Economic News Release

Extended Mass Layoffs (Quarterly) News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6392    USDL 08-1669
               http://www.bls.gov/mls/
                                          For release:  10:00 A.M. (EST)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    Thursday, November 13, 2008


          EXTENDED MASS LAYOFFS IN THE THIRD QUARTER OF 2008
                                   
   In the third quarter of 2008, employers initiated 1,330 mass layoff
events that resulted in the separation of 218,158 workers from their
jobs for at least 31 days, according to preliminary figures released
by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Layoff
events reached their highest level for the third quarter since 2001,
while separations reached their highest level since 2003.  The total
number of layoff events was 312 higher in the third quarter 2008 than
the same period a year earlier, and the number of associated
separations increased by 58,134.  (See table A.)  Third quarter 2008
layoff data are preliminary and are subject to revision.  (See the
Technical Note.)

   Both events and separations in the construction industry reached
third quarter program highs in 2008.  The number of separations in
manufacturing rose sharply (+32,175) over the year, largely due to
increased layoff activity in the transportation equipment sector
(+12,930).

   Among the seven categories of economic reasons for layoff, business
demand accounted for the highest share of events (43 percent) and
number of separations (76,979) in July-September 2008.  (See table B.)
The largest over-the-year increases in the number of separations
occurred in layoffs attributed to business demand factors (+27,711)
and organizational changes (+10,533).  Within business demand, the
number of separations due to slack work nearly doubled to 41,116,
while in organizational changes, layoffs attributed to business-
ownership changes more than doubled to 11,692.  Within financial
issues, the number of workers terminated because of bankruptcies
nearly doubled over the year to 12,156.

   Permanent closure of worksites occurred in 15 percent of all
extended mass layoff events and affected 50,025 workers during the
third quarter of 2008.  Thirty-one percent of employers reporting a
layoff indicated they anticipate some type of recall, down from 38
percent a year earlier and the lowest third quarter proportion since
2002.  Excluding seasonal events, employers anticipated recalling
workers in 20 percent of the layoffs, matching third quarter 2002 as
the lowest proportion for any quarter since data collection began in
1995.

   The national unemployment rate averaged 6.0 percent, not seasonally
adjusted, in the third quarter of 2008, up from 4.7 percent a year
earlier.  Private nonfarm payroll employment, not seasonally adjusted,
decreased by 0.6 percent (-672,000) over the year.


                                   - 2 -


Table A. Selected measures of extended mass layoff activity


     Period               Layoff events   Separations  Initial claimants

     2004

January-March ..........       1,339         276,503         238,392
April-June .............       1,358         278,831         254,063
July-September .........         886         164,608         148,575
October-December .......       1,427         273,967         262,049

     2005

January-March ..........       1,142         186,506         185,486
April-June .............       1,203         246,099         212,673
July-September .........       1,136         201,878         190,186
October-December .......       1,400         250,178         246,188

     2006

January-March ..........         963         183,089         193,510
April-June .............       1,353         295,964         264,927
July-September .........         929         160,254         161,764
October-December .......       1,640         296,662         330,954

     2007

January-March ..........       1,110         225,600         199,250
April-June .............       1,421         278,719         259,234
July-September .........       1,018         160,024         173,077
October-December(r) ....       1,814         301,592         347,149

     2008

January-March(r) .......       1,340         229,858         258,767
April-June(r) ..........       1,756         354,361         335,854
July-September(p) ......       1,330         218,158         181,386

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.


Industry Distribution of Extended Layoffs

   Manufacturing industries were responsible for 32 percent of private
nonfarm extended layoff events and 35 percent of related separations
in the third quarter of 2008; a year earlier, manufacturing made up 26
percent of events and 27 percent of separations.  (See table 1.)  Manu-
facturing had 430 extended mass layoff events and 75,511 separations,
the highest third quarter levels for the industry since 2003.  The
largest numbers of separations were in transportation equipment manu-
facturing (21,630, mostly associated with light truck and utility
vehicle manufacturing) and food manufacturing (10,975).


                                   - 3 -


Table B.  Distribution of extended layoff events and separations by 
economic reason categories, July-September 2008(p)


     Category                       Layoff events        Separations

                                   Number    Percent     Number    Percent

     Total ..................      1,330       100.0    218,158      100.0

Business demand .............        577        43.4     76,979       35.3
Organizational changes ......        107         8.0     28,256       13.0
Financial issues ............        174        13.1     32,812       15.0
Production specific .........         23         1.7      3,527        1.6
Disaster/safety .............          5         0.4      1,362        0.6
Seasonal ....................        198        14.9     38,742       17.8
Other/miscellaneous .........        246        18.5     36,480       16.7

   p = preliminary.


   The construction sector accounted for 16 percent of events and 10
percent of separations, the highest third quarter percentages recorded
in the program.  These job cuts were largely in specialty trade con-
tracting.  Layoffs in administrative and waste services accounted for
9 percent of all events and separations and were concentrated in tem-
porary help services.

Reasons for Extended Layoffs

   Among the seven categories of economic reasons for extended mass
layoffs, events related to business demand factors (contract cancel-
lation, contract completion, domestic competition, excess inventory,
import competition, and slack work) accounted for 43 percent of the
extended layoffs and 35 percent of separations during the third quar-
ter of 2008.  (See table 2.)  Separations in this category registered
the largest over-the-year increase (+27,711), with those related to
slack work/insufficient demand/nonseasonal business slowdown nearly
doubling.  The numbers of workers terminated because of business de-
mand reasons were highest in temporary help services, light truck and
utility vehicle manufacturing, and professional employer organizations.

   Seasonal factors (seasonal and vacation period) made up 15 percent
of the extended layoff events and resulted in 38,742 separations, pri-
marily in school and employee bus transportation and in food service
contracting.

   Job losses related to financial issues (bankruptcy, cost control,
and financial difficulty) accounted for 13 percent of events and
resulted in 32,812 separations during the third quarter of 2008,
compared with 28,461 separations a year earlier.  This increase was
largely due to bankruptcies in full service restaurants.

Movement of Work

   In the third quarter of 2008, 82 extended mass layoffs involved the
movement of work and were associated with 14,613 separated workers.
(See table C.)  These movements of work were to other domestic 
locations or to locations outside of the U.S., and they occurred
either within the same company or to other companies.  Movement of
work layoffs accounted for 7 percent of nonseasonal layoff events
in the third quarter of 2008.  A year earlier, there were 63 layoff
events and 12,367 separations associated with the movement of work.
(See table 10.)


                                   - 4 -


Table C. Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected measures,
third quarter 2008(p)


               Action                      Layoff events       Separations

   Total, private nonfarm ................     1,330             218,158

     Total, excluding seasonal and 
       vacation events(1) ................     1,132             179,416

        Total events with movement
           of work(2) ....................        82              14,613

           Movement of work actions ......       104                 (3)
              With separations reported ..        76               9,265
              With separations unknown ...        28                 (3)

    1 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when the
reason for layoff was either seasonal work or vacation period.
    2 A layoff event can involve more than one movement of work action.
    3 Data are not available.
    p = preliminary.
    
    
   Among the 82 extended mass layoff events with reported relocation
of work in the third quarter of 2008, 55 percent were permanent clo-
sures of worksites, which affected 9,873 workers.  In comparison,
15 percent of the total extended mass layoff events reported for the
quarter involved the permanent closure of worksites affecting 50,025
workers.

   Of the layoffs involving the movement of work, 67 percent of the
events and 75 percent of the laid-off workers were from manufacturing
industries during the third quarter.  (See table 7.)  Among all pri-
vate nonfarm extended layoffs, manufacturing accounted for 32 percent
of the events and 35 percent of separations.
   
   While only 8 percent of the extended mass layoff events in the
total private nonfarm economy were because of organizational change,
such reasons accounted for 56 percent of layoff events associated with
work relocation and resulted in 8,276 separations during the third
quarter.  (See table 8.)

   Among the regions, the Midwest accounted for the largest proportion
of workers affected by extended mass layoffs associated with the move-
ment of work (56 percent), followed by the Northeast and the West
(15 percent each), and the South (13 percent).  (See table 9.)

   Some extended mass layoff events involve more than one relocation
of work action.  For example, an extended mass layoff event at an
employer may involve job loss due to movement of work to both another
domestic location of the company and a location out of the country.
This would be counted as two movement of work actions.  The 82 ex-
tended layoff events with movement of work for the third quarter of
2008 involved 104 identifiable relocations of work.  (See table C.)
An identifiable relocation of work occurs when the employer provides
sufficient information on the new location of work and/or the number
of workers affected by the movement.  Of the 104 relocations, employers
were able to provide information on the specific number of separations
associated with the movement of work component of the layoff in 76
actions involving 9,265 workers.  (See table 10.)


                                  - 5 -


Table D. Movement of work actions by type of separation where the
number of separations is known by employers, third quarter 2008(p)

         Activities                  Actions (1)      Separations

 With separations reported .....          76             9,265

        By location

   Out-of-country relocations ..          19             2,211
      Within company ...........          17             2,034
      Different company ........           2               177

   Domestic relocations ........          57             7,054
      Within company ...........          48             6,257
      Different company ........           9               797

        By company

   Within company ..............          65             8,291
      Domestic .................          48             6,257
      Out of country ...........          17             2,034

   Different company ...........          11               974
      Domestic .................           9               797
      Out of country ...........           2               177

    1 Only actions for which separations associated with the
movement of work were reported are shown.
    p = preliminary.

    
   In the 76 actions where employers were able to provide more complete
separations information, 86 percent of relocations (65 out of 76) occurred
within the same company.  (See table D.)  Seventy-five percent of reloca-
tions (57 out of 76) were domestic reassignments, while 25 percent (19 out
of 76) involved out-of-country moves.  Domestic relocation of work--both
within the company and to other companies--affected 7,054 workers.  Out-of-
country relocations were associated with the separation of 2,211 workers,
1 percent of all nonseasonal and nonvacation extended mass layoff separa-
tions.  (See table 11.)
   
Recall Expectations

   Thirty-one percent of employers reporting an extended layoff in the
third quarter of 2008 indicated they anticipated some type of recall,
down from 38 percent a year earlier and the lowest third quarter propor-
tion since 2002.  (See table E.)  Of those employers expecting to recall
workers, 38 percent indicated that the offer would be extended to all
displaced employees, and 79 percent of employers anticipated extending
the offer to at least half of the workers. Seventy-two percent of em-
ployers expecting to recall laid-off employees intend to do so within 
6 months.


                                  - 6 -


Table E. Summary of employer expectations of a recall from extended
layoff, third quarter 2007-third quarter 2008


                                             Percentage of events

   Nature of the recall           III      IV       I    II      III
                                  2007    2007    2008  2008(r) 2008(p)

 Anticipate a recall ........     37.9    55.8    40.1   51.1      30.5

        Timeframe

     Within 6 months ........     83.9    87.9    69.8   84.5      71.9
        Within 3 months .....     62.7    34.2    45.4   59.1      54.9

        Size

     At least half ..........     86.0    90.5    73.2   88.3      79.1
        All workers .........     45.6    50.5    28.5   51.7      37.9

   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.


   Excluding layoff events due to seasonal work and vacation period (in
which 93 percent of the employers expected a recall), employers antici-
pated recalling laid-off workers in 20 percent of the events, matching
third quarter 2002 as the lowest proportion since the program began in
1995.

Size of Extended Layoffs

   The average size of a layoff (as measured by separations per layoff
event) in the third quarter of 2008 was 164, compared to 157 per layoff
in third quarter 2007.  Layoff events continued to be concentrated at
the lower end of the extended layoff-size spectrum, with 48 percent of
events involving between 50 and 99 workers and 71 percent of events with
less than 150 workers.

   Layoffs involving less than 150 workers accounted for 37 percent of all
separations during the period, about the same percentage recorded a year
earlier (38 percent).  Separations involving 500 or more workers, while
comprising only 4 percent of the events, accounted for 28 percent of all
separations in the third quarter of 2008, up from 24 percent a year earlier.
(See table F.)


                                   - 7 -


Table F. Distribution of extended layoff events by size of layoff, third
quarter 2008(p)


                                 Layoff events             Separations
         Size
                             Number      Percent      Number      Percent

 Total .................     1,330       100.0       218,158       100.0
   50-99 ...............       639        48.0        44,934        20.6
   100-149 .............       311        23.4        36,314        16.6
   150-199 .............       122         9.2        20,675         9.5
   200-299 .............       124         9.3        28,034        12.9
   300-499 .............        76         5.7        27,640        12.7
   500-999 .............        38         2.9        24,955        11.4
   1,000 or more .......        20         1.5        35,606        16.3

   p = preliminary.


Initial Claimant Characteristics

   A total of 181,386 initial claimants for unemployment insurance were
associated with extended mass layoffs in the third quarter of 2008.  Of
these claimants, 16 percent were black, 18 percent were Hispanic, 40 per-
cent were women, 34 percent were 30 to 44 years of age, and 18 percent
were 55 years of age or older.  (See table 3.)  Among persons in the civi-
lian labor force for the same period, 12 percent were black, 14 percent were
Hispanic, 46 percent were women, 33 percent were age 30 to 44, and 18 percent
were 55 years of age or older.

Geographic Distribution

   Among the 4 census regions, the West recorded the highest number of se-
parations (78,277) due to extended mass layoff events in the third quarter
of 2008, followed by the Midwest, with 53,265.  (See table 4.)  Separations
in the West occurred largely in specialty trade contracting and in food manu-
facturing.  The West accounted for 36 percent of all separations, up from
33 percent in the same period last year.

   Among the 9 census divisions, the highest number of separations during the
third quarter of 2008 was in the Pacific division (70,079).  The East North
Central division had the next-highest level of separations, with 44,284.
(See table 4.)

   California recorded the largest number of worker separations (61,375),
followed by Florida (20,261), Illinois (17,552), and New York (14,310).
(See table 5.)  After excluding the impact of seasonal reasons, California
still reported the highest number of job cuts (57,116).


                                   - 8 -


Table G. Mass layoff events and separations, selected metropolitan areas

                                                     Events       Separations

            Metropolitan area                     III     III     III      III
                                                 2007(r) 2008(p) 2007(r)  2008(p)

Total, nonmetropolitan areas ..................   109     127    15,319   17,564

Total, 369 metropolitan areas .................   524     670    78,211  101,362

    Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, Calif. ..    81      87    10,304   11,187
    New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island,
       N.Y.-N.J.-Pa. ..........................    61      49    14,397   11,140
    Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis. .    28      46     4,849    8,923
    San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, Calif. ....    11      26     1,106    3,700
    San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, Calif. .....    20      29     1,913    3,536
    Las Vegas-Paradise, Nev. ..................   (1)      20      (1)     3,101
    Elkhart-Goshen, Ind. ......................     3      11       243    2,434
    San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, Calif. .....    23      19     2,753    2,234
    Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, Fla. .     5      12       492    2,022
    Modesto, Calif. ...........................     5       5       436    2,017

   1 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE: The geographic boundaries of the metropolitan areas shown in this table
are defined in Office of Management and Budget Bulletin 08-01, November 20, 2007.


   California accounted for 28 percent of all separations due to extended
mass layoffs in the third quarter 2008, up from 26 percent in 2007.  Florida
accounted for 9 percent of the separations, up from 5 percent last year.  In
2008, four states reported third quarter program highs in terms of numbers of
separations--Indiana, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Wyoming.

   Fifty percent of extended mass layoff events and 46 percent of separations
(101,362) occurred in metropolitan areas in the third quarter of 2008, compared
with 51 percent of events and 49 percent of separations (78,211) during the third
quarter of 2007.  Among the 369 metropolitan areas, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa
Ana, Calif., reported the highest number of separations (11,187) in the third
quarter of 2008.  Next were New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, N.Y.-N.J.-
Pa., with 11,140 separations and Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, Ill.-Ind.-Wis., with
8,923 separations.  (See table G.)  Employers located in nonmetropolitan areas
separated 17,564 workers in extended mass layoffs.


                                   - 9 -


Note

   The quarterly series on extended mass layoffs cover layoffs of at least 31-
days duration that involve 50 or more individuals from a single employer filing
initial claims for unemployment insurance during a consecutive 5-week period.
Approximately 30 days after a mass layoff is triggered, the employer is con-
tacted for additional information.  Data for the third quarter are preliminary
and subject to revision.  This release also includes revised data for previous
quarters.  Data are not seasonally adjusted, but survey data suggest that there
is a seasonal pattern to layoffs.  Thus, comparisons between consecutive quar-
ters should not be used as an indicator of trend.

   For additional information about the program, see the Technical Note.


                           ________________
                                   
                                   
   The report on Mass Layoffs in October 2008 is scheduled to be released on
Friday, November 21.







                                 - 10 -



Technical Note

   The  Mass Layoff Statistics (MLS) program is a federal-state program 
which identifies, describes, and tracks the effects of major job cutbacks,
using data from each state's unemployment insurance database.  Employers
which have at least 50 initial claims filed against them during a con-
secutive 5-week period are contacted by the state agency to determine
whether these separations are of at least 31 days duration, and, if so,
information is obtained on the total number of persons separated and the
reasons for these separations.  Employers are identified according to in-
dustry classification and location, and unemployment insurance claimants
are identified by such demographic factors as age, race, gender, ethnic
group, and place of residence.  The program yields information on an
individual's entire spell of unemployment, to the point when regular
unemployment insurance benefits are exhausted.

Definitions

   Employer.  Employers in the MLS program include those covered by state
unemployment insurance laws.  Information on employers is obtained from the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, which is admin-
istered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   Extended layoff event.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment
insurance benefits from an employer during a 5-week period, with at least
50 workers separated for more than 30 days.

   Initial claimant.  A person who files any notice of unemployment to
initiate a request either for a determination of entitlement to and eligi-
bility for compensation, or for a subsequent period of unemployment within
a benefit year or period of eligibility.

   Layoff.  The separation of persons from an employer as part of a mass
layoff event.  (See below.)  Such layoffs involve both persons subject to
recall and those who are terminated by the establishment.

   Mass layoff.  Fifty or more initial claims for unemployment insurance
benefits from an employer beginning in a given month, regardless of dura-
tion.

   Worksite closure.  The complete closure of either multi-unit or single-
unit employers or the partial closure of a multi-unit employer where entire
worksites affected by layoffs are closed or planned to be closed.



                                  - 11 -



Revisions to preliminary data

The latest quarterly data in this news release are considered preliminary.
After the initial publication of quarterly information, more data are col-
lected as remaining employer interviews for the quarter are completed and
additional initial claimant information associated with extended layoff
events is received.

Movement of work concepts and questions

   Because of the employer interview component, the BLS decided to use
the MLS program as a vehicle for collecting additional information on
offshoring and outsourcing associated with job loss, by adding questions
that address movement of work.  The term "moving work" means that the
company experiencing the layoff has reassigned work activities that were
performed at a worksite by the company's employees (1) to another work-
site within the company; (2) to another company under formal arrangements 
at the same worksite; or (3) to another company under formal arrangements 
at another worksite.  The type of work activities subject to movement can
include accounting, customer service, cleaning, warehousing, etc.

   "Overseas relocation" is the movement of work from within the U.S. to
locations outside of the U.S. "Overseas relocation" can occur within the
same company and involve movement of work to a different location of that
company outside of the U.S., or to a different company altogether.

   "Domestic relocation" is the movement of work to other locations inside
the U.S., either within the same company or to a different company.

   "Overseas relocation" and "domestic relocation" are no longer used in the
same way as they were in earlier extended mass layoff news releases.  There-
fore, the data presented in this news release are not comparable to those
that were presented in earlier news releases.

   Questions on movement of work and location are asked for all identified
layoff events when the reason for separation is other than "seasonal work"
or "vacation period."  Seasonal and vacation layoff events were excluded
because movement of work appears unlikely.

   Questions on movement of work are asked after the analyst verifies that 
a layoff in fact occurred and lasted more than 30 days, and obtained the
total number of workers separated from jobs, the date the layoff began, and
the economic reason for the layoff.  If the reason for layoff is other than
seasonal or vacation, the employer was asked the following:

   (1) "Did this layoff include your company moving work from this loca-
tion(s) to a different geographic location(s) within your company?"

   (2) "Did this layoff include your company moving work that was performed
in-house by your employees to a different company, through contractual ar-
rangements?"

   A "yes" response to either question is followed by:

   "Is the location inside or outside of the U.S.?" and "How many of the
layoffs were a result of this relocation?"

   Layoff actions are classified as "overseas relocation" if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2, and indicates that the location(s)
was outside of the U.S.  Domestic relocation is determined if the employer
responds "yes" to questions 1 and/or 2 and indicates that the location(s)
was within the U.S.

   After asking the movement of work questions, the employer interview
continues and responses are obtained for questions on recall expectations
and open/closed status of the worksite.



                                  - 12 - 



Reliability of the data

   The identification of employers and layoff events in the MLS program
and associated characteristics of claimants is based on administrative
data on covered establishments and unemployment insurance claims, and,
therefore, is not subject to issues associated with sampling error.
Nonsampling errors such as typographical errors may occur but are not
likely to be significant.  While the MLS employers and layoff events
are not subject to sampling error, and all such employers are asked the
interview questions, the employer responses are subject to nonsampling 
error.  Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the in-
ability to obtain information for all respondents, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made 
in the collection or processing of the data.  For the third quarter of
2008, outright refusal to participate in the employer interview accounted
for 3.4 percent of all private nonfarm events.  Although included in the
total number of instances involving the movement of work, for the third
quarter, employers in 28 relocations were unable to provide the number of
separations specifically associated with the movement of work, 4 of which
involved out-of-country moves.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone:  1-800-877-8339.







Table 1. Industry distribution:  Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                            Initial claimants for  
                                                         Layoff events              Separations             unemployment insurance 
                      Industry                                                                                                     
                                                     III     II      III       III      II       III        III      II       III  
                                                    2007r   2008r   2008p     2007r    2008r    2008p      2007r    2008r    2008p 
                                                                                                                                   
      Total, private nonfarm(1) ..................  1,018   1,756   1,330    160,024  354,361  218,158    173,077  335,854  181,386

    Mining .......................................      4       3     (2)        677      627      (2)        530      357      (2)
    Utilities ....................................      -       4     (2)          -      758      (2)          -      738      (2)
    Construction .................................    187     243     208     17,315   27,477   21,099     28,059   35,327   21,727
    Manufacturing ................................    269     382     430     43,336   64,998   75,511     54,116   85,757   67,141
         Food ....................................     30      61      41      5,834   11,597   10,975      6,976    8,986    4,327
         Beverage and tobacco products ...........    (2)     (2)       5        (2)      (2)      520        (2)      (2)      497
         Textile mills ...........................      9     (2)       8      2,730      (2)    1,839      4,552      (2)    2,388
         Textile product mills (3) ...............      3       6     (2)        908      728      (2)        918      805      (2)
         Apparel (3) .............................     16      11      12      1,706    1,589    1,618      1,836    1,399    1,474
         Leather and allied products .............      -     (2)     (2)          -      (2)      (2)          -      (2)      (2)
         Wood products ...........................     21      37      31      2,756    5,003    4,636      3,496    5,518    3,448
         Paper ...................................      5      12      10        893    1,426    2,154        882    1,284    1,932
         Printing and related support activities .    (2)      12      10        (2)    1,548    1,260        (2)    1,953      836
         Petroleum and coal products .............      -       3     (2)          -      378      (2)          -      218      (2)

         Chemicals ...............................      6      13      11        463    1,598      931        583    1,352      905
         Plastics and rubber products (3) ........     11      20      20      1,213    3,272    3,202      1,703    3,259    2,896
         Nonmetallic mineral products ............      8      13      15        919    1,846    1,850      1,074    1,499    1,630
         Primary metals ..........................      9       8      12      1,486      728    1,178      2,331    1,360    1,027
         Fabricated metal products ...............     21      19      26      3,093    2,178    2,721      3,575    3,294    2,401
         Machinery (3) ...........................     18      25      29      3,608    4,354    6,630      3,546    5,967    7,292
         Computer and electronic products ........     27      20      43      5,957    2,783    7,335      4,974    2,692    5,433
         Electrical equipment and appliances .....      5       9      11        328    1,739    2,000        441    1,477    1,366
         Transportation equipment (3) ............     54      84     110      8,700   19,307   21,630     14,641   38,882   24,960
         Furniture and related products (3) ......     14      17      20      1,411    3,366    3,154      1,127    4,021    2,675
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) .........      7       8      10        791      895    1,185      1,014    1,084    1,079

    Wholesale trade ..............................     19      32      25      2,336    5,047    3,214      1,838    4,034    2,143
    Retail trade .................................     59      81      76     10,095   15,043   17,199     11,486   19,692   13,669
    Transportation and warehousing ...............     84     191     107     15,251   44,637   18,438     14,498   43,948   14,552
    Information ..................................     18      50      46      2,415    9,815    8,758      2,713   10,373    6,896
    Finance and insurance (3) ....................    133      89      80     24,757   31,417   13,594     24,199   19,868   10,608
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) .......      8       8      10      1,194      723    1,153      1,354      883    1,138
    Professional and technical services (3) ......     35      80      41      5,144   38,365    6,289      5,728   21,369    5,535
    Management of companies and enterprises ......      8       6     (2)        782      658      (2)      1,100      529      (2)
    Administrative and waste services (3) ........     60     114     116      8,225   21,408   18,555      9,349   23,486   16,927
    Educational services .........................      9      16      14      1,323    1,644    1,516      1,726    1,985    1,302
    Health care and social assistance ............     49     186      62      9,724   23,798    6,846      5,017   21,605    5,183
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation ..........     22      57      34      6,118   23,768    7,519      2,734    5,830    2,797
    Accommodation and food services ..............     40     158      65      8,622   36,841   16,444      6,985   32,966   10,000
    Other services, except public administration .     13      54      11      2,560    6,819    1,335      1,572    6,816    1,291

    Unclassified .................................      1       2       -        150      518        -         73      291        -
                                                                                                                                   
    1 For the third quarter of 2008, data on layoffs were reported by employers in all states and the District of Columbia. 
    2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
    3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  Dash represents zero.
    
    
    
    
    


Table 2. Reason for layoff:  Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, 
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                         Initial claimants for   
                                             Layoff events                   Separations                 unemployment insurance  
         Reason for layoff                                                                                                       
                                       III       II        III         III       II        III          III       II        III  
                                      2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p 
                                                                                                                                 
   Total, private nonfarm(1) ......   1,018     1,756     1,330      160,024   354,361   218,158      173,077   335,854   181,386

Business demand ...................     421       566       577       49,268    79,925    76,979       73,378   106,297    78,420
   Contract cancellation ..........      15        22        42        2,320     2,854     6,468        1,809     3,236     5,306
   Contract completion ............     201       211       179       20,331    27,716    24,964       31,636    35,481    24,845
   Domestic competition ...........       3       (2)       (2)          254       (2)       (2)          208       (2)       (2)
   Excess inventory/saturated 
     market .......................       6       (2)       (2)        1,551       (2)       (2)        1,641       (2)       (2)
   Import competition .............      16        13        12        3,273     1,831     3,197        3,645     1,624     2,489
   Slack work/insufficient demand/
     non-seasonal           
     business slowdown ............     180       311       336       21,539    46,145    41,116       34,439    64,595    44,466
Organizational changes ............      99       122       107       17,723    37,097    28,256       17,299    32,654    15,354
   Business-ownership change ......      27        20        16        4,990    17,922    11,692        3,475     3,545     2,535
   Reorganization or restructuring 
     of company ...................      72       102        91       12,733    19,175    16,564       13,824    29,109    12,819

Financial issues ..................     122       120       174       28,461    27,778    32,812       23,770    21,095    21,090
   Bankruptcy .....................      21        23        40        6,819     9,011    12,156        2,904     5,246     6,324
   Cost control/cost cutting/
     increase profitability .......      36        55        82        6,130    10,046    10,458        8,031     7,906     8,483
   Financial difficulty ...........      65        42        52       15,512     8,721    10,198       12,835     7,943     6,283

Production specific ...............     (2)       (2)        23          (2)       (2)     3,527          (2)       (2)     4,018
   Automation/technological 
     advances .....................       4         3         4        1,468       264       707        1,293       545       640
   Energy related .................       -       (2)         6            -       (2)       720            -       (2)     1,866
   Governmental regulations/
     intervention .................       4         4         3          997     1,067       290          605       436       224
   Labor dispute/contract 
     negotiations/strike ..........     (2)         5       (2)          (2)     1,430       (2)          (2)     1,369       (2)
   Material or supply shortage ....       -         5         4            -       624       466            -       614       309
   Model changeover ...............       -       (2)         -            -       (2)         -            -       (2)         -
   Plant or machine repair/
     maintenance ..................       4         3       (2)          865       802       (2)          579       732       (2)
   Product line discontinued ......       -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)

Disaster/safety ...................     (2)       (2)         5          (2)       (2)     1,362          (2)       (2)       860
   Hazardous work environment .....     (2)         -         -          (2)         -         -          (2)         -         -
   Natural disaster (not weather 
     related) .....................     (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)          (2)       (2)       (2)
   Non-natural disaster ...........     (2)         -       (2)          (2)         -       (2)          (2)         -       (2)
   Extreme weather-related event ..       -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)

Seasonal ..........................     218       651       198       40,361   156,308    38,742       34,840   121,904    26,150
   Seasonal .......................     123       364       105       23,314   107,469    22,185       20,441    70,175    12,146
   Vacation period-school related 
     or otherwise .................      95       287        93       17,047    48,839    16,557       14,399    51,729    14,004

Other/miscellaneous ...............     140       267       246       19,641    47,685    36,480       20,424    47,202    35,494
   Other ..........................       9        18        20        1,363     3,176     3,274        2,050     3,031     3,449
   Data not provided: refusal .....      43        54        46        6,019    12,666     8,763        6,016    12,434     8,733
   Data not provided: does not 
     know .........................      88       195       180       12,259    31,843    24,443       12,358    31,737    23,312


    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
    r =revised.     
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  Dash represents zero.
    
    
    
    
    


Table 3. State and selected claimant characteristics:  Extended mass layoff events and initial claimants for unemployment insurance, 
private nonfarm sector, second and third quarters, 2008

                                                          Total                              Percent of total                       
                                                         initial                          Hispanic                    Persons age 55
                                   Layoff events        claimants          Black           origin          Women         and over   
              State                                                                                                                
                                   II      III       II        III      II      III     II     III      II      III     II      III 
                                  2008r   2008p     2008r     2008p    2008r   2008p   2008r   2008p   2008r   2008p   2008r   2008p
                                                                                                                                   
    Total, private nonfarm(1) ..  1,756   1,330    335,854  181,386     16.6   16.1     16.8   17.7     49.9   40.4     21.5   18.4

Alabama ........................     21       9      3,694    2,461     57.4   46.6      2.8    3.3     58.3   53.4     20.5   13.9
Alaska .........................      6       3      1,207      241      4.9    2.1     16.2   27.8     45.7   28.2     27.8   26.1
Arizona ........................     20       9      2,741      860      3.1    7.2     57.8   29.1     57.4   48.5     18.8   15.5
Arkansas .......................     11     (2)      1,263      (2)     42.8   38.4      6.5      -     76.6   72.6     18.8   23.3
California .....................    464     446     81,944   52,748     10.3   10.3     37.0   33.2     42.9   38.5     15.9   15.5
Colorado .......................     12       7      1,576      525      6.5    8.4     30.6   26.1     63.8   40.4     22.8   19.8
Connecticut ....................     22      11      3,877    1,026     15.0   17.2     12.7   18.3     60.5   53.4     26.9   19.1
Delaware .......................    (2)       -        (2)        -     43.2      -      8.6      -     83.3      -     31.8      -
District of Columbia ...........      4       -        566        -     89.6      -      4.8      -     70.8      -     13.4      -
Florida ........................    113      97     20,439   13,744     17.3   17.5     31.2   26.2     45.4   44.1     22.6   20.2
Georgia ........................     14      20      1,612    2,437     48.9   58.1      2.7    2.9     44.0   48.5     18.2   16.0
Hawaii .........................      9       6      2,522      867      3.1    4.3      7.4   15.6     41.9   34.3     18.1   16.7
Idaho ..........................     20       6      2,135      623       .5     .8      6.6   12.4     44.8   38.4     24.5   16.4

Illinois .......................    110      97     26,194   12,094     24.2   26.9     10.1   16.3     57.3   45.5     20.9   17.1
Indiana ........................     52      47     13,384    8,699      7.4    8.0      4.8    4.0     38.8   34.4     18.8   14.1
Iowa ...........................     14       8      2,280    2,904     11.4    1.3      2.5    2.0     59.2   35.3     23.6   21.8
Kansas .........................     15       8      1,577      586     15.5   11.6      1.7    5.1     61.9   40.6     23.7   20.6
Kentucky .......................     20      18      1,979    1,775      4.7    7.3        -     .4     23.0   19.3     22.4   18.0
Louisiana ......................     26      15      3,300    2,662     73.2   45.5      1.5    3.1     74.4   32.6     20.9   21.6
Maine ..........................      5     (2)        788      (2)      1.9    2.2       .1      -     43.8   40.0     27.9   22.2
Maryland .......................     10     (2)      1,404      (2)     56.6   21.4      1.1    1.4     62.3   71.4     21.2   38.6
Massachusetts ..................     25      21      4,315    2,499     13.8   11.1      2.0    4.2     59.4   51.9     27.7   26.9
Michigan .......................     75      41     27,887    6,170     19.7    9.0      2.7    6.0     42.1   39.6     17.9   16.4
Minnesota ......................     22      11      2,803    1,493      9.4    7.2      6.2    2.1     46.0   26.9     22.5   15.1
Mississippi ....................     12      14      1,548    1,556     57.8   73.5      2.5    1.9     47.9   36.6     15.2   14.3
Missouri .......................     43      31      8,252    3,409     22.6   20.9       .3     .4     69.2   45.8     26.2   20.6

Montana ........................      9       4        683      250        -     .4      3.7    2.0     56.1   28.0     31.3   24.4
Nebraska .......................      5     (2)        715      (2)     10.9   13.0      6.4    2.3     33.6   16.8     32.3   20.6
Nevada .........................     15      22      2,550    2,904     12.9    9.7     27.7   27.8     47.5   29.9     21.2   16.3
New Hampshire ..................      7     (2)        897      (2)       .2    6.7       .4   11.2     64.7   27.0     32.0   14.6
New Jersey .....................     77      43     17,427    4,139     20.6   26.6      7.1    8.4     66.2   61.6     35.1   25.7
New Mexico .....................      8       8        853    1,189      3.9    2.7     37.7   42.0     27.7   33.9     19.1   13.1
New York .......................     70      62     12,901    9,848     13.2   17.0      9.8   15.1     48.5   56.9     24.4   31.5
North Carolina .................     10      14      2,697    1,638     35.6   27.5      2.9    6.9     31.6   55.9     15.4   25.3
North Dakota ...................      -     (2)          -      (2)        -      -        -      -        -   23.1        -    9.3
Ohio ...........................     83      49     15,110    9,299     14.8   16.3      3.0    3.5     50.3   29.1     20.2   19.2
Oklahoma .......................      5       5        786      846     14.5   10.2      2.0    3.5     48.3   29.7     13.4   20.1
Oregon .........................     27      19      6,775    4,179      1.5     .7     12.9   13.6     54.8   33.3     27.2   17.3
Pennsylvania ...................     97      60     20,964    9,392      9.5    4.0      3.5    2.0     52.3   38.5     31.4   24.6

Rhode Island ...................      9     (2)      1,274      (2)      5.0    6.7     19.3   24.2     80.5   52.6     36.7   25.8
South Carolina .................     16      11      3,678    3,440     75.4   69.2       .4     .2     59.8   51.5      6.6    2.5
South Dakota ...................    (2)       -        (2)        -        -      -      1.0      -     86.0      -     47.0      -
Tennessee ......................     20      31      3,412    3,152     30.5   24.1        -     .1     58.8   49.6     35.6   20.7
Texas ..........................     51      30     10,166    5,037     16.0   19.5     48.0   42.7     44.2   35.0     15.4   10.8
Utah ...........................      9     (2)      1,801      (2)      1.7    2.4     18.0   16.3     45.7   63.9     10.2   12.3
Vermont ........................      5     (2)        731      (2)      1.0     .7       .3     .7     37.2   22.8     18.7   22.8
Virginia .......................     14       7      1,860      858     51.6   36.9      5.2    3.7     73.8   21.6     21.1   30.4
Washington .....................     26      13      3,797    1,401      4.3    4.9     10.8   17.5     57.0   27.6     27.4   17.1
West Virginia ..................      7     (2)        763      (2)       .7      -        -      -     34.3   31.4     12.8      -
Wisconsin ......................     35      13      6,194    3,148     11.5    3.9      3.2    1.8     59.5   25.1     32.6   29.0
Wyoming ........................    (2)     (2)        (2)      (2)        -      -        -      -     27.0   14.9      2.7   12.2

Puerto Rico ....................     13       8      3,468    1,568       .1     .1     98.2   98.9     59.6   64.0      8.7    8.7
                                                                                                                                   
    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  Dash represents zero.
    
    
    
    
    


Table 4. Census region and division:  Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment
insurance, private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                    Initial claimants for  
                                         Layoff events                   Separations                unemployment insurance 
   Census region and division                                                                                              
                                   III       II        III         III       II        III          III      II       III  
                                  2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r    2008r    2008p 
                                                                                                                           
        United States (1) .....   1,018     1,756     1,330      160,024   354,361   218,158      173,077  335,854  181,386

Northeast .....................     271       317       202       46,902    61,910    35,433       47,396   63,174   27,413

    New England ...............      34        73        37        8,696    15,478     4,655        5,815   11,882    4,034
    Middle Atlantic ...........     237       244       165       38,206    46,432    30,778       41,581   51,292   23,379

South .........................     182       358       274       27,005    62,931    51,183       27,375   59,526   39,819

    South Atlantic ............     108       192       151       15,451    35,723    29,575       15,312   33,378   22,257
    East South Central ........      35        73        72        5,493    10,748    10,086        4,636   10,633    8,944
    West South Central ........      39        93        51        6,061    16,460    11,522        7,427   15,515    8,618

Midwest .......................     191       455       308       32,557    92,768    53,265       37,620  104,496   48,041

    East North Central ........     152       355       247       26,161    75,631    44,284       32,640   88,769   39,410
    West North Central ........      39       100        61        6,396    17,137     8,981        4,980   15,727    8,631

West ..........................     374       626       546       53,560   136,752    78,277       60,686  108,658   66,113

    Mountain ..................      26        94        59        6,237    30,318     8,198        5,264   12,413    6,677
    Pacific ...................     348       532       487       47,323   106,434    70,079       55,422   96,245   59,436
                                                                                                                           
 
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England:
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey,  New York, and
Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Virginia, and  West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and  Tennessee; West South Central:
Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas: East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West
North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. 







Table 5. State distribution:  Extended mass layoff events, separations, and initial claimants for unemployment insurance,
private nonfarm sector, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                                                                        Initial claimants for   
                                           Layoff events                     Separations                unemployment insurance  
              State                                                                                                             
                                      III       II        III         III       II        III          III       II        III  
                                     2007r     2008r     2008p       2007r     2008r     2008p        2007r     2008r     2008p 
                                                                                                                                
    Total, private nonfarm (1) .     1,018     1,756     1,330      160,024   354,361   218,158      173,077   335,854   181,386

Alabama ........................         8        21         9        1,714     3,191     2,542        1,411     3,694     2,461
Alaska .........................       (2)         6         3          (2)     3,707     3,460          (2)     1,207       241
Arizona ........................         8        20         9        2,014     3,484       955        1,578     2,741       860
Arkansas .......................         7        11       (2)        1,084     1,366       (2)        1,109     1,263       (2)
California .....................       316       464       446       41,235    88,740    61,375       50,591    81,944    52,748
Colorado .......................       (2)        12         7          (2)    14,369     1,229          (2)     1,576       525
Connecticut ....................       (2)        22        11          (2)     5,254     1,516          (2)     3,877     1,026
Delaware .......................         -       (2)         -            -       (2)         -            -       (2)         -
District of Columbia ...........       (2)         4         -          (2)       566         -          (2)       566         -
Florida ........................        50       113        97        8,199    21,648    20,261        5,986    20,439    13,744
Georgia ........................        21        14        20        2,285     1,384     3,228        4,594     1,612     2,437
Hawaii .........................         3         9         6          503     4,333       504          344     2,522       867
Idaho ..........................         3        20         6        1,280     2,219       669        1,200     2,135       623

Illinois .......................        70       110        97       13,488    26,735    17,552       12,865    26,194    12,094
Indiana ........................        14        52        47        2,211     9,504     8,824        3,372    13,384     8,699
Iowa ...........................         4        14         8          491     1,702     1,071          614     2,280     2,904
Kansas .........................         3        15         8          333     2,086       700          476     1,577       586
Kentucky .......................        13        20        18        1,975     2,320     2,332        1,433     1,979     1,775
Louisiana ......................         4        26        15          813     4,022     3,027          738     3,300     2,662
Maine ..........................         4         5       (2)          341     1,953       (2)          310       788       (2)
Maryland .......................        12        10       (2)        1,378     1,444       (2)        1,395     1,404       (2)
Massachusetts ..................        22        25        21        7,348     5,123     2,550        4,697     4,315     2,499
Michigan .......................        29        75        41        5,166    13,357     5,664        8,039    27,887     6,170
Minnesota ......................         8        22        11        1,163     3,399     2,184        1,159     2,803     1,493
Mississippi ....................         5        12        14          796     1,296     2,302          588     1,548     1,556
Missouri .......................        21        43        31        4,174     8,992     4,508        2,526     8,252     3,409

Montana ........................         -         9         4            -       671       292            -       683       250
Nebraska .......................       (2)         5       (2)          (2)       750       (2)          (2)       715       (2)
Nevada .........................       (2)        15        22          (2)     3,359     3,324          (2)     2,550     2,904
New Hampshire ..................       (2)         7       (2)          (2)     1,172       (2)          (2)       897       (2)
New Jersey .....................        30        77        43        6,927    21,327     7,480        4,234    17,427     4,139
New Mexico .....................         6         8         8        1,156       853     1,203        1,156       853     1,189
New York .......................       135        70        62       24,583    14,492    14,310       23,233    12,901     9,848
North Carolina .................         6        10        14          761     4,384     1,373        1,049     2,697     1,638
North Dakota ...................         -         -       (2)            -         -       (2)            -         -       (2)
Ohio ...........................        28        83        49        3,882    20,134    10,121        5,577    15,110     9,299
Oklahoma .......................         4         5         5          413     1,134     2,224          363       786       846
Oregon .........................        12        27        19        1,813     6,541     3,317        1,695     6,775     4,179
Pennsylvania ...................        72        97        60        6,696    10,613     8,988       14,114    20,964     9,392

Rhode Island ...................         4         9       (2)          464     1,239       (2)          411     1,274       (2)
South Carolina .................         6        16        11        1,493     3,077     3,571        1,134     3,678     3,440
South Dakota ...................       (2)       (2)         -          (2)       (2)         -          (2)       (2)         -
Tennessee ......................         9        20        31        1,008     3,941     2,910        1,204     3,412     3,152
Texas ..........................        24        51        30        3,751     9,938     6,198        5,217    10,166     5,037
Utah ...........................         5         9       (2)          604     4,563       (2)          570     1,801       (2)
Vermont ........................       (2)         5       (2)          (2)       737       (2)          (2)       731       (2)
Virginia .......................        10        14         7          963     1,997       956          887     1,860       858
Washington .....................        15        26        13        1,387     3,113     1,423        1,979     3,797     1,401
West Virginia ..................       (2)         7       (2)          (2)       894       (2)          (2)       763       (2)
Wisconsin ......................        11        35        13        1,414     5,901     2,123        2,787     6,194     3,148
Wyoming ........................         -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)            -       (2)       (2)

Puerto Rico ....................        11        13         8          938     1,310       657        2,647     3,468     1,568
                                                                                                                                
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero. 







Table 6. Information technology-producing industries:  Extended mass layoff events and separations, private nonfarm sector, 2001-2008

                                                               Information technology-producing industries (1)                      
                        Total extended                                                                                              
        Year             mass layoffs                                                                                               
                                                 Computer              Software and          Communications          Communications 
                                                hardware (2)        computer services (3)       equipment (4)          services (5) 

                      Layoff                 Layoff                 Layoff                 Layoff                Layoff              
                      events   Separations   events   Separations   events   Separations   events   Separations  events   Separations
        2001                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,546      304,171       91       20,991        32         5,558       22        4,441       13        3,317
Second quarter ...    1,828      430,499      161       38,986        69         9,563       36       12,109       15        3,519
Third quarter ....    1,629      330,391      142       24,813        45         5,724       39        8,200       21        5,350
Fourth quarter ...    2,372      459,771      109       17,797        50         7,667       43       10,124       38        9,889

    Total ........    7,375    1,524,832      503      102,587       196        28,512      140       34,874       87       22,075

        2002                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,611      299,266       84       18,574        34         3,770       32        8,192       28        4,346
Second quarter ...    1,624      344,606       69       11,764        39         4,326       27        4,870       34        5,643
Third quarter ....    1,186      255,152       76       15,017        36         4,359       34        6,529       33        5,496
Fourth quarter ...    1,916      373,307       74       14,298        26         5,709       19        3,645       31        7,643

    Total ........    6,337    1,272,331      303       59,653       135        18,164      112       23,236      126       23,128

        2003                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,502      286,947       71       11,900        27         5,097       23        4,402       26        4,513
Second quarter ...    1,799      368,273       54        9,221        19         2,741       21        3,098       22        4,169
Third quarter ....    1,190      236,333       46        6,488        24         4,189        9        1,289        8          842
Fourth quarter ...    1,690      325,333       25        5,080         8         1,167        9        1,619       23        5,774

    Total ........    6,181    1,216,886      196       32,689        78        13,194       62       10,408       79       15,298

        2004                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,339      276,503       27        3,222        13         2,786        8          894       14        2,832
Second quarter ...    1,358      278,831       18        2,959        15         2,775        -            -       15        3,250
Third quarter ....      886      164,608       13        2,288        14         1,467        4          430       11        3,792
Fourth quarter ...    1,427      273,967       18        3,055        10         1,547        4          563       20        3,143

    Total ........    5,010      993,909       76       11,524        52         8,575       16        1,887       60       13,017

        2005                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,142      186,506       13        1,526         9         2,355        4          439       12        2,400
Second quarter ...    1,203      246,099       20        2,973        13         1,558        4          842        7        1,331
Third quarter ....    1,136      201,878       23        3,307         7         1,034      (6)          (6)        3          304
Fourth quarter ...    1,400      250,178       19        4,122         3           720      (6)          (6)        5          845

    Total ........    4,881      884,661       75       11,928        32         5,667       13        3,000       27        4,880

        2006                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....      963      183,089       12        1,159         6           744      (6)          (6)      (6)          (6)
Second quarter ...    1,353      295,964       10        3,294         7         1,564        8          988      (6)          (6)
Third quarter ....      929      160,254       14        3,544         6           487      (6)          (6)        8        1,222
Fourth quarter ...    1,640      296,662       12        4,039         4           708        5        1,482        8          947

    Total ........    4,885      935,969       48       12,036        23         3,503       19        3,753       23        3,406

        2007                                                                                                                      

First quarter ....    1,110      225,600       19        3,007         5           875        3          415        5          885
Second quarter ...    1,421      278,719       22        3,634         4           413        5          433        3          315
Third quarter ....    1,018      160,024       22        5,279         6         1,030        4          403        3          276
Fourth quarter ...    1,814      301,592        9        1,459         4           473        3          381        7          870

    Total ........    5,363      965,935       72       13,379        19         2,791       15        1,632       18        2,346

        2008                                                                                                                      

First quarter(r) .    1,340      229,858       19        3,040         9           987        3          330        3          329
Second quarter(r)     1,756      354,361       25        4,018         7           969      (6)          (6)       16        2,545
Third quarter(p)      1,330      218,158       33        5,818        19         2,835        6        1,331        8          924
                                                                                                                                  
 
   1 Information technology-producing industries are defined in Digital Economy 2003, (U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and
Statistics Administration, 2003). In the MLS program, however, computer and software merchant wholesalers and computer and
software stores are only included in the computer hardware industry.
   2 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
semiconductor machinery manufacturing; office machinery manufacturing; electronic computer manufacturing; computer storage device
manufacturing; computer terminal manufacturing; other computer peripheral equipment mfg.; electron tube manufacturing; bare
printed circuit board manufacturing; semiconductors and related device mfg.; electronic capacitor manufacturing; electronic
resistor manufacturing; electronic coils, transformers, and inductors; electronic connector manufacturing; printed circuit
assembly manufacturing; other electronic component manufacturing; industrial process variable instruments; electricity and signal
testing instruments; analytical laboratory instrument mfg.; computer and software merchant wholesalers; and computer and software
stores.
   3 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
software publishers; internet service providers; web search portals; data processing and related services; computer and software  
merchant wholesalers; computer and software stores; custom computer programming  services; computer systems design services;
computer facilities management services; other computer related services; office equipment rental and leasing; and computer and
office machine repair.
   4 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
telephone apparatus manufacturing; audio and video equipment manufacturing; broadcast and wireless communications equip.; fiber
optic cable manufacturing; software reproducing; and magnetic and optical recording media mfg.
   5 The industries included in this grouping, based on the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), are:
wired telecommunications carriers; cellular and other wireless carriers; telecommunications resellers; cable and other program
distribution; satellite telecommunications; other telecommunications; and communication equipment repair.
   6 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 7. Industry distribution:  Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                               Layoff events                            Separations           
                     Industry                                                                                                 
                                                      III          II           III           III           II            III 
                                                      2007        2008r        2008p         2007r         2008r         2008p
                                                                                                                              
      Total, private nonfarm (1) ................       63           71           82        12,367        12,315        14,613

    Mining ......................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Utilities ...................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Construction ................................        -          (2)            -             -           (2)             -
    Manufacturing ...............................       45           49           55         8,955         7,697        10,983
         Food ...................................      (2)            5            4           (2)         1,025         1,302
         Beverage and tobacco products ..........      (2)            -            -           (2)             -             -
         Textile mills ..........................        5            -            3         1,505             -           314
         Textile product mills (3) ..............      (2)          (2)            -           (2)           (2)             -
         Apparel (3) ............................        5            3          (2)           660           599           (2)
         Leather and allied products ............        -            -          (2)             -             -           (2)
         Wood products ..........................        -            -            -             -             -             -
         Paper ..................................        -            3            3             -           256           391
         Printing and related support activities       (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2)           (2)
         Petroleum and coal products ............        -            -            -             -             -             -

         Chemicals ..............................        -          (2)          (2)             -           (2)           (2)
         Plastics and rubber products (3) .......        5          (2)            3           595           (2)           292
         Nonmetallic mineral products ...........      (2)          (2)            -           (2)           (2)             -
         Primary metals .........................      (2)          (2)            -           (2)           (2)             -
         Fabricated metal products ..............        3            3          (2)           462           338           (2)
         Machinery (3) ..........................        3            4            4           565           539           776
         Computer and electronic products .......        3            4            9         1,924           408         1,527
         Electrical equipment and appliances ....      (2)            5            6           (2)         1,432         1,282
         Transportation equipment (3) ...........        6            9           12         1,065         1,125         3,268
         Furniture and related products (3) .....      (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2)           (2)
         Miscellaneous manufacturing (3) ........        3          (2)          (2)           188           (2)           (2)

    Wholesale trade .............................        5            4          (2)           678           578           (2)
    Retail trade ................................      (2)            5          (2)           (2)           454           (2)
    Transportation and warehousing ..............      (2)            3            4           (2)         1,589           684
    Information .................................        -          (2)            4             -           (2)           557
    Finance and insurance (3) ...................        7          (2)            8         1,612           (2)           938
    Real estate and rental and leasing (3) ......        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Professional and technical services (3) .....      (2)          (2)          (2)           (2)           (2)           (2)
    Management of companies and enterprises .....        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Administrative and waste services (3) .......        -            5            3             -         1,206           479
    Educational services ........................        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Health care and social assistance ...........        -            -            3             -             -           431
    Arts, entertainment, and recreation .........        -            -          (2)             -             -           (2)
    Accommodation and food services .............        -            -            -             -             -             -
    Other services, except public administration       (2)            -            -           (2)             -             -

    Unclassified ................................        -            -            -             -             -             -
                                                                                                                              

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   3 Data beginning in 2008 are not strictly comparable to prior years due to a change in NAICS versions.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 8. Reason for layoff:  Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work, 
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                               Layoff events                                  Separations              

         Reason for layoff             III         II          III               III              II               III 
                                       2007       2008r       2008p             2007r            2008r            2008p

   Total, private nonfarm (1) ....       63          71          82            12,367           12,315           14,613

Business demand ..................       17          19         (2)             3,303            4,560              (2)
  Contract cancellation ..........      (2)           -         (2)               (2)                -              (2)
  Contract completion ............      (2)           -           -               (2)                -                -
  Domestic competition ...........        -         (2)           -                 -              (2)                -
  Excess inventory/saturated 
    market .......................      (2)         (2)           -               (2)              (2)                -
  Import competition .............       10         (2)         (2)             2,269              (2)              (2)
  Slack work/insufficient demand/
    non-seasonal business slowdown      (2)           9          12               (2)            2,810            3,134
    
Organizational changes ...........       23          34          46             4,729            5,154            8,276
  Business-ownership change ......        4           3           6               903              634            1,628
  Reorganization or restructuring 
    of company ...................       19          31          40             3,826            4,520            6,648

Financial issues .................       18          12          18             3,763            1,689            2,509
  Bankruptcy .....................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Cost control/cost cutting/
    increase profitability .......      (2)         (2)         (2)               (2)              (2)              (2)
  Financial difficulty ...........      (2)         (2)         (2)               (2)              (2)              (2)

Production specific ..............      (2)         (2)           -               (2)              (2)                -
  Automation/technological 
    advances .....................      (2)           -           -               (2)                -                -
  Energy related .................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Governmental regulations/
    intervention .................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Labor dispute/contract 
    negotiations/strike ..........        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Material or supply shortage ....        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Model changeover ...............        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Plant or machine repair/
    maintenance ..................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Product line discontinued ......        -         (2)           -                 -              (2)                -

Disaster/safety ..................        -         (2)           -                 -              (2)                -
  Hazardous work environment .....        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Natural disaster (not weather 
    related) .....................        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Non-natural disaster ...........        -           -           -                 -                -                -
  Extreme weather-related event ..        -         (2)           -                 -              (2)                -

Other/miscellaneous ..............      (2)         (2)         (2)               (2)              (2)              (2)
  Other ..........................      (2)         (2)         (2)               (2)              (2)              (2)
  Data not provided: refusal .....        -         (2)           -                 -              (2)                -
  Data not provided: does not 
    know .........................      (2)           -           -               (2)                -                -

   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  Dash represents zero.







Table 9. Census region and division:  Extended mass layoff events and separations associated with the movement of work,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                       Layoff events                             Separations            
 Census region and division                                                                             
                              III          II          III            III            II             III 
                              2007        2008r       2008p          2007r          2008r          2008p 
                                                                                                        
        United States (1) .     63           71          82         12,367         12,315         14,613

Northeast .................      9           15          14          1,400          1,839          2,236

    New England ...........      3          (2)         (2)            514            (2)            (2)
    Middle Atlantic .......      6          (2)         (2)            886            (2)            (2)

South .....................     29           20          11          5,298          3,404          1,968

    South Atlantic ........     14           12           4          2,321          1,899            544
    East South Central ....    (2)            5           3            (2)            734            362
    West South Central ....    (2)            3           4            (2)            771          1,062

Midwest ...................     15           22          42          2,706          3,569          8,177

    East North Central ....      8           17          32          1,355          2,959          6,179
    West North Central ....      7            5          10          1,351            610          1,998

West ......................     10           14          15          2,963          3,503          2,232

    Mountain ..............    (2)          (2)         (2)            (2)            (2)            (2)
    Pacific ...............    (2)          (2)         (2)            (2)            (2)            (2)
                                                                                                        
 
   1 See footnote 1, table 1.
   2 Data do not meet BLS or state agency disclosure standards.
   r = revised.
   p = preliminary.
   NOTE:  The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New
England:  Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic:
New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic:  Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida,
Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central:
Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas: East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa,
Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii,
Oregon, and Washington. 







Table 10. Extended mass layoff events and separations, selected measures, selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                                  Layoff events                                Separations              
                Action                                                                                                  
                                          III          II           III             III             II              III  
                                         2007r        2008r        2008p           2007r           2008r           2008p 
                                                                                                                        
Total, private nonfarm(1) ..........     1,018        1,756        1,330         160,024         354,361         218,158

    Total, excluding seasonal                                                                                           
      and vacation events(2) .......       800        1,105        1,132         119,663         198,053         179,416

                                                                                                                        
        Total, movement of work(3) .        63           71           82          12,367          12,315          14,613

                                                                                                                        
             Movement of work 
               actions .............        87          100          104             (4)             (4)             (4)
                  With separations 
                    reported .......        60           78           76           7,159           7,346           9,265
                  With separations 
                    unknown ........        27           22           28             (4)             (4)             (4)
 
    1 See footnote 1, table 1.
    2 The questions on movement of work were not asked of employers when the reason for layoff was either seasonal work
or vacation period.
    3 Movement of work can involve more than one action. 
    4 Data are not available.
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary. 
    
    
    
    
    


Table 11. Movement of work actions by type of separation where number of separations is known by employers,
selected quarters, 2007 and 2008

                                              Actions(1)                         Separations         
           Activities                                                                                
                                      III       II         III             III        II         III 
                                     2007      2008r      2008p            2007      2008r      2008p
                                                                                                     
With separations reported(2) ..        60         78         76           7,159      7,346      9,265

           By location                                                                               

  Out-of-country relocations ..        21         25         19           3,187      3,159      2,211
      Within company ..........        11         23         17           1,504      2,935      2,034
      Different company .......        10          2          2           1,683        224        177

  Domestic relocations ........        38         52         57           3,793      3,912      7,054
      Within company ..........        34         47         48           3,396      3,694      6,257
      Different company .......         4          5          9             397        218        797

  Unable to assign place of                                                                          
    relocation ................         1          1          -             179        275          -

           By company                                                                                

  Within company ..............        46         70         65           5,079      6,629      8,291
      Domestic ................        34         47         48           3,396      3,694      6,257
      Out of country ..........        11         23         17           1,504      2,935      2,034
      Unable to assign ........         1          -          -             179          -          -

  Different company ...........        14          8         11           2,080        717        974

      Domestic ................         4          5          9             397        218        797
      Out of country ..........        10          2          2           1,683        224        177
      Unable to assign ........         -          1          -               -        275          -

                                                                                                     
 
    1 Only actions for which separations associated with the movement of work were reported are
shown.
    2 See footnote 1, table 1. 
    r = revised.
    p = preliminary.
    NOTE:  Dash represents zero.
    
    
    
    
    

Last Modified Date: November 13, 2008
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