Economic News Release

Employment Experience of Youths: Results from a Longitudinal Survey News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-7410  USDL 09-0079
               http://www.bls.gov/nls/
                                        For release:  10:00 A.M. (EST)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  Friday, January 23, 2009


  AMERICA'S YOUTH AT 21:  SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TRAINING, AND
        EMPLOYMENT TRANSITIONS BETWEEN AGES 20 AND 21

   At age 21, women are more likely to be enrolled in college than
men, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor
reported today.  Among 21-year-olds not enrolled in college, men are
more likely than women to be employed in a civilian job or serving in
the military.

   These findings are from the first 10 annual rounds of the National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, which is a nationally representa-
tive survey of about 9,000 young men and women who were born during
the years 1980 to 1984.  These respondents were ages 12 to 17 when
first interviewed in 1997, and ages 21 to 27 when interviewed for the
tenth time in 2006-07.  This release focuses on the school enrollment
and employment experiences of these individuals from the October when
they were age 20 to the October when they were age 21.  Respondents
were age 20 in October during the years 2000 to 2005 and age 21 in 
October from 2001 to 2006.

   Highlights from the longitudinal survey include:

      --Among 21-year-olds, 36 percent of men were enrolled in
        college compared with 46 percent of women.

      --Of the 20-year-olds enrolled in college, 82 percent were
        still enrolled when age 21.  Non-Hispanic blacks and
        Hispanics were less likely than whites to continue their
        college enrollment between ages 20 and 21.

      --Ten percent of male high school graduates who had never
        enrolled in college were in the Armed Forces during the
        October when they were age 21, as were 6 percent of the
        21-year-old men who had attended college but were no
        longer enrolled.

      --Thirty-seven percent of high school dropouts and 19 per-
        cent of high school graduates not enrolled in college were
        neither employed nor in training during the October when
        they were age 21.

      --Among high school dropouts, 39 percent of non-Hispanic
        blacks were not employed in either the October when they
        were age 20 or the October when they were age 21 compared
        with 24 percent of Hispanics and 19 percent of non-Hispanic
        whites.

      --High school graduates not enrolled in college were employed
        an average of 77 percent of the weeks between the October
        when they were age 20 and the following October.  By com-
        parison, those who had dropped out of high school were
        employed 57 percent of those weeks.

      --By age 21, about 1 in 4 young adults who had never gone to
        college had been employed by the same employer for 2 or
        more years since they left school.  Five percent had never
        held a job since they left school.


                                  - 2 -



Educational Attainment at Age 21

   Forty-one percent of young adults were enrolled in college during
the October when they were age 21 compared with 43 percent of 20-year-
olds and 45 percent of 19-year-olds.  Forty-three percent of 21-year-
olds had graduated from high school and were not enrolled in college
and 2 percent had earned a General Educational Development (GED)
credential and were not enrolled in college.  Thirteen percent were 
high school dropouts during the October when they were age 21.  (See
table 1.)

   Women were more likely than men to be enrolled in college.  During
the October when they were age 21, nearly half (46 percent) of women
were attending college compared with 36 percent of men.  This differ-
ence in college-enrollment rates stems from three factors:  (1) Women
were more likely to have graduated from high school; (2) among high
school graduates, women were more likely to attend college; and (3) once
enrolled in college, women were less likely than men to leave college
between school years.

   Blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to be enrolled in
college during the October when they were age 21.  Forty-four percent of
whites were enrolled in college compared with 30 percent of blacks and
29 percent of Hispanics.

Schooling and Training between Ages 20 and 21

   The level of educational attainment when a person first left school
does not always indicate his or her final level of educational attain-
ment.  Eight percent of individuals who were high school dropouts in the
October they were age 20 had graduated from high school or earned a GED
by the following October.  (See table 2.)

   Some people delay their college enrollment for a year or more after
high school, and others enroll in college and then leave before earning
a degree.  Twelve percent of high school graduates not enrolled in col-
lege during the October when they were age 20 were enrolled in college the
following October.  Eighty-two percent of individuals attending college
during the October when they were age 20 were still attending college by
the following October, while 1 percent were enrolled in a training program
and 17 percent were not enrolled in college or in a training program.

   Instead of attending school, some young adults enroll in training to
further their skills.  Four percent of those who were high school dropouts
in the October when age 20 and 6 percent of high school graduates not en-
rolled in college at that age were attending some kind of training or
apprenticeship program the October when they were age 21.

Employment and Training at Age 21 of Young Adults Not Enrolled in School

   At age 21, labor force status differed substantially between high school
dropouts, high school graduates who had never attended college, and indi-
viduals who had left college.  Those with more education were more likely
to be employed in civilian jobs or in the military.  In the October they
were age 21, about 6 of 10 high school dropouts were employed in civilian
jobs or in the military.  At this same time, 72 percent of high school
graduates who had never enrolled in college were employed in civilian jobs,
and another 6 percent were serving in the Armed Forces, including 10 per-
cent of all men.  Among high school graduates who had some college experi-
ence but were not enrolled in college during the October when they were
age 21, nearly 8 of 10 were employed in civilian jobs, and 4 percent were
serving in the Armed Forces.  (See table 3.)


                                   - 3 -


   Within each of these educational groups, men were more likely to be 
working or serving in the Armed Forces in the October when age 21 than
women.  Sixty-nine percent of male high school dropouts were employed
in the civilian labor force or serving in the Armed Forces compared to
50 percent of female dropouts.  Among high school graduates, 82 percent
of men and 72 percent of women who had never enrolled in college were
employed or in the military, as were 85 percent of men and 79 percent of
women who had attended some college but were no longer enrolled.

   Enrollment in training also varies by educational level. Four percent
of high school dropouts and 6 percent of high school graduates who were
not enrolled in college were receiving training in the October when they
were age 21.  High school graduates obtained more of their training while
employed.  Five percent of high school graduates were both employed and
receiving training in the October when they were age 21, while only 1 per-
cent were receiving training while not employed.  Among high school drop-
outs, 2 percent of 21-year-olds were receiving training while employed and
2 percent were receiving training while not employed.  (See table 4.)

Employment Attachment of Young Adults Not Enrolled in School

   Among individuals who were not enrolled in school during the Octobers
when they were ages 20 or 21, employment status varied considerably by
level of educational attainment.  Twenty-four percent of high school drop-
outs were not employed in either October, and 43 percent were employed in
both Octobers.  Among high school graduates ages 20 or 21 who were not
enrolled in college, 10 percent were not employed in either October, and
68 percent were employed in both Octobers.  (See table 5.)
  
   High school graduates not enrolled in college during the Octobers when
they were ages 20 or 21 were employed an average of 77 percent of the weeks
between the October when they were age 20 and the following October.  By com-
parison, high school dropouts were employed 57 percent of the weeks between
the October when they were age 20 and the following October.  Regardless of
the level of educational attainment, men were employed a larger percentage of
weeks than women, and whites were employed a larger percentage of weeks than 
blacks or Hispanics.  Men were more likely than women to work 40 hours or
more per week.  Male high school dropouts worked 40 hours or more 47 percent
of the weeks between the October when they were 20 and the following October
compared with 28 percent of weeks for female dropouts.  (See table 6.)

Duration of Longest Job Held

   Five percent of young adults who had never enrolled in college by age 21
also had not held a job since dropping out of or graduating from high school.
Forty-one percent had held a job for 1 year or less since they first left
school.  In this report, a job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work
with a particular employer.  (See the Technical Note for additional informa-
tion on the definition of a job.)  Thirty-three percent had held a job for
more than 1 year but less than 2 years, and 22 percent had held a job for
2 years or longer.  Similar proportions of high school dropouts and high
school graduates had never held a job since leaving school.  High school
dropouts were more likely than high school graduates to have held a job for
1 year or less.  Dropouts were less likely than graduates to have held a
job for 2 years or longer.  (See table 7.)







                                   - 4 -


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release were obtained using data from the first
10 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).
The NLSY97 collects extensive information on labor market behavior and
educational experiences.  Information about respondents' families and
communities also is obtained in the survey.
   This survey is conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at
the University of Chicago and the Center for Human Resource Research at
The Ohio State University, under the direction and sponsorship of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  Partial
funding support for the survey has been provided by the Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of
Justice, the Office of Vocational and Adult Education of the U.S
Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Defense, the National
Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services, and the National Science Foundation.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; TDD message
referral phone: 1-800-877-8339.

Sample

   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is a nationally
representative sample of 8,984 young men and women who were ages 12 to
16 on December 31, 1996.  This sample is composed of the following
groups:

   --A cross-sectional sample designed to represent the nonin-
     stitutionalized, civilian segment of young people living
     in the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and
     December 31, 1984.

   --Supplemental samples of Hispanic or Latino and black youths
     living in the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980,
     and December 31, 1984.
     
   The tenth round of annual interviews took place between October 2006
and June 2007.  This release examines the period from the October when
respondents were age 20 until the following October when respondents
were age 21.  All results except the first three age categories of table
1 are weighted using the survey weights from the round in which the
respondents were age 21.  The estimates of school enrollment status at
ages 18, 19, and 20 use the survey weights from the round in which the
respondents were those ages.  The survey weights correct for oversampling
of some demographic groups and nonresponse.  When weighted, the data re-
present all people who were born in the years 1980 to 1984 and living in
the U.S. in 1997.  Not represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who
were born from 1980 to 1984 and moved to the U.S. after 1997.  NLSY97 sam-
ple members remain eligible to be interviewed during military service or
if they become incarcerated or institutionalized.


                                   - 5 -


Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

   Because the NLSY97 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the same people
are surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents change with each
survey round.  It is important to keep in mind this inherent link
between the calendar years and the ages of the respondents.  The
youngest respondents in the sample (birth year 1984) turned 20 during
calendar year 2004, whereas the oldest respondents (birth year 1980)
turned 20 during calendar year 2000.  Some respondents may not be used
in all tables if information about their work history is incomplete.

Definitions

   School enrollment status.  If a respondent was enrolled in high school
or college at any point during the month of October, he or she is counted
as enrolled.  If a respondent reported no school enrollment during October
and also had not earned a high school diploma or General Educational Devel-
opment (GED) credential, he or she is counted as a high school dropout.

   Training.  The NLSY97 obtains information on formal training experi-
ences outside of regular schooling.  The training questions explore what
kinds of training respondents obtain, where and when they are trained, how
the training is paid for, and what skills are acquired.  Training programs
include:  Business or secretarial training; vocational, technical, or trade
training; vocational rehabilitation centers; licensed practical nursing or
registered nursing programs; apprenticeship programs; adult basic education
and GED programs; correspondence courses; formal company training or seminars;
and government training.

   Employed.  The NLSY97 collects employment histories for civilian jobs
and military service.  Respondents are classified as employed if they did
any work during the specified time period as paid employees, as self-
employed proprietors of their own businesses, or as unpaid workers in a
business owned by a member of their family, or if they were serving in
the Armed Forces.

   Unemployed.  Respondents are classified as unemployed if they did not
work during the specified time period but reported that they looked for
work or were on layoff from a job.  No probing for intensity of job
search is done.

   Not in the labor force.  Respondents are classified as not in the
labor force if they did not work or look for work during the specified
time period.

   Job.  A job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with a
particular employer.  Jobs are therefore employer-based, not position-
based.  If a respondent indicates that he or she left a job but in a
subsequent survey returned to the same job, it would be counted as a new
job.  For example, if an individual worked in a retail establishment,
quit, and then resumed working for the same employer at a later date,
this sequence would count as two jobs, rather than one.  For self-
employed workers, each "new" job is defined by the individuals
themselves.

   Race and ethnic groups.  In this release, the findings are reported
for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics or Latinos.
These groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other groups,
which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently
large to provide statistically reliable estimates.  In other BLS
publications, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks, and
Hispanics or Latinos, but these groups are not mutually exclusive.
"Hispanic or Latino" is considered to be an ethnic group, and people in
that group can be of any race.  Most other BLS publications include
estimates for Hispanics or Latinos in the white and black race groups in
addition to the Hispanic or Latino ethnic group.








Table 1.  School enrollment status of young adults during the October when ages 18 to 21 in 1998-2006
by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)
                                                             School enrollment status

                                                                High School    General Educational
     Characteristic                 Total     High    Enrolled  graduates, not  Development (GED)    Enrolled
                                             school   in high    enrolled in     recipients, not        in
                                            dropouts   school     college       enrolled in college  college

Total, October when age 18........  100.0     15.3     28.2        21.4               0.6             34.5

  Men ............................  100.0     16.7     32.5        21.5                .6             28.7
  Women ..........................  100.0     13.8     23.8        21.3                .6             40.5

  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     13.8     26.9        20.3                .6             38.5
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     20.3     33.3        20.4                .8             25.2
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     18.9     31.0        28.3                .7             21.1
 
Total, October when age 19 .......  100.0     16.7      4.1        32.9               1.6             44.7

  Men ............................  100.0     19.2      4.7        35.3               1.5             39.3
  Women ..........................  100.0     14.1      3.5        30.2               1.7             50.5
 
  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     14.7      2.7        32.0               1.6             49.0
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     23.3      7.7        34.9               1.7             32.5
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     21.4      7.4        37.8               1.5             31.8

Total, October when age 20 .......  100.0     15.4      1.2        38.9               2.1             42.5

  Men ............................  100.0     17.7      1.3        41.3               2.0             37.7
  Women ..........................  100.0     13.1      1.0        36.2               2.2             47.5

  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     13.1      0.8        38.0               2.0             46.1
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     23.3      2.1        41.5               2.4             30.7
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     20.2      1.7        44.5               2.2             31.3
 
Total, October when age 21 .......  100.0     13.1       .5        43.3               2.3             40.8

  Men ............................  100.0     14.9       .5        46.3               2.4             35.9
  Women ..........................  100.0     11.3       .4        40.3               2.2             45.8

  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     11.2       .2        41.9               2.2             44.4
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     19.8      1.0        46.5               2.9             29.7
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     17.3      1.2        49.9               2.2             29.3

   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12
to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable
estimates.







Table 2.  School or training enrollment status during the October when age 21 in 2001-2006 by school enrollment status
during the October when age 20, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

                                            School enrollment status during the October when age 21
School enrollment status
   during the October               Have not graduated from high school          Have graduated from high school (1)
      when age 20                 Not enrolled in    Enrolled  Enrolled in   Not enrolled in               Enrolled in
                          Total   high school or    in high     training       college or      Enrolled in  training
                                 training program   school (2) program (3)   training program   college (2) program (3)

High school dropouts ..... 100.0      86.9             1.4        3.5             6.1             1.8          0.1

  Men .................... 100.0      86.0             1.5        3.7             6.5             2.1           .2
  Women .................. 100.0      88.2             1.4        3.4             5.6             1.4           .1

  White, non-Hispanic .... 100.0      88.4             1.0        3.1             5.7             1.8          (4)
    Men .................. 100.0      88.5             1.3        2.3             5.5             2.4          (4)
    Women ................ 100.0      88.3              .6        4.1             5.9             1.1          (4)

  Black, non-Hispanic .... 100.0      83.7             2.2        4.1             8.0             1.5           .5
    Men .................. 100.0      79.2             2.1        5.2            10.7             2.0           .7
    Women ................ 100.0      91.9             2.4        2.1             3.0              .6          (4)

  Hispanic or Latino ..... 100.0      87.3             2.0        3.4             5.4             1.6           .2
    Men .................. 100.0      90.2             1.1        3.8             3.0             1.8          (4)
    Women ................ 100.0      83.0             3.3        2.8             8.9             1.4           .6

High School graduates, 
 not enrolled in college . 100.0        -               -          -             82.8            11.6          5.6

  Men .................... 100.0        -               -          -             83.7            10.5          5.8
  Women .................. 100.0        -               -          -             81.7            12.9          5.4

  White, non-Hispanic .... 100.0        -               -          -             82.4            11.4          6.2
    Men .................. 100.0        -               -          -             82.3            10.8          6.9
    Women ................ 100.0        -               -          -             82.7            12.1          5.2

  Black, non-Hispanic .... 100.0        -               -          -             83.7            11.0          5.3
    Men .................. 100.0        -               -          -             89.1             6.6          4.3
    Women ................ 100.0        -               -          -             78.0            15.6          6.4

  Hispanic or Latino ..... 100.0        -               -          -             84.5            11.6          3.9
    Men .................. 100.0        -               -          -             85.4            11.5          3.0
    Women ................ 100.0        -               -          -             83.3            11.7          5.0

Enrolled in college ...... 100.0        -               -          -             16.9            82.1          1.0

  Men .................... 100.0        -               -          -             18.5            80.4          1.1
  Women .................. 100.0        -               -          -             15.6            83.5          1.0

  White, non-Hispanic .... 100.0        -               -          -             14.7            84.4           .9
    Men .................. 100.0        -               -          -             16.2            82.8           .9
    Women ................ 100.0        -               -          -             13.4            85.7           .9

  Black, non-Hispanic .... 100.0        -               -          -             23.1            76.2           .8
    Men .................. 100.0        -               -          -             25.1            74.6           .3
    Women ................ 100.0        -               -          -             21.7            77.2          1.1

  Hispanic or Latino ..... 100.0        -               -          -             25.0            73.4          1.6
    Men .................. 100.0        -               -          -             25.6            72.3          2.1
    Women ................ 100.0        -               -          -             24.5            74.4          1.1

   1 Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school
graduates.
   2 A small percent of respondents were enrolled in both formal schooling (that is, high school or college) and
training.  They are counted in the formal schooling categories only.
   3 Training includes any courses, training programs, or apprenticeships designed to help people find a job,
improve their job skills, or learn a new job.  Training also may include a GED preparation course.
   4 Less than .05 percent.
   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on
December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other
race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in
the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.







Table 3.  Employment status of young adults not enrolled in school during the October when age
21 in 2001-2006 by high school graduation status, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

                                            Employment status during the October when age 21
High school graduation status
during the October when age 21                  Employed   Serving in               Not in the 
                                        Total   civilian  Armed Forces Unemployed  labor force

High school dropouts................    100.0     60.6       0.3           8.6         30.5

  Men ..............................    100.0     68.4        .4           8.6         22.6
  Women ............................    100.0     49.8        .1           8.7         41.4

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     66.7        .2           7.1         25.9
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     45.9        .5          10.3         43.4
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     59.2        .4          11.2         29.3

High school graduates,    
 never enrolled in college (1) .....    100.0     71.5       6.4           6.0         16.0

  Men ..............................    100.0     72.0      10.0           6.2         11.8
  Women ............................    100.0     70.8       1.4           5.7         22.0

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     76.6       5.6           4.7         13.0
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     57.7       7.4          11.3         23.6
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     68.4       7.7           4.9         18.9

Some college, no longer enrolled ...    100.0     77.9       3.8           4.7         13.6 
    
  Men ..............................    100.0     78.7       5.9           5.0         10.4
  Women ............................    100.0     77.1       1.8           4.4         16.7
    
  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     80.1       4.3           3.1         12.5
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     72.9       2.8           9.5         14.7
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     74.4       3.8           4.7         17.1

   1 Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are
counted as high school graduates.
   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women
who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups
are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the
overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample
is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.







Table 4.  Employment and training status of young adults not enrolled in school during the October when age
21 in 2001-2006 by high school graduation status, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

                                          Employment and training status during the October when age 21 (1)
High school graduation status  
during the October when age 21                           Employed (2)                   Not employed
                                        Total    Enrolled in    Not enrolled    Enrolled in    Not enrolled
                                                 training (3)    in training    training (3)    in training

High school dropouts .................  100.0         2.0          59.2             1.9            36.8

  Men ................................  100.0         2.3          66.3             1.9            29.6
  Women ..............................  100.0         1.7          49.6             2.0            46.7

  White, non-Hispanic ................. 100.0         1.7          65.4             1.7            31.3
  Black, non-Hispanic ................. 100.0         1.8          45.8             3.1            49.4
  Hispanic or Latino .................. 100.0         2.2          57.4             1.7            38.7

High school graduates,
 not enrolled in college (4) .......... 100.0         4.8          75.3             1.3            18.6

  Men ................................. 100.0         5.1          78.5             1.1            15.3
  Women ............................... 100.0         4.4          71.6             1.6            22.4

  White, non-Hispanic ................. 100.0         5.6          78.1             1.0            15.3
  Black, non-Hispanic ................. 100.0         2.7          67.3             2.7            27.3
  Hispanic or Latino .................. 100.0         3.4          74.2             1.2            21.2

   1 Training enrollment status was unknown for a small number of survey participants, who were therefore
excluded from the estimates in this table.
   2 The employed category includes both civilian employment and service in the Armed Forces.
   3 Training includes any courses, training programs, or apprenticeships designed to help people find a
job, improve their job skills, or learn a new job.  Training also may include a General Educational Develop-
ment (GED) preparation course.
   4 Respondents who have received a GED credential are counted as high school graduates.
   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12
to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable
estimates.







Table 5.  Employment status during the October when ages 20 and 21 in 2001-2006 of youths not enrolled
in school at age 20 or 21 by high school graduation status, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

                                                           Percent of youths (1)                   
High school graduation status
during the October when age 21                Not employed    Employed at     Employed at  Employed
                                      Total     in either     age 20, but     age 21, but    both
                                                 October       not age 21      not age 20  Octobers

High school dropouts ...............  100.0       24.3            14.8           18.3        42.6

  Men ..............................  100.0       20.2            11.5           19.4        49.0
  Women ............................  100.0       29.7            19.2           16.9        34.2

  White, non-Hispanic ..............  100.0       18.5            14.4           18.2        48.9
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............  100.0       39.2            13.6           19.3        28.0
  Hispanic or Latino ...............  100.0       24.0            17.5           18.8        39.7

High school graduates, 
 not enrolled in college (2) .......  100.0        9.5             9.8           12.7        68.0
    
  Men ..............................  100.0        7.4             8.4           11.6        72.7
  Women ............................  100.0       12.0            11.6           14.1        62.3

  White, non-Hispanic ..............  100.0        7.4             8.3           11.4        72.9
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............  100.0       16.3            14.7           17.1        51.9
  Hispanic or Latino ...............  100.0       11.2            11.1           13.7        64.0

   1 The employed category includes both civilian employment and service in the Armed Forces.
   2 Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as
high school graduates.
   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages
12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but
not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically
reliable estimates.







Table 6. Percent of weeks employed or not employed between the October when ages 20 and 21 for young
adults not enrolled in school during October at ages 20 and 21 by high school graduation status, sex,
race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

                                            Percent of weeks between October when ages 20 and 21
High school graduation status
during the October when age 21          Total                Employed (1)                   Not 
                                                 Total   1 to 29   30 to 39    40 hours   employed
                                                          hours     hours      or more

High school dropouts ..............     100.0    57.1      5.2      11.7        38.9        42.3

  Men .............................     100.0    63.5      4.7      10.0        46.8        36.3
  Women ...........................     100.0    48.8      5.9      13.9        28.4        50.2

  White, non-Hispanic .............     100.0    64.4      6.0      13.5        43.5        35.0
  Black, non-Hispanic .............     100.0    38.9      5.6       9.0        22.6        60.3
  Hispanic or Latino ..............     100.0    56.8      2.1      10.3        43.9        42.8

High school graduates,
 not enrolled in college(2) .......     100.0    76.6      6.2      12.4        56.5        22.7

  Men .............................     100.0    81.4      4.8      10.0        65.1        18.2
  Women ...........................     100.0    70.7      7.9      15.3        46.0        28.3

  White, non-Hispanic .............     100.0    80.0      6.3      13.1        59.1        19.3
  Black, non-Hispanic .............     100.0    66.2      6.4      11.3        46.4        33.3
  Hispanic or Latino ..............     100.0    73.5      4.9      10.1        57.0        26.1

   1 The employed category includes both civilian employment and service in the Armed Forces.  All
weeks when serving in the Armed Forces are included in the "40 hours or more" category.
   2 Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as
high school graduates.
   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were
ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually
exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not
shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to pro-
vide statistically reliable estimates.  Some categories do not sum to the totals because employment
status or work hours could not be determined for some respondents during some weeks.







Table 7.  Duration of longest job held with a single employer from the time a person left high
school to age 21 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                          Duration of longest job held

        Characteristic                  No job     1 year or      More than 1       2 years
                                                     less        year but less      or more
                                                                 than 2 years

Total, never enrolled in college.....     6.3         45.1           32.6             16.0
  Less than a high school diploma....     7.7         51.4           29.3             11.6
  High school graduates, no college..     5.7         42.1           34.1             18.1

Men .................................     5.6         44.8           33.4             16.1
  Less than a high school diploma....     6.2         51.2           30.1             12.4
  High school graduates, no college..     5.3         41.9           34.9             17.8

Women ...............................     7.3         45.5           31.3             15.8
  Less than a high school diploma....     9.6         51.7           28.1             10.5
  High school graduates, no college..     6.2         42.5           32.9             18.4

White non-Hispanic...................     3.6         42.2           35.5             18.7
  Less than a high school diploma....     3.2         49.8           33.8             13.1
  High school graduates, no college..     3.8         39.0           36.2             21.0

Black non-Hispanic...................    14.0         53.4           23.9              8.7
  Less than a high school diploma....    20.6         53.7           18.8              7.0
  High school graduates, no college..     9.9         53.2           27.2              9.7
    
Hispanic or Latino...................     7.5         45.8           33.3             13.4
  Less than a high school diploma....     6.0         54.2           28.1             11.7
  High school graduates, no college..     8.2         41.4           36.1             14.3

   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who
were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are
mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall
totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.






Last Modified Date: January 23, 2009
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