4         9        1,829       363     1,237        1,830       345     1,084
South Carolina .................         9         9        14          986     1,125     2,425        1,102       978     1,661
South Dakota ...................      (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)
Tennessee ......................        21        16        22        3,474     3,839     3,956        3,236     2,844     2,728
Texas ..........................        36        22        51        5,490     4,298     9,781        6,186     4,363     7,654
Utah ...........................         6         5         9          724     1,150     4,563          674       608     1,213
Vermont ........................         9      (2)          5        1,487      (2)        737        1,487      (2)        731
Virginia .......................        24        14        14        4,041     5,384     1,830        4,053     3,881     1,527
Washington .....................        21        21         6        3,049     2,772       699        3,145     3,072       694
West Virginia ..................         5         4         7        1,313       805       824          655       712       684
Wisconsin ......................        28        27        35        4,140     6,022     5,611        4,234     7,102     5,198
Wyoming ........................      (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)

Puerto Rico ....................        16        10        12        2,035       659       810        4,316     2,315     2,590
                                                                                                                                
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   
   
   
   
   
   


Table 6. Information technology-producing industries:  Extended mass layoff events and separations, private nonfarm sector,
2001-2008

                                                               Information technology-producing industries (1)                    
                        Total extended                                                                                            
        Year             mass layoffs                                                                                             
                                                 Computer              Software and          Communications        Communications 
                                                hardware (2)         computer services (3)       equipment (4)       services (5) 

                      Layoff                Layoff                Layoff                 Layoff                 Layoff            
                      events Separations    events Separations    events   Separations   events   Separations   events  Separations
        2001                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,546      304,171       91       20,991        32         5,558       22        4,441       13        3,317
Second quarter ...    1,828      430,499      161       38,986        69         9,563       36       12,109       15        3,519
Third quarter ....    1,629      330,391      142       24,813        45         5,724       39        8,200       21        5,350
Fourth quarter ...    2,372      459,771      109       17,797        50         7,667       43       10,124       38        9,889

    Total ........    7,375    1,524,832      503      102,587       196        28,512      140       34,874       87       22,075

        2002                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,611      299,266       84       18,574        34         3,770       32        8,192       28        4,346
Second quarter ...    1,624      344,606       69       11,764        39         4,326       27        4,870       34        5,643
Third quarter ....    1,186      255,152       76       15,017        36         4,359       34        6,529       33        5,496
Fourth quarter ...    1,916      373,307       74       14,298        26         5,709       19        3,645       31        7,643

    Total ........    6,337    1,272,331      303       59,653       135        18,164      112       23,236      126       23,128

        2003                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,502      286,947       71       11,900        27         5,097       23        4,402       26        4,513
Second quarter ...    1,799      368,273       54        9,221        19         2,741       21        3,098       22        4,169
Third quarter ....    1,190      236,333       46        6,488        24         4,189        9        1,289        8          842
Fourth quarter ...    1,690      325,333       25        5,080         8         1,167        9        1,619       23        5,774

    Total ........    6,181    1,216,886      196       32,689        78        13,194       62       10,408       79       15,298

        2004                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,339      276,503       27        3,222        13         2,786        8          894       14        2,832
Second quarter ...    1,358      278,831       18        2,959        15         2,775        -            -       15        3,250
Third quarter ....      886      164,608       13        2,288        14         1,467        4          430       11        3,792
Fourth quarter ...    1,427      273,967       18        3,055        10         1,547        4          563       20        3,143

    Total ........    5,010      993,909       76       11,524        52         8,575       16        1,887       60       13,017

        2005                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,142      186,506       13        1,526         9         2,355        4          439       12        2,400
Second quarter ...    1,203      246,099       20        2,973        13         1,558        4          842        7        1,331
Third quarter ....    1,136      201,878       23        3,307         7         1,034      (6)          (6)        3          304
Fourth quarter ...    1,400      250,178       19        4,122         3           720      (6)          (6)        5          845

    Total ........    4,881      884,661       75       11,928        32         5,667       13        3,000       27        4,880

        2006                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....      963      183,089       12        1,159         6           744      (6)          (6)      (6)          (6)
Second quarter ...    1,353      295,964       10        3,294         7         1,564        8          988      (6)          (6)
Third quarter ....      929      160,254       14        3,544         6           487      (6)          (6)        8        1,222
Fourth quarter ...    1,640      296,662       12        4,039         4           708        5        1,482        8          947

    Total ........    4,885      935,969       48       12,036        23         3,503       19        3,753       23        3,406

        2007                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,110      225,600       19        3,007         5           875        3          415        5          885
Second quarter ...    1,421      278,719       22        3,634         4           413        5          433        3          315
Third quarter(r) .    1,018      160,024       22        5,279         6         1,030        4          403        3          276
Fourth quarter(r)     1,814      301,592        9        1,459         4           473        3          381        7          870

    Total(r) .....    5,363      965,935       72       13,379        19         2,791       15        1,632       18        2,346

        2008                                                                                                                      

First quarter(r) .    1,340      229,870       19        3,040         9           987        3          330        3          329
Second quarter(p).    1,534      299,886       19        3,181         5           618      (6)          (6)       13        1,673
                                                                                                                                  

   1 Information technology-producing industries are defined in Digital Economy 2003, (U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and
Statistics Administration, 2003). In the MLS program, however, computer and software merchant wholesalers and computer and
software stores are only included in the computer hardware industry.
   2 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
semiconductor machinery manufacturing; office machinery manufacturing; electronic computer manufacturing; computer storage device
manufacturing; computer terminal manufacturing; other computer peripheral equipment mfg.; electron tube manufacturing; bare
printed circuit board manufacturing; semiconductors and related device mfg.; electronic capacitor manufacturing; electronic
resistor manufacturing; electronic coils, transformers, and inductors; electronic connector manufacturing; printed circuit
assembly manufacturing; other electronic component manufacturing; industrial process variable instruments; electricity and signal
testing instruments; analytical laboratory instrument mfg.; computer and software merchant wholesalers; and computer and software
stores.
   3 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
software publishers; internet service providers; web search portals; data processing and related services; computer and software
merchant wholesalers; computer and software stores; custom computer programming  services; computer systems design services;
computer facilities management services; other computer related services; office equipment rental and leasing; and computer and
office machine repair.
   4 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
telephone apparatus manufacturing; audio and video equipment manufacturing; broadcast and wireless communications equip.; fiber
optic cable manufacturing; software reproducing; and magnetic and optical recording media mfg.
   5 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
wired telecommunications carriers; cellular and other wireless carriers; telecommunications resellers; cable and other program
distribution; satellite telecommunications; other telecommunications; and communication equipment repair.
   6 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.





  


Table 7. Industry distribution: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                               Layoff events                            Separations           
                     Industry                                                                                                 
                                                       II           I            II            II            I            II  
                                                      2007        2008r        2008p          2007         2008r         2008p
                                                                                                                              
      Total, private nonfarm (1) ................       65           59           60        11,352        13,324        10,957

    Mining ......................................       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Utilities ...................................       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Construction ................................       -            -           (2)           -             -            (2) 
    Manufacturing ...............................       48           34           40         8,820         6,652         6,575
         Food ...................................        5          (2)            4         1,329          (2)            843
         Beverage and tobacco products ..........      (2)          (2)           -           (2)           (2)            -  
         Textile mills ..........................      (2)          (2)           -           (2)           (2)            -  
         Textile product mills (3) ..............       -            -           (2)           -             -            (2) 
         Apparel (3) ............................        3          (2)          (2)           440          (2)           (2) 
         Leather and allied products ............       -           (2)           -            -            (2)            -  
         Wood products ..........................       -            3            -            -            390            -  
         Paper ..................................      (2)          (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2) 
         Printing and related support activities       (2)          (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2) 
         Petroleum and coal products ............       -            -            -            -             -             -  

         Chemicals ..............................      (2)          (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2) 
         Plastics and rubber products (3) .......        5          (2)          (2)           542          (2)           (2) 
         Nonmetallic mineral products ...........       -            -           (2)           -             -            (2) 
         Primary metals .........................        3          (2)          (2)           495          (2)           (2) 
         Fabricated metal products ..............        4          (2)            3         1,100          (2)           338 
         Machinery (3) ..........................      (2)           -             3          (2)            -            366 
         Computer and electronic products .......        4            5          (2)           457         1,195          (2) 
         Electrical equipment and appliances ....      (2)          (2)            4          (2)           (2)          1,332
         Transportation equipment (3) ...........        7            8            8         1,830         1,190         1,013
         Furniture and related products (3) .....        3          (2)          (2)           612          (2)           (2) 
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) ........        4           -            -            576           -             -  

    Wholesale trade .............................      (2)            3            4          (2)            210           578
    Retail trade ................................      (2)            4            5          (2)          1,166           454
    Transportation and warehousing ..............      (2)            3            3          (2)          1,734         1,556
    Information .................................      (2)          (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2) 
    Finance and insurance (3) ...................        4            8          (2)           590         2,120          (2) 
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) ......       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Professional and technical services (3) .....       -           (2)          (2)           -            (2)           (2) 
    Management of companies and enterprises .....       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Administrative and waste services (3) .......      (2)          (2)            4          (2)           (2)          1,091
    Educational services ........................       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Health care and social assistance ...........        3          (2)           -            258          (2)            -  
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation .........      (2)           -            -           (2)            -             -  
    Accommodation and food services .............       -            -            -            -             -             -  
    Other services, except public administration        -            -            -            -             -             -  

    Unclassified ................................       -            -            -            -             -             -  
                                                                                                                              

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   
   
   
   
   
   


Table 8. Reason for layoff: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                               Layoff events                                  Separations              


         Reason for layoff              II          I          II                 II               I                II 
                                       2007       2008r       2008p              2007            2008r            2008p

   Total, private nonfarm (1) ....       65          59          60            11,352           13,324           10,957

Business demand ..................      (2)          16          15              (2)             4,912            4,058
  Contract cancellation ..........       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Contract completion ............      (2)          -           -               (2)               -                -  
  Domestic competition ...........      (2)          -          (2)              (2)               -               (2) 
  Excess inventory/saturated
    market .......................      (2)          -          (2)              (2)               -               (2) 
  Import competition .............        7           7           7             1,236            1,724              842
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
    non-seasonal business slowdown        4           9         (2)             1,005            3,188             (2) 

Organizational changes ...........       29          22          32             4,258            3,654            4,798
  Business-ownership change ......      (2)           6           3              (2)             1,656              634
  Reorganization or restructuring
    of company ...................      (2)          16          29              (2)             1,998            4,164

Financial issues .................       20          17          10             4,141            3,704            1,487
  Bankruptcy .....................      (2)          -           -               (2)               -                -  
  Cost control/cost cutting/
    increase profitability .......       15          10         (2)             3,275            1,706             (2) 
  Financial difficulty ...........      (2)           7         (2)              (2)             1,998             (2) 

Production specific ..............       -          (2)         (2)               -               (2)              (2) 
  Automation/technological 
    advances .....................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Energy related .................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Governmental regulations/
    intervention .................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Labor dispute/contract 
    negotiations/strike ..........       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Material or supply shortage ....       -          (2)          -                -               (2)               -  
  Model changeover ...............       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Plant or machine repair/
    maintenance ..................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Product line discontinued ......       -           -          (2)               -                -               (2) 

Disaster/safety ..................      (2)         (2)          -               (2)              (2)               -  
  Hazardous work environment .....       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Natural disaster (not weather
    related) .....................       -           -           -                -                -                -  
  Non-natural disaster ...........      (2)         (2)          -               (2)              (2)               -  
  Extreme weather-related event ..       -           -           -                -                -                -  

Other/miscellaneous ..............      (2)         (2)         (2)              (2)              (2)              (2) 
  Other ..........................      (2)         (2)         (2)              (2)              (2)              (2) 
  Data not provided: refusal .....       -           -          (2)               -                -               (2) 
  Data not provided: does not
    know .........................       -           -           -                -                -                -  

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: Dash represents zero.
   
   
   
   
   
   


Table 9. Census region and division: Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the 
movement of work, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                       Layoff events                             Separations            
 Census region and division                                                                             
                               II           I          II              II             I             II  
                              2007        2008r       2008p           2007          2008r          2008p
                                                                                                        
        United States (1) .     65           59          60         11,352         13,324         10,957

Northeast .................     13            6          13          1,808          1,381          1,557

    New England ...........    (2)          (2)         (2)           (2)            (2)            (2) 
    Middle Atlantic .......    (2)          (2)         (2)           (2)            (2)            (2) 

South .....................     25           26          19          4,482          4,878          3,293

    South Atlantic ........     10            8          11          1,909            947          1,832
    East South Central ....      8           11           5            949          2,237            734
    West South Central ....      7            7           3          1,624          1,694            727

Midwest ...................     17           14          16          2,716          3,388          2,899

    East North Central ....     12           11         (2)          1,810          2,378           (2) 
    West North Central ....      5            3         (2)            906          1,010           (2) 

West ......................     10           13          12          2,346          3,677          3,208

    Mountain ..............    (2)          (2)         (2)           (2)            (2)            (2) 
    Pacific ...............    (2)          (2)         (2)           (2)            (2)            (2) 
                                                                                                        

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New
England:  Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic:
New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:  Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central:
Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central:  Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas: East North Central:  Illinois, Indiana,  Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central:
Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain:  Arizona,
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific:  Alaska, California,
Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.







Table 10. Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected measures, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                  Layoff events                                Separations              
                Action                                                                                                  
                                           II           I           II              II               I              II  
                                          2007        2008r        2008p           2007            2008r           2008p
                                                                                                                        
Total, private nonfarm (1) .........     1,421        1,340        1,534         278,719         229,870         299,886

    Total, excluding seasonal                                                                                           
        and vacation events (2) ....       772        1,094          952         123,843         186,763         158,324

                                                                                                                        
       Total, movement of work (3) .        65           59           60          11,352          13,324          10,957

                                                                                                                        
             Movement of work 
               actions .............        89           76           84            (4)             (4)             (4) 
                  With separations
                    reported .......        66           41           62           7,401           6,180           6,516
                  With separations
                    unknown ........        23           35           22            (4)             (4)             (4) 

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when the reason for layoff was either seasonal work
or vacation period.
   3 Movement of work can involve more than one action.
   4 Data are not available.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary. 







Table 11. Movement of work actions by type of separation where number of separations is known by 
employers, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008
                                              Actions (1)                         Separations        
           Activities                                                                                
                                      II         I         II               II         I         II  
                                     2007      2008r      2008p            2007      2008r      2008p
                                                                                                     
With separations reported (2) .        66         41         62           7,401      6,180      6,516

           By location                                                                               

  Out-of-country relocations ..        23         15         19           3,537      1,901      2,761
      Within company ..........        22         12         17           3,387      1,602      2,537
      Different company .......         1          3          2             150        299        224

  Domestic relocations ........        43         26         42           3,864      4,279      3,480
      Within company ..........        34         24         40           3,254      3,364      3,338
      Different company .......         9          2          2             610        915        142

  Unable to assign place of                                                                          
     relocation ...............        -          -           1              -          -         275

           By company                                                                                

  Within company ..............        56         36         57           6,641      4,966      5,875
      Domestic ................        34         24         40           3,254      3,364      3,338
      Out of country ..........        22         12         17           3,387      1,602      2,537
      Unable to assign ........        -          -          -               -          -          - 

  Different company ...........        10          5          5             760      1,214        641
      Domestic ................         9          2          2             610        915        142
      Out of country ..........         1          3          2             150        299        224
      Unable to assign ........         -          -          1               -          -        275

                                                                                                     
   1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement of work were reported are
shown.
   2 See footnote 1, table 1.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   Note: Dash represents zero.






Last Modified Date: August 15, 2008
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