Economic News Release

Number of Jobs, Labor Market Experience, and Earnings Growth: Results from a National Longitudinal Survey News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-7410     USDL 08-0860
               http://www.bls.gov/nls/
                                           For release:  10:00 A.M.(EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902     Friday, June 27, 2008


         NUMBER OF JOBS HELD, LABOR MARKET ACTIVITY, AND
        EARNINGS GROWTH AMONG THE YOUNGEST BABY BOOMERS:
               RESULTS FROM A LONGITUDINAL SURVEY

   The average person born in the later years of the baby boom
held 10.8 jobs from age 18 to age 42, according to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  Nearly two-
thirds of these jobs were held from ages 18 to 27.
   
   These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of
Youth 1979, a survey of 9,964 men and women who were ages 14 to
22 when first interviewed in 1979 and ages 41 to 50 when
interviewed most recently in 2006-07.  These respondents were
born in the years 1957 to 1964, the later years of the "baby
boom" that occurred in the United States from 1946 to 1964.  The
survey spans more than a quarter century and provides information
on work and nonwork experiences, training, schooling, income and
assets, health conditions, and other characteristics.  The
information provided by respondents, who were interviewed
annually from 1979 to 1994 and biennially since 1994, can be
considered representative of all men and women born in the late
1950s and early 1960s and living in the United States when the
survey began in 1979.
   
   This release of the latest data from the longitudinal survey
focuses on the number of jobs held, job duration, labor force
participation, and earnings growth.  Highlights from the survey
include:

   --Individuals born from 1957 to 1964 held an average of 10.8
     jobs from ages 18 to 42.  These baby boomers held an average of
     4.4 jobs while ages 18 to 22.  The average fell to 3.3 jobs while
     ages 23 to 27 and to 1.9 jobs from ages 38 to 42.  Jobs that
     span more than one age group were counted once in each age group,
     so the overall average number of jobs held from age 18 to age 42
     is less than the sum of the number of jobs across the individual
     age groups.

   --Although job duration tends to be longer the older a worker
     is when starting the job, these baby boomers continued to have
     large numbers of short-duration jobs even as they approached
     middle age.  Among jobs started by workers when they were ages 38
     to 42, 31 percent ended in less than a year, and 65 percent ended
     in fewer than 5 years.

   --The average person was employed during 77 percent of the
     weeks from age 18 to age 42.  Generally, men spent a larger
     percent of weeks employed than did women (84 versus 70 percent).
     Women spent much more time out of the labor force (25 percent of
     weeks) than did men (10 percent of weeks).

   --The annual percent growth in inflation-adjusted hourly
     earnings was fastest when workers were in their late teens and
     early twenties.  Growth rates in earnings generally were higher
     for college graduates than for workers with less education.


                                   - 2 -

Number of Jobs Held

   Individuals held an average of 10.8 jobs from ages 18 to 42,
with the majority of the jobs being held before age 27.  In this
report, a job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with
a particular employer.  (See the Technical Note for additional
information on the definition of a job.)  On average, men held
11.0 jobs and women held 10.6 jobs from age 18 to age 42.  Men
held 4.6 jobs from age 18 to age 22, compared with 2.0 jobs from
age 38 to age 42.  The reduction in the average number of jobs
held in successive age groups was similar for women.  (See table
1.)
   
   On average, college-educated women held more jobs than women
without a college degree and also held more jobs than college-
educated men.  Women with a college degree held 11.5 jobs from
ages 18 to 42, compared to 10.7 jobs for similarly educated men.
Women with less than a high school diploma held an average of 8.7
jobs.  Men without a high school diploma held 12.5 jobs from ages
18 to 42, a higher average than men or women with more education.
   
   Differences in the number of jobs held also are apparent
between race and ethnicity groups.  From age 18 to age 42, whites
held more jobs than blacks or Hispanics or Latinos.  The
difference is concentrated among 18- to 22-year-olds.

Duration of Employment Relationships

   The length of time a worker remains with the same employer
increases with the age at which the worker began the job.  Of the
jobs that workers began when they were ages 18 to 22, 72 percent
of those jobs ended in less than a year and 94 percent ended in
fewer than 5 years.  Among jobs started by workers when they were
ages 38 to 42, 31 percent ended in less than a year and 65
percent ended in fewer than 5 years.  (See table 2.)

Percent of Weeks Employed, Unemployed, and Not in the Labor Force

   On average, the baby boomers represented by the survey sample
were employed during 77 percent of all the weeks occurring from
age 18 to age 42.  They were unemployed--that is, without jobs but
seeking work--5 percent of the weeks.  They were not in the labor
force--that is, neither working nor seeking work--18 percent of the
weeks.  (See table 3.)
   
   The amount of time spent employed differs substantially
between educational-attainment groups, especially among blacks
and Hispanics or Latinos.  Blacks with less than a high school
diploma (as of the 2006-07 survey) spent 53 percent of weeks
employed and 34 percent of weeks out of the labor force from age
18 to age 42.  By comparison, black high school graduates spent
65 percent of weeks employed and 24 percent of weeks out of the
labor force.  Hispanic or Latino high school dropouts spent 61
percent of weeks employed, compared with 71 percent of weeks for
Hispanic or Latino high school graduates.  White high school
dropouts spent 70 percent of weeks employed, and white high
school graduates spent 79 percent of weeks employed.  Among
college graduates, there was little difference between racial and
ethnic groups in labor market attachment; each group spent 80 to
82 percent of weeks employed and 14 to 15 percent of weeks out of
the labor force.
   

                                   - 3 -

   The amount of time spent in the labor force also differs by
sex, with women at every educational level and at every age
spending fewer weeks in the labor force than men.  Men with less
than a high school diploma spent 76 percent of weeks employed
from age 18 to age 42.  These men also spent 9 percent of weeks
unemployed.  By comparison, women with less than a high school
diploma spent just 50 percent of weeks employed and 6 percent of
weeks unemployed from age 18 to age 42.  Women without a high
school diploma spent nearly as much time out of the labor force
(44 percent of weeks) as they did employed (50 percent of weeks).
The differences between men and women in labor force attachment
were much smaller among those with a bachelor’s degree or more
education, but men still spent a larger proportion of weeks
employed than did women (86 versus 79 percent).
   
   Labor force attachment is related to age for both men and
women, with the percent of weeks employed increasing and the
percent of weeks unemployed or not in the labor force falling as
individuals grow older.  From ages 18 to 22, men spent 21 percent
of weeks out of the labor force and women spent 32 percent of
weeks out of the labor force.  This age range is a period when
large proportions of men and women attend college or receive
vocational training, and, as a result, they spend less time in
the labor force than they eventually will.  Indeed, from ages 38
to 42, these men spent only 8 percent of weeks out of the labor
force, and women spent 21 percent of weeks out of the labor
force.  (See table 4.)
   
   Like men, women were more likely to participate in the labor
force as they aged, but the reduction in the percent of weeks
spent out of the labor force was much smaller among women than
among men.  In fact, after age 22, women spent, on average, about
three times as many weeks out of the labor force as their male
counterparts.  Women ages 23 to 27 and 28 to 32 each spent 26
percent of weeks out of the labor force.  Women ages 33 to 37
spent 24 percent of weeks out of the labor force, and women ages
38 to 42 spent 21 percent of weeks out of the labor force.

Percent Growth in Real Earnings

   The inflation-adjusted earnings of workers increased most
rapidly while they were young.  Hourly earnings grew by an
average of 7.0 percent per year from ages 18 to 22 and 5.3
percent per year from ages 23 to 27.  The earnings growth rate
slowed to 3.1 percent annually from age 28 to age 32, then to 3.6
percent annually from age 33 to age 37.  From ages 38 to 42,
hourly earnings grew an average of 1.4 percent per year.
Earnings growth was stagnant for 38- to 42-year-olds with a high
school diploma or less education.  This pattern in earnings
growth reflects, in part, the state of the U.S. economy during
the years in which survey participants were in each age group.
For men and women in nearly every age category, growth rates in
inflation-adjusted hourly earnings generally were higher for
workers with more education.  (See table 5.)








                                   - 4 -

Technical Note

   The estimates in this release were obtained using data from
the first 22 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
1979 (NLSY79).  This survey is conducted by the Center for Human
Resource Research at The Ohio State University and the National
Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago under the
direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Labor’s
Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Sample

   The NLSY79 is a nationally representative sample of 12,686
young men and women who were 14 to 22 years of age when first
surveyed in 1979.  This survey sample was initially composed of
three subsamples:
     
  --A cross-sectional sample of 6,111 youths that was designed
    to represent the noninstitutionalized, civilian population of
    young people living in the U.S. in 1979 and born between January 1,
    1957, and December 31, 1964.
     
  --A supplemental sample of 5,295 youths designed to oversample
    noninstitutionalized, civilian black, Hispanic or Latino, and
    economically disadvantaged nonblack, non-Hispanic youths living
    in the U.S. in 1979 and born between January 1, 1957, and December 31,
    1964.

  --A military sample of 1,280 youths born between January 1, 1957,
    and December 31, 1961, and enlisted in the Army, Air Force, Navy, or
    Marine Corps as of September 30, 1978.
     
   In 1985, the military sample was discontinued, and, in 1991,
the economically disadvantaged nonblack, non-Hispanic youths were
dropped from the supplemental sample.  As a result, the NLSY79
sample now includes 9,964 individuals from the cross-sectional
sample and the black and Hispanic or Latino supplemental samples.
(This sample size is not adjusted for sample members who have
died.)

   Individuals were surveyed annually from 1979 to 1994 and
biennially since 1994.  In 2006-07, 7,654 individuals responded
to the survey, for a retention rate of 77 percent.  Only these
individuals are included in the estimates in this release.  All
results are weighted using the 2006-07 survey weights that
correct for the oversampling, interview nonresponse, and
permanent attrition from the survey.  When weighted, the
estimates represent all persons born in the years 1957 to 1964
and living in the U.S. when the survey began in 1979.  Not
represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who were born from
1957 to 1964 and moved to the United States after 1979.
     

                                   - 5 -

Work history data

   The total number of jobs that people hold during their work
life is an easy concept to understand but a difficult one to
measure.  Reliable estimates require a survey that interviews the
same people over the course of their entire work life and also
keeps track of all the jobs they ever held.  The NLSY79 tracks
the number of jobs that people have held, but the respondents in
this survey are still relatively young, ages 41 to 50 in 2006-07,
and have many years of work life ahead of them.  As the cohort
continues to age, however, more complete information will become
available.
   A unique feature of the NLSY79 is that it collects the
beginning and ending dates of all jobs held by a respondent so
that a longitudinal history can be constructed of each
respondent’s work experiences.  The NLSY79 work history data
provide a week-by-week work record of each respondent from January
1, 1978, through the most recent survey date.  These data contain
information on the respondent’s labor force status each week, the
usual hours worked per week at all jobs, and earnings for all
jobs.  If a respondent worked at more than one job in any week,
hours and earnings are obtained for additional jobs.  When a
respondent who missed one or more consecutive survey rounds is
interviewed again, he is asked to provide information about all
time since the last interview.
     
Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

   Because the NLSY79 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the
same people are surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents
change with each survey round.  It is important to keep in mind
this inherent link between the calendar years and the ages of the
respondents.  For example, table 5 reports earnings growth from
age 23 to age 27.  The youngest respondents in the sample (birth
year 1964) were these ages during 1987-91, whereas the oldest
respondents (birth year 1957) were these ages during 1980-84.

   Although participants in the NLSY79 were ages 41 to 50
during the 2006-07 interviews, this release covers only the
period while the respondents were ages 18 to 42.  The reason for
not including older ages is that the sample sizes were still too
small to provide statistically reliable estimates for age groups
older than 42.  As the NLSY79 continues to be administered and
the respondents age, subsequent rounds of the survey will enable
analyses to be conducted for older age groups.

   As with age, the educational attainment of individuals may
change from year to year.  In the tables and analysis presented
in this report, educational attainment is defined as of the 2006-
07 survey.  This definition is used even when data on age and
educational attainment are presented together.  For example,
table 1 reports the number of jobs held during different age
categories.  Suppose that a respondent had completed a bachelor’s
degree at age 28.  That respondent would be included in the
"Bachelor’s degree and higher" educational category in all age
categories shown on the table, even though he or she did not have
a bachelor’s degree at any point from age 18 to age 27.


                                   - 6 -

Definitions

   Job.  A job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with a
particular employer.  Jobs are therefore employer-based, not
position-based.  If a respondent indicates that he or she left a
job but in a subsequent survey returned to the same job, it is
counted as a new job.  For example, if an individual worked in a
retail establishment during the summer, quit at the end of summer
to return to school, and then resumed working for the same
employer the following spring, this sequence would count as two
jobs, rather than one.  For self-employed workers, each "new" job
is defined by the individuals themselves.

   Unemployment.  If respondents indicate a gap between employers,
they are asked how many of those weeks they spent searching for
employment or on layoff.  For that number of weeks, they are
considered unemployed.  For the remaining weeks, they are coded
as not in the labor force.  No probing for intensity of job
search is done.

   Usual earnings.  Respondents can report earnings over any time
frame (hour, day, week, month, year).  For those who do not
report an hourly wage, one is constructed using usual hours
worked over that time frame.  Wages greater than $100 per hour
and less than $1 per hour were not included in the analysis of
earnings growth because the reported earnings levels were almost
certainly in error.  For the same reason, individuals who had
inflation-adjusted earnings growth greater than 100 percent were
not included in the analysis.  These exclusions from the analysis
affected 82 respondents.

   Race and ethnicity groups.  In this release, the findings are
reported for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and
Hispanics or Latinos.  These three groups are mutually exclusive
but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the
overall totals, are not shown separately because their
representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to
provide statistically reliable estimates.  In other BLS
publications, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks,
and Hispanics or Latinos, but these groups are not mutually
exclusive.  The terms "Hispanic or Latino" are considered to be
an ethnicity group, and Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race.
Most other BLS publications include Hispanics or Latinos in the
white and black race groups in addition to the Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity group.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; 
TDD message referral phone:  1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Number of jobs held by individuals from age 18 to age 42 in 1978-2006 by educational 
attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age

                                         Average number of jobs for persons ages 18 to 42 
             Characteristic                                in 1978-2006
                                                  Ages 18  Ages 23  Ages 28  Ages 33  Ages 38
                                       Total (1)   to 22    to 27    to 32    to 37    to 42

Total ...................................  10.8     4.4      3.3      2.6      2.2      1.9
 Less than a high school diploma ........  10.9     3.9      3.2      2.6      2.2      1.9
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.5     4.2      3.1      2.6      2.2      1.9
 Some college or associate degree .......  11.1     4.5      3.4      2.7      2.3      2.0
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.1     5.0      3.6      2.6      2.1      1.9

Men .....................................  11.0     4.6      3.5      2.8      2.3      2.0
 Less than a high school diploma ........  12.5     4.6      3.8      3.0      2.4      2.0
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.7     4.5      3.4      2.8      2.2      1.9
 Some college or associate degree .......  11.1     4.5      3.5      2.8      2.4      2.0
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  10.7     4.6      3.4      2.6      2.2      1.9

Women ...................................  10.6     4.3      3.1      2.4      2.1      1.9
 Less than a high school diploma ........   8.7     2.9      2.3      2.1      1.9      1.6
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.2     3.9      2.7      2.3      2.2      1.9
 Some college or associate degree .......  11.0     4.5      3.3      2.5      2.2      1.9
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.5     5.3      3.7      2.6      2.0      1.8

White non-Hispanic ......................  10.9     4.6      3.3      2.6      2.2      1.9
 Less than a high school diploma ........  11.5     4.2      3.3      2.7      2.3      1.9
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.4     4.4      3.1      2.6      2.2      1.9
 Some college or associate degree .......  11.3     4.7      3.4      2.7      2.3      1.9
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.1     5.1      3.6      2.6      2.1      1.8

Black non-Hispanic ......................  10.4     3.6      3.1      2.6      2.3      2.0
 Less than a high school diploma ........   9.8     2.9      2.9      2.6      2.0      1.8
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.6     3.5      3.0      2.6      2.3      2.0
 Some college or associate degree .......  10.4     3.8      3.1      2.7      2.4      2.1
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  10.9     4.2      3.6      2.8      2.4      2.2

Hispanic or Latino ......................  10.5     4.1      3.0      2.5      2.2      1.9
 Less than a high school diploma ........  10.4     4.0      2.8      2.4      2.0      1.7
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.6     4.0      3.0      2.5      2.2      1.9
 Some college or associate degree .......  10.3     4.2      3.0      2.5      2.2      2.1
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  10.7     4.4      3.3      2.7      2.3      1.9

   1  Jobs that were held in more than one of the age categories were counted in each appro-
priate column, but only once in the total column.
   2  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   3  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
   NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978, or who had 
not yet turned age 43 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in
the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979.  These individuals 
were ages 41 to 50 in 2006-07.  Educational attainment is defined as of the 2006-07 survey.  Race
and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other
race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their
representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically 
reliable estimates.







Table 2.  Duration of employment relationships with a single employer for all jobs started from 
age 18 to age 42 in 1978-2006 by age at start of job, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

  Age at the start of             Cumulative percent distribution of duration          Percent
job and characteristic               of completed employment relationships             of jobs
                          Less than    Less than   Less than   Less than   Less than   ongoing
                           1 year       2 years     5 years     10 years    15 years   in 2006

Ages 18 to 22 ..........    72.3         85.2        94.1        97.1        98.0        1.3

  Men ..................    72.6         85.2        93.7        97.0        97.8        1.3
  Women ................    72.0         85.1        94.6        97.3        98.2        1.2

  White non-Hispanic ...    71.9         85.0        94.0        97.0        97.9        1.3
  Black non-Hispanic ...    74.9         87.0        95.1        97.8        98.5        1.0
  Hispanic or Latino ...    72.2         84.5        93.7        97.4        98.3        1.1

Ages 23 to 27 ..........    59.2         75.9        88.8        94.0        95.7        3.5

  Men ..................    59.2         75.9        88.2        93.2        95.1        4.0
  Women ................    59.3         76.0        89.6        94.8        96.4        2.9

  White non-Hispanic ...    58.3         75.1        88.4        93.7        95.5        3.7
  Black non-Hispanic ...    62.7         79.4        90.9        95.2        96.5        2.9
  Hispanic or Latino ...    61.4         78.0        89.6        94.2        96.2        3.2

Ages 28 to 32 ..........    52.5         69.7        85.5        91.6        93.6        6.2

  Men ..................    52.1         69.1        84.8        90.9        93.0        6.9
  Women ................    53.1         70.4        86.2        92.4        94.3        5.4

  White non-Hispanic ...    51.2         68.4        84.7        91.0        93.1        6.7
  Black non-Hispanic ...    57.8         74.9        88.5        93.9        95.3        4.5
  Hispanic or Latino ...    53.9         71.1        86.7        92.8        95.0        4.7

Ages 33 to 37 ..........    42.8         60.7        80.6        88.2        88.9       11.1
           
  Men ..................    41.5         59.8        79.4        87.3        88.0       12.0
  Women ................    44.2         61.7        81.8        89.1        89.7       10.3

  White non-Hispanic ...    41.2         59.2        79.6        87.6        88.3       11.7
  Black non-Hispanic ...    47.5         66.3        84.3        90.6        91.1        8.9
  Hispanic or Latino ...    45.9         62.7        81.9        89.0        89.9       10.1

Ages 38 to 42 ..........    30.5         46.6        65.1        (1)         (1)        30.2
    
  Men ..................    30.1         45.9        65.1        (1)         (1)        30.2
  Women ................    30.9         47.4        65.1        (1)         (1)        30.3

  White non-Hispanic ...    29.4         45.1        63.1        (1)         (1)        32.1
  Black non-Hispanic ...    34.0         51.5        71.6        (1)         (1)        23.6
  Hispanic or Latino ...    34.1         51.0        71.6        (1)         (1)        25.4


    1 Estimates are not presented for these categories because most sample members were not yet
old enough at the time of the 2006-07 survey to have completed jobs of these durations.
   NOTE:  The age category of 18 to 22 excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in the
years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979.  These individuals were ages
41 to 50 in 2006-07.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically
reliable estimates.







Table 3.  Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor 
force from age 18 to age 42 in 1978-2006 by educational attainment, sex, race, and 
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                Percent of total weeks while ages 18 to 42
         Characteristic                                        in 1978-2006
                                                   Employed     Unemployed    Not in 
                                                                            labor Force

Total, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 ............      77.2          4.6           17.5
  Less than a high school diploma ............      65.1          7.9           26.4
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      76.6          5.3           17.4
  Some college or associate degree ...........      78.8          4.2           16.3
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2)............      82.1          2.5           14.9

Men ..........................................      84.1          5.1           10.2
  Less than a high school diploma ............      76.0          9.2           14.1
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      84.4          5.5            9.3
  Some college or associate degree ...........      87.1          4.2            8.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      85.5          2.8           11.2

Women ........................................      70.0          4.2           25.2
  Less than a high school diploma ............      49.5          5.9           44.0
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      67.8          5.1           26.5
  Some college or associate degree ...........      72.2          4.2           22.9
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      78.5          2.3           18.8

White non-Hispanic ...........................      79.5          3.8           16.1
  Less than a high school diploma ............      70.2          6.8           22.4
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      79.4          4.4           15.6
  Some college or associate degree ...........      80.1          3.4           15.8
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      82.2          2.4           15.0

Black non-Hispanic ...........................      67.9          8.9           22.5
  Less than a high school diploma ............      52.8         12.2           34.2
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      65.0         10.3           23.9
  Some college or associate degree ...........      73.9          7.5           18.0
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      81.7          4.0           13.9

Hispanic  or Latino ..........................      71.2          5.4           22.5
  Less than a high school diploma ............      60.6          7.1           31.6
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      70.7          5.9           22.4
  Some college or associate degree ...........      78.4          3.7           17.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      80.7          3.8           15.1

   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
   NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978, or who 
had not yet turned age 43 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   Totals do not add to 100 percent due to a small number of respondents whose employment
status cannot be determined for all weeks.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born
in the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979.  These 
individuals were ages 41 to 50 in 2006-07.  Educational attainment is defined as of the 
2006-07 survey.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown
separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to
provide statistically reliable estimates.






Table 4.  Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force 
from age 18 to age 42 in 1978-2006 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
  
                                                                Percent of total weeks
      Age and characteristic                                                        Not in
                                                         Employed    Unemployed   labor force

Total, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 (1) ...............      77.2         4.6          17.5
  Ages 18 to 22 in 1978-1986 (2) ....................      64.3         8.9          26.4
  Ages 23 to 27 in 1980-1991 ........................      77.1         5.5          17.0
  Ages 28 to 32 in 1985-1996 ........................      79.3         3.8          16.3
  Ages 33 to 37 in 1990-2001 ........................      81.5         2.9          15.2
  Ages 38 to 42 in 1995-2006 (3) ....................      82.4         2.8          14.0

Men, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 (1) .................      84.1         5.1          10.2
  Ages 18 to 22 in 1978-1986 (2) ....................      68.8         9.9          20.7
  Ages 23 to 27 in 1980-1991 ........................      84.8         6.3           8.4
  Ages 28 to 32 in 1985-1996 ........................      88.0         4.1           7.2
  Ages 33 to 37 in 1990-2001 ........................      89.3         3.1           7.1
  Ages 38 to 42 in 1995-2006 (3) ....................      88.7         3.0           7.5

Women, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 (1) ...............      70.0         4.2          25.2
  Ages 18 to 22 in 1978-1986 (2) ....................      59.6         7.7          32.3
  Ages 23 to 27 in 1980-1991 ........................      69.8         4.7          25.9
  Ages 28 to 32 in 1985-1996 ........................      70.2         3.4          25.8
  Ages 33 to 37 in 1990-2001 ........................      73.4         2.7          23.5
  Ages 38 to 42 in 1995-2006 (3) ....................      75.8         2.7          20.8

White non-Hispanic, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 (1) ..      79.5         3.8          16.1
  Ages 18 to 22 in 1978-1986 (2) ....................      67.3         7.8          24.5
  Ages 23 to 27 in 1980-1991 ........................      79.5         4.6          15.5
  Ages 28 to 32 in 1985-1996 ........................      81.4         3.1          15.0
  Ages 33 to 37 in 1990-2001 ........................      83.3         2.3          14.1
  Ages 38 to 42 in 1995-2006 (3) ....................      83.9         2.2          13.2

Black non-Hispanic, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 (1) ..      67.9         8.9          22.5
  Ages 18 to 22 in 1978-1986 (2) ....................      51.1        14.7          33.8
  Ages 23 to 27 in 1980-1991 ........................      67.8        10.2          21.5
  Ages 28 to 32 in 1985-1996 ........................      70.6         7.6          21.0
  Ages 33 to 37 in 1990-2001 ........................      74.5         6.0          19.1 
  Ages 38 to 42 in 1995-2006 (3) ....................      76.0         5.8          17.4

Hispanic or Latino, ages 18 to 42 in 1978-2006 (1) ..      71.2         5.4          22.5
  Ages 18 to 22 in 1978-1986 (2) ....................      59.7         9.5          30.2
  Ages 23 to 27 in 1980-1991 ........................      70.0         6.3          23.1
  Ages 28 to 32 in 1985-1996 ........................      73.4         4.3          21.3
  Ages 33 to 37 in 1980-2001 ........................      76.3         3.5          19.3
  Ages 38 to 42 in 1995-2006 (3) ....................      78.3         3.8          16.7

   1 This category excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978, or who had not
yet turned age 43 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   2 This category excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978.
   3 This  category excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 43 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   NOTE:  Totals do not add to 100 percent due to a small number of respondents whose employment
status cannot be determined for all weeks.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in the
years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979.  These individuals were ages
41 to 50 in 2006-07.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not 
exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide 
statistically reliable estimates.







Table 5.  Average annual percent growth in inflation-adjusted hourly earnings from 1978-2006
by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age

                                            Average annual percent growth in hourly earnings

         Characteristic                        Ages 18  Ages 23  Ages 28  Ages 33  Ages 38
                                                to 22    to 27    to 32    to 37    to 42

Total .....................................      7.0      5.3      3.1      3.6      1.4
  Less than a high school diploma  ........      5.7      2.8      1.2      3.6      0.0
  High school graduates, no college........      5.9      3.6      2.5      3.1      0.7
  Some college or associate degree.........      6.1      4.9      2.7      3.7      2.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher.............      9.7      9.2      5.2      4.1      2.3

Men .......................................      7.1      5.8      3.3      3.8      1.3
  Less than a high school diploma  ........      5.2      3.0      1.3      3.2     -0.9
  High school graduates, no college .......      6.8      3.9      2.3      3.1      0.7
  Some college or associate degree.........      6.7      5.9      3.2      3.9      2.7
  Bachelor's degree and higher.............      8.7     10.4      6.0      5.0      2.2

Women .....................................      6.8      4.8      2.9      3.3      1.5
  Less than a high school diploma .........      6.7      2.5      0.9      4.1      1.4
  High school graduates, no college .......      4.8      3.2      2.8      3.1      0.8
  Some college or associate degree.........      5.7      4.1      2.3      3.4      1.6
  Bachelor's degree and higher.............     10.6      8.1      4.3      3.2      2.3

White non-Hispanic ........................      7.3      5.5      3.2      3.7      1.4
  Less than a high school diploma .........      6.6      2.8      1.1      4.3     -0.1
  High school graduates, no college .......      6.1      3.5      2.5      3.2      0.8
  Some college or associate degree.........      6.3      5.1      2.7      3.6      1.9
  Bachelor's degree and higher.............      9.9      9.4      5.1      4.1      2.3

Black non-Hispanic ........................      5.4      4.5      2.9      3.2      1.1
  Less than a high school diploma .........      4.1      2.6      2.0      1.2      0.6
  High school graduates, no college .......      4.7      4.1      2.4      3.1     -0.1
  Some college or associate degree.........      5.5      4.3      2.8      4.0      2.3
  Bachelor's degree and higher.............      8.4      8.3      5.5      3.8      2.6

Hispanic or Latino.........................      6.2      4.1      2.6      2.9      2.2
  Less than a high school diploma .........      3.6      3.9      0.4      2.6      0.7
  High school graduates, no college .......      6.8      3.1      2.6      2.4      1.3
  Some college or associate degree.........      6.5      3.9      3.2      2.7      3.8
  Bachelor's degree and higher.............      8.3      7.8      4.6      5.3      3.5


   1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
   NOTE:  The first column excludes individuals who turned age 18 before 1978.  The last
column excludes individuals who were not yet age 43 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   The CPI-U-RS was used to adjust hourly earnings to 2006 dollars, prior to calculating 
the growth rates.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in
the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979.  These individuals 
were ages 41 to 50 in 2006-07.  Educational attainment is defined as of the 2006-07 survey.  Race 
and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other 
race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their
representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically 
reliable estimates.






Last Modified Date: June 27, 2008
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