Economic News Release

Employment Experience of Youths: Results from a Longitudinal Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, January 28, 2010         USDL-10-0099

Technical information:  (202) 691-7410 *  nls_info@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/nls
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902 *  PressOffice@bls.gov


           AMERICA'S YOUTH AT 22: SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TRAINING, AND
                EMPLOYMENT TRANSITIONS BETWEEN AGES 21 AND 22


NOTE: This version of the release was re-issued on April 9, 2010 to
correct one rounding error in table 1 and two rounding errors in table 2.
Additionally, it corrects minor errors in characteristic titles in table 4.
The PDF version of the release was not affected.


At age 22, women are more likely to be enrolled in college than men
and are also more likely to have completed a bachelor's degree, the
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Among 22-year-olds not
enrolled in college, men are more likely than women to be employed in
a civilian job or serving in the military.

These findings are from the first 11 annual rounds of the National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), which is a nationally re-
presentative survey of about 9,000 young men and women who were born
during the years 1980 to 1984. These respondents were ages 12 to 17
when first interviewed in 1997, and ages 22 to 28 when interviewed for
the eleventh time in 2007-08. Most NLSY97 respondents completed their 
2007-08 interview before December 2007, when the nation officially en-
tered a recession. The survey provides information on work and nonwork 
experiences, training, schooling, income, assets, and other character-
istics. The information provided by respondents can be considered re-
presentative of all men and women born in the early 1980s and living 
in the United States when the survey began in 1997.

This release focuses on the school enrollment and employment experi-
ences of these individuals from the October when they were age 21 to 
the October when they were age 22. Respondents were age 21 in October
during the years 2001 to 2006 and age 22 in October from 2002 to 2007. 
Highlights from the longitudinal survey include:

   --During the October when they were 22 years old, 25 percent of men
     were enrolled in college, compared with 29 percent of women.  Seven
     percent of men had received a bachelor's degree by the October they
     were age 22, compared with 13 percent of women.

   --Among those who were enrolled in college when they were 21 years
     old, 60 percent were still enrolled in college when age 22, and 24
     percent had received a bachelor's degree. Non-Hispanic blacks and
     Hispanics were less likely than whites to have received a bachelor's
     degree between ages 21 and 22.

   --Ten percent of male high school graduates who had never enrolled
     in college were in the Armed Forces during the October when they 
     were age 22, as were 7 percent of the 22-year-old men who had at-
     tended  college but had not earned a bachelor's degree and were 
     no longer enrolled. Three percent of 22-year-old men with a bach-
     elor's degree were serving in the Armed Forces.

   --Individuals born from 1980 to 1984 held an average of 4.4 jobs
     from age 18 to age 22. Those with more education held more jobs 
     than those with less education.
     
   --High school graduates who had never enrolled in college were em-
     ployed an average of 72 percent of the weeks from age 18 to age 
     22. By comparison, those who had dropped out of high school were 
     employed 54 percent of those weeks.

   --By their 22nd birthday, 24 percent of young adults who had never
     gone to college had been employed by the same employer for 2 years 
     or more since the time they left high school. Seven percent had 
     never held a job since they left high school.

Educational Attainment at Age 22

Twenty-seven percent of young adults were enrolled in college during the 
October when they were age 22, and 10 percent had received a bachelor's 
degree. Forty-four percent of 22-year-olds had graduated from high school 
and were not enrolled in college, and 7 percent had earned a General Edu-
cational Development (GED) credential and were not enrolled in college. 
Eleven percent of individuals were high school dropouts during the Octo-
ber when they were age 22. (See table 1.)

Women were more likely than men to be enrolled in college and were
more likely to have received a bachelor's degree. Twenty-nine percent
of women were attending college during the October when they were age
22, compared with 25 percent of men. Moreover, 13 percent of women had
earned a bachelor's degree, compared with 7 percent of men. The differ-
ence between women and men in college-enrollment rates stems from three 
factors: (1) Women were more likely to have graduated from high school; 
(2) among high school graduates, women were more likely to attend col-
lege; and (3) once enrolled in college, women were less likely than men 
to leave college between school years without graduating.

Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic
whites to be enrolled in college during the October when they were age
22. Twenty-nine percent of whites were enrolled in college, compared
with 20 percent of blacks and 23 percent of Hispanics.

Schooling and Training between Ages 21 and 22

Some people delay their college enrollment for a year or more after
high school, and others enroll in college and then leave before earn-
ing a degree. Nine percent of high school graduates who were not en-
rolled in college during the October when they were age 21 were enrol-
led in college during the following October, and an additional 2 per-
cent had received a bachelor's degree. Sixty percent of individuals
attending college during the October when they were age 21 were still
attending college by the following October, and 24 percent had receiv-
ed a bachelor's degree. Women were more likely than men to have re-
ceived a bachelor's degree and also were more likely to be enrolled in 
a graduate or professional program. (See table 2.)

Instead of attending school, some young adults enroll in training to
further their skills. Five percent of high school graduates who were
not enrolled in college at age 21 were in a training program during
the October when age 22, while 1 percent of those previously enrolled
in college at age 21 were enrolled in a training program at age 22.

Employment at Age 22 of Young Adults Not Enrolled in School

At age 22, labor force status differed substantially between high
school dropouts, high school graduates who had never attended college,
and individuals who had left college. Those with more education were
more likely to be employed in civilian jobs. Fifty-eight percent of
high school dropouts were employed in civilian jobs in the October
they were age 22. At the same age, 72 percent of high school graduates
who had never enrolled in college were employed in civilian jobs, and
another 6 percent were serving in the Armed Forces. Among 22-year-old 
high school graduates who had some college experience but had not earn-
ed a bachelor's degree and were not enrolled in college during October, 
77 percent were employed in civilian jobs, and 5 percent were serving 
in the Armed Forces.  Eighty-eight percent of 22-year-olds who had 
earned a bachelor's degree and were no longer enrolled were employed 
in civilian jobs, while 2 percent were serving in the Armed Forces. 
(See table 3.)

Sixty-five percent of male high school dropouts were employed in the
civilian labor force during the October when they were age 22, com-
pared with 49 percent of female dropouts. Among high school gradu-
ates who had never enrolled in college, 74 percent of men and 70 per-
cent of women were employed in civilian jobs; 10 percent of men in 
this educational-attainment group were serving in the military, com-
pared with 1 percent of women. Seventy-seven percent of both men and 
women who had attended some college but had not earned a bachelor's 
degree and were no longer enrolled were employed in civilian jobs in 
the October when they were age 22; 7 percent of men in this educa-
tional-attainment group were serving in the military, compared with 
over 2 percent of women. Among those who had earned a bachelor's de-
gree and were no longer enrolled, 90 percent of women and 85 percent 
of men were employed in civilian jobs during the October when they 
were age 22.

Employment Attachment of Young Adults

Individuals had an average of 4.4 jobs from the ages of 18 to 22 in
1998-2007. On average, men held 4.2 jobs and women held 4.5. (See
table 4.) In this report, a job is defined as an uninterrupted period
of work with a particular employer. (See the Technical Note for addi-
tional information on the definition of a job.)

On average, young adults were employed during 69 percent of all the 
weeks occurring from age 18 to age 22. They were unemployed--that is, 
without jobs but seeking work--6 percent of the weeks. They were not 
in the labor force--that is, neither working nor seeking work--25 per-
cent of the weeks.

The amount of time employed differs substantially between educational-
attainment groups, especially among blacks and Hispanics or Latinos.
Blacks with less than a high school diploma spent 38 percent of weeks
employed and 44 percent of weeks out of the labor force from age 18 to
age 22. By comparison, black high school graduates who had never en-
rolled in college spent 58 percent of weeks employed and 29 percent
of weeks out of the labor force. Blacks with a bachelor's degree or
more education were employed 63 percent of weeks from age 18 to age
22. Hispanic or Latino high school dropouts spent 57 percent of weeks
employed, compared with 70 percent of weeks for Hispanic or Latino
high school graduates and 67 percent of those with a bachelor's degree
or more.

The amount of time spent in the labor force also differs by sex. Men
with less than a high school diploma spent 61 percent of weeks employed 
from age 18 to age 22. These men also spent 13 percent of weeks unem-
ployed. By comparison, women with less than a high school diploma spent 
45 percent of weeks employed and 10 percent of weeks unemployed from 
age 18 to age 22. Women without a high school diploma spent as much 
time out of the labor force as they did employed. Women with a bach-
elor's degree or more spent a larger proportion of weeks employed than 
did men (69 versus 58 percent).

The number of jobs held by these young adults is very similar to the
number of jobs held by baby boomers who were ages 18 to 22 from 1978
to 1986. Women ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 spent a larger percentage 
of weeks employed than did women ages 18 to 22 in 1978-86 (68 versus 
60 percent). Hispanics and blacks ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 also 
spent more time employed and less time unemployed or not in the labor 
market than baby boomers who were the same ages in 1978-86. (See 
tables 1 and 4 of "Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and 
Earnings Growth Among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results from a 
Longitudinal Survey," June 27, 2008, available on the BLS Web site 
at www.bls.gov/nls/nlspressreleases.htm#anchy79.

Duration of Employment Relationships

By age 22, nearly all young adults had held at least one job since
leaving high school, although high school dropouts were less likely
ever to have held a job than were young adults with more education. 
Of the jobs held by 18- to 22-year-old workers, 58 percent ended in 
1 year or less, and another 13 percent ended in less than 2 years. 
Eight percent of jobs lasted 2 years or more. Another 22 percent of 
jobs were ongoing at the time of the 2007-08 survey, and their ulti-
mate duration is therefore not yet known. Jobs held by high school 
dropouts were more likely to end in 1 year or less than were jobs 
held by workers with more education. (See table 5.)





Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained using data from the first
11 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).
The NLSY97 collects extensive information on labor market behavior and
educational experiences.  Information about respondents' families and
communities also is obtained in the survey.
     
   This survey is conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at
the University of Chicago and the Center for Human Resource Research at
The Ohio State University, under the direction and sponsorship of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  Partial
funding support for the survey has been provided by the Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of
Justice, the Office of Vocational and Adult Education of the U.S.
Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Defense, the National
Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services, and the National Science Foundation.
     
Sample

   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is a nationally
representative sample of 8,984 young men and women who were ages 12 
to 16 on December 31, 1996.  This sample is composed of the following
groups:
     
     --A cross-sectional sample designed to represent the non-
       institutionalized, civilian segment of young people living 
       in the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and 
       December 31, 1984.
  
     --Supplemental samples of Hispanic or Latino and black youths 
       living in the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, 
       and December 31, 1984.
     
   The eleventh round of annual interviews took place between October
2007 and June 2008.  Most NLSY97 respondents completed their 2007-08 
interview before December 2007, when the nation officially entered a 
recession.  This release examines the period from the October when
respondents were age 21 until the month before respondents were age 23.
All results except the first two age categories of table 1 are weighted
using the survey weights from the round in which the respondents were
age 22.  The estimates of school enrollment status at ages 20 and 21
use the survey weights from the round in which the respondents were
those ages.  The survey weights correct for oversampling of some
demographic groups and nonresponse.  When weighted, the data represent
all people who were born in the years 1980 to 1984 and living in the
U.S. in 1997.  Not represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who
were born from 1980 to 1984 and moved to the U.S. after 1997.  NLSY97
sample members remain eligible to be interviewed during military service
or if they become incarcerated or institutionalized.
     
Work history data

   The total number of jobs that people hold during their work life is
an easy concept to understand but a difficult one to measure.  Reliable
estimates require a survey that interviews the same people over the
course of their entire work life and also keeps track of all the jobs
they ever held.  The NLSY97 tracks the number of jobs that people have
held, but the respondents in this survey are still young, and have many
years of schooling and work life ahead of them.  As the cohort continues
to age, however, more complete information will become available.
   
   A unique feature of the NLSY97 is that it collects the beginning and
ending dates of all jobs held by a respondent so that a longitudinal
history can be constructed of each respondent's work experiences.  The
NLSY97 work history data provide a week-by-week work record of each
respondent from January 1, 1994, through the most recent survey date.
These data contain information on the respondent's labor force status
each week, the usual hours worked per week at all jobs, and earnings for
all jobs.  If a respondent worked at more than one job in any week,
hours and earnings are obtained for additional jobs.  When a respondent
who missed one or more consecutive survey rounds is interviewed again,
he or she is asked to provide information about all time since the last
interview.

Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

   Because the NLSY97 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the same people
are surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents change with each
survey round.  It is important to keep in mind this inherent link
between the calendar years and the ages of the respondents.  The
youngest respondents in the sample (birth year 1984) turned 21 during
calendar year 2005, whereas the oldest respondents (birth year 1980)
turned 21 during calendar year 2001.  Some respondents may not be used
in all tables if information about their work history is incomplete.
 
Definitions
     
   School enrollment status.  If a respondent was enrolled in high
school or college at any point during the month of October, he or she is
counted as enrolled.  If a respondent reported no school enrollment
during October and also had not earned a high school diploma or General
Educational Development (GED) credential, he or she is counted as a high
school dropout.
   
   Training.  The NLSY97 obtains information on formal training
experiences outside of regular schooling.  The training questions
explore what kinds of training respondents obtain, where and when they
are trained, how the training is paid for, and what skills are acquired.
Training programs include:  Business or secretarial training;
vocational, technical, or trade training; vocational rehabilitation
centers; licensed practical nursing or registered nursing programs;
apprenticeship programs; adult basic education and GED programs;
correspondence courses; formal company training or seminars; and
government training.
   
   Employed.  The NLSY97 collects employment histories for civilian jobs
and military service.  Respondents are classified as employed if they
did any work during the specified time period as paid employees, as self-
employed proprietors of their own businesses, as unpaid workers in a
business owned by a member of their family, or if they were serving in
the Armed Forces.
   
   Unemployed.  Respondents are classified as unemployed if they did not
work during the specified time period but reported that they looked for
work or were on layoff from a job.  No probing for intensity of job
search is done.
   
   Not in the labor force.  Respondents are classified as not in the
labor force if they did not work or look for work during the specified
time period.
   
   Job.  A job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with a
particular employer.  Jobs are therefore employer-based, not position-
based.  If a respondent indicates that he or she left a job but in a
subsequent survey returned to the same job, it would be counted as a new
job.  For example, if an individual worked in a retail establishment,
quit, and then resumed working for the same employer at a later date,
this sequence would count as two jobs, rather than one.  For self-
employed workers, each "new" job is defined by the individuals
themselves.
   
   Race and ethnic groups.  In this release, the findings are reported
for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics or Latinos.
These groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other groups,
which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently
large to provide statistically reliable estimates.  In other BLS
publications, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks, and
Hispanics or Latinos, but these groups are not mutually exclusive.
"Hispanic or Latino" is considered to be an ethnic group, and people in
that group can be of any race.  Most other BLS publications include
estimates for Hispanics or Latinos in the white and black race groups in
addition to the Hispanic or Latino ethnic group.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service:  (800) 877-8339.





Table 1.  School enrollment status of young adults during the October when ages 20 to 22 in 2000-2007 
by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity        											
											
(Percent distribution)											
                                                             School enrollment status
                                                     High School   General Educational
Characteristic                      Total     High  graduates, not  Development (GED)    Enrolled    Bachelor's
                                             school   enrolled in    reciepents, not       in          degree
                                            dropouts   college     enrolled in college   college     or more(1)

Total, October when age 20........  100.0     13.1     39.7              5.4              40.5           0.2

  Men ............................  100.0     14.6     42.2              6.3              35.3           0.3
  Women ..........................  100.0     11.3     36.9              4.4              46.2           0.1

  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     10.4     38.8              5.6              44.3           0.2
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     20.6     42.0              6.5              28.7           0.1
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     19.2     45.2              4.2              29.6           (1)
  
Total, October when age 21 .......  100.0     12.2     42.7              6.5              37.2           1.0

  Men ............................  100.0     13.5     45.4              7.6              32.3           0.7
  Women ..........................  100.0     10.8     39.7              5.2              42.5           1.4
 
  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0      9.7     41.4              6.4              41.2           1.0
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     19.0     44.9              8.5              25.8           0.8
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     18.1     48.8              5.4              26.0           0.7

Total, October when age 22 .......  100.0     11.3     44.3              7.3              27.0           9.7
    
  Men ............................  100.0     12.4     46.6              8.5              25.2           6.9
  Women ..........................  100.0     10.2     41.9              5.9              29.1          12.8

  White, non-Hispanic ............  100.0      9.0     43.3              7.1              29.0          11.5
  Black, non-Hispanic ............  100.0     17.3     47.3             10.3              20.3           4.2
  Hispanic or Latino .............  100.0     17.2     49.5              5.9              22.9           3.8
 
     (1) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or 
medical degrees.
     (2) Less than .05 percent. 
     NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 
16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. 
Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation
in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.


Table 2.  School or training enrollment status during the October when age 22 in 2002-2007 by school enrollment status
during the October when age 21, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

School enrollment status                  School enrollment status during 
During the October                            the October when age 22            Recieved bachelor's degree        
when age 21                           Not enrolled      Enrolled  Enrolled in   Not enrolled     Enrolled in            
                            Total     in school or        in      training      in graduate     graduate or  
                                     training program  college(2)  program(3)     program    professional program

High School graduates, not
enrolled in college(1) ...  100.0         84.1           9.2          5.2            1.2             0.3          
       
  Men ....................  100.0         85.3           9.0          4.8            0.7             0.1          
  Women ..................  100.0         82.5           9.4          5.7            1.8             0.6        

  White, non-Hispanic ....  100.0         84.4           8.9          5.2            1.2             0.3 
    Men ..................  100.0         85.0           8.9          5.1            0.8             0.2
    Women ................  100.0         83.7           8.8          5.2            1.8             0.5 
  Black, non-Hispanic ....  100.0         85.2           8.7          5.1            0.7             0.2
    Men ..................  100.0         88.8           6.9          4.3            (4)             (4)  
    Women ................  100.0         80.7          11.0          6.2            1.6             0.6 
  Hispanic or Latino .....  100.0         83.2           9.9          6.1            0.7             0.2  
    Men ..................  100.0         83.6           9.8          5.8            0.7             0.1
    Women ................  100.0         82.7          10.0          6.4            0.7             0.2

Enrolled in college ......  100.0         15.7          59.7          0.8           18.4             5.4
 
  Men ....................  100.0         17.7          62.3          0.5           15.5             4.1 
  Women ..................  100.0         14.0          57.6          1.1           20.9             6.4 	
 
 White, non-Hispanic ....   100.0         14.2          59.3          0.6           20.4             5.6
    Men ..................  100.0         17.0          60.9          0.1           17.4             4.5
    Women ................  100.0         11.8          57.9          0.9           22.9             6.5
  Black, non-Hispanic ....  100.0         24.4          59.6          2.0            9.7             4.3
    Men ..................  100.0         23.8          65.5          1.6            7.9             1.1
    Women ................  100.0         24.8          55.7          2.3           10.8             6.3
  Hispanic or Latino .....  100.0         18.9          66.6          1.8            9.6             3.0
    Men ..................  100.0         19.1          69.2          2.0            7.4             2.3
    Women ................  100.0         18.8          64.2          1.5           11.7             3.7


1  Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school graduates.
2  A small percent of respondents were enrolled in both formal schooling (that is, high school or college) and training.
They are counted in the formal schooling categories only.
3  Training includes any courses, training programs, or apprenticeships designed to help people find a job, improve their 
job skills, or learn a new job.  Training also may include a GED preparation course.
4  Less than .05 percent.
     NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on 
December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other 
race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the 
survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.


Table 3.  Employment status of young adults not enrolled in school during the October when age 22
in 2002-2007 by high school graduation status, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

High school graduation status               Employment status during the October when age 22
during the October when age 22              	Employed  Serving in               Not in the 
                                        Total   civilian  Armed Forces	Unemployed labor force

Total ..............................    100.0     71.9       3.3           5.0         19.8

  Men ..............................    100.0     70.9       5.2           5.7         18.1
  Women ............................    100.0     72.9       1.3           4.2         21.6

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     74.6       3.1           4.0         18.3
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     62.3       3.5           8.5         25.8
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     71.0       4.0           5.6         19.4

High school dropouts................    100.0     57.7       (1)           9.2         33.1

  Men ..............................    100.0     64.6       (1)           9.7         25.7
  Women ............................    100.0     48.6       (1)           8.5         42.9

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     62.4       (1)           8.4         29.2
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     41.7       (1)          12.2         46.1
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     65.9       (1)           6.4         27.7

High school graduates,    
never enrolled in college (2) ......    100.0     72.4       6.1           5.9         15.5
    
  Men ..............................    100.0     74.0       9.6           6.5          9.9
  Women ............................    100.0     70.1       1.2           5.1         23.7

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     75.7       5.7           4.5         14.1
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     62.9       6.4          10.0         20.7
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     68.1       7.7           6.7         17.4

Some college, no longer enrolled ...    100.0     77.4       4.8           4.2         13.6 
    
  Men ..............................    100.0     77.1       7.1           5.2         10.7
  Women ............................    100.0     77.8       2.5           3.2         16.6
    
  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     79.2       4.8           3.4         12.6
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     72.0       4.7           5.7         17.5
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     76.4       4.6           5.4         13.7

Bachelor's degree or more, 
no longer enrolled .................    100.0     88.0       1.5           3.2          7.3 
       
  Men ..............................    100.0     84.7       3.3           3.3          8.7
  Women ............................    100.0     90.1       0.3           3.2          6.4
    
  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     87.9       1.7           3.4          7.0
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     87.2       1.5           2.5          8.8
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0      (3)       (3)           (3)          (3) 

   1  Less than .05 percent.
   2  Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted
as high school graduates.
   3  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as 
law or medical degrees.
   4  Cell sizes are not large enough for statistical analysis. 
   NOTE:  The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were
ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually
exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are
not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to 
provide statistically reliable estimates.


Table 4.  Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor  force from age 18 to age 22
in 1998-2007 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
					
	                                                   Average      Percent of total weeks while ages
Characteristic                                             number               18 to 22 in 1998-2007				
					                    of        Employed     Unemployed    Not in 
                                                           jobs                                labor Force
					
Total, ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 ........................  4.4        69.2          5.8           24.6	
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  3.9        53.7         11.8           34.0	
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  4.3        71.6          7.5           20.5	
  Some college or associate degree .......................  4.4        72.7          4.4           22.7	
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)...........................  4.6        64.9          3.2           31.6	
  
Men ......................................................  4.2        69.9          6.4           23.4
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  4.2        60.8         13.0           25.5
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  4.3        75.1          7.7           16.8
  Some college or associate degree .......................  4.2        71.4          4.4           23.9
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  4.2        58.3          3.7           37.7 
 
Women ....................................................  4.5        68.4          5.3           26.0
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  3.6        44.5         10.2           44.8
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  4.2        66.5          7.2           26.0
  Some college or associate degree .......................  4.6        73.9          4.3           21.4
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  4.9        69.0          2.9           27.9

White, non-Hispanic ......................................  4.6        72.3          4.7           22.7
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  4.4        59.2         10.7           29.5
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  4.5        76.0          6.1           17.5
  Some college or associate degree .......................  4.6        75.3          3.4           21.0
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  4.7        65.5          3.0           31.2

Black, non-Hispanic ......................................  4.0        57.9         10.6           31.1
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  3.0        38.2         17.0           44.4
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  3.9        57.8         12.4           29.3
  Some college or associate degree .......................  4.3        64.7          7.9           27.2
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  4.7        63.1          4.1           32.7
 
Hispanic  or Latino ......................................  3.9        68.4          6.5           24.8
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  3.6        57.4          9.5           32.8
  High school graduates, never ernolled in college (1) ...  3.7        69.6          7.2           22.9
  Some college or associate degree .......................  4.0        71.7          5.3           22.7
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  4.4        67.2          3.5           29.0

   1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2  Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees or professional degrees, such as law
   or medical degrees.
   NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 23 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   Totals do not add to 100 percent due to a small number of respondents whose employment status cannot be 
determined for all weeks.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages were ages 12 
to 16 on December 31, 1996.  Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutuallyexclusive but not 
exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not  shown separately because 
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.  
Educational attainment is set as of age 22.


Table 5.  Duration of employment relationship with a single employer for all jobs from the time a person left high
school to age 22 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity						

                                                                      Percent distribution of duration of employment
                                                           Percent                       relationships
                                                            ever                More than 1          Ongoing at the
Characteristic                                             held a      1 year    year but    2 years    2007 - 08
                                                            job       or less   less than    or more     survey
                                                                                 2 years     
Total, ages 18 to 22 in 1998-2007 .......................   96.9        57.5       12.6        7.6        22.3
  Less than a high school diploma .......................   91.2        66.4       11.6        4.9        17.1
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college(1) ...   96.6        56.7       11.8        7.6        23.9
  Some college or associate degree ......................   97.7        56.2       13.3        7.8        22.7
  Bachelor's degree or more(2) ..........................   99.1        57.5       12.4        8.9        21.2
  
Men .....................................................   96.5        57.0       12.5        7.0        23.4
  Less than a high school diploma .......................   92.7        63.7       12.6        5.0        18.8
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college(1) ...   96.5        55.1       12.3        7.5        25.1
  Some college or associate degree ......................   97.1        56.0       13.0        7.3        23.8
  Bachelor's degree or more(2) ..........................   98.1        60.1       11.5        7.0        21.4
  
Women ...................................................   97.3        58.1       12.6        8.2        21.1
  Less than a high school diploma .......................   89.2        70.2       10.2        4.7        14.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college(1) ...   96.7        59.1       10.9        7.8        22.1
  Some college or associate degree ......................   98.2        56.4       13.7        8.3        21.6
  Bachelor's degree or more(2) ..........................   99.7        55.9       12.9       10.1        21.1

White, non-Hispanic .....................................   98.0        57.3       12.3        8.1        22.2
  Less than a high school diploma .......................   93.7        68.9       10.6        4.8        15.7
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college(1) ...   97.4        55.7       11.9        8.4        24.0
  Some college or associate degree ......................   98.6        56.4       12.9        8.2        22.6
  Bachelor's degree or more(2) ..........................   99.1        57.3       12.5        9.0        21.3

Black, non-Hispanic .....................................   93.7        62.5       11.9        5.3        20.2
  Less than a high school diploma .......................   83.5        71.4       12.2        2.8        13.6
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college(1) ...   94.2        64.0       11.1        4.5        20.4
  Some college or associate degree ......................   96.0        59.1       12.6        5.9        22.4
  Bachelor's degree or more(2) ..........................    (3)        58.9       11.8        9.7        19.6

Hispanic  or Latino .....................................   93.7        62.5       11.9        5.3        20.2
  Less than a high school diploma .......................   83.5        71.4       12.2        2.8        13.6
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college(1) ...   94.2        64.0       11.1        4.5        20.4
  Some college or associate degree ......................   96.0        59.1       12.6        5.9        22.4
  Bachelor's degree or more(2) ..........................    (3)        58.9       11.8        9.7        19.6

   1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2  Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or medical 
degrees.
   3  Number rounds to 100 percent.
   NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who  had not yet turned age 23 when interviewed in 2006-07.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31,
1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, 
which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample 
is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.  Educational attainment is set as of age 22.						

Last Modified Date: April 09, 2010
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