Economic News Release

Employment Experience of Youths: Results from a Longitudinal Survey News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, February 9, 2012                  USDL-12-0216

Technical information:  (202) 691-7410  *  nls_info@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/nls
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          AMERICA'S YOUNG ADULTS AT 24: SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TRAINING, AND
                   EMPLOYMENT TRANSITIONS BETWEEN AGES 23 AND 24


At age 24, a clear gender gap in educational attainment persists. While nearly 28
percent of women had received a bachelor’s degree by the October when they were
age 24, only 19 percent of men had done so, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Additionally, nearly the same percentage of men and women (12 and
13 percent, respectively) were enrolled in college at age 24, so it is unlikely
the gap in educational attainment will close.

These findings are from the first 13 annual rounds of the National Longitudinal
Survey of Youth 1997, which is a nationally representative survey of about 9,000
men and women who were born during the years 1980 to 1984. These respondents were
ages 12 to 17 when first interviewed in 1997, and ages 24 to 30 when interviewed
for the 13th time in 2009-10. The survey provides information on work and nonwork
experiences, training, schooling, income, assets, and other characteristics. The
information provided by respondents is representative of all men and women born in
the early 1980s and living in the United States when the survey began in 1997.

This release focuses on the school enrollment and employment experiences of these
individuals from the October when they were age 23 to the October when they were
age 24. Respondents were age 23 in October during the years 2003 to 2008, and age
24 in October from 2004 to 2009.

Highlights from the longitudinal survey include:

  -- During the October when they were 24 years old, 19 percent of men had
     received a bachelor’s degree, compared with 28 percent of women. (See
     table 1.)

  -- Among those who were enrolled in college when they were 23 years old,
     over one-fourth had received their bachelor’s degree by age 24, while
     23 percent were no longer enrolled in college or training. Non-Hispanic
     blacks and Hispanics or Latinos were less likely than non-Hispanic
     whites to have received a bachelor’s degree between ages 23 and 24.
     (See table 2.)

  -- Seven percent of male high school graduates who had never enrolled in
     college were in the U.S. Armed Forces during the October when they were
     age 24, as were 7 percent of the 24-year old men who had attended college
     but had not earned a bachelor’s degree and were no longer enrolled. Two
     percent of 24-year old men with a bachelor’s degree were serving in the 
     Armed Forces. (See table 3.)

  -- Individuals born from 1980 to 1984 held an average of 5.4 jobs from age
     18 to age 24. Those with more education held more jobs than those with
     less education. (See table 4.)

  -- High school graduates who had never enrolled in college were employed an
     average of 75 percent of the weeks from age 18 to age 24. By comparison,
     those who had dropped out of high school were employed 55 percent of those
     weeks. (See table 4.)

  -- By their 25th birthday, 6 percent of the young adults who had not received
     a high school diploma had never held a job since turning 18. (See table 5.)

Educational Attainment at Age 24

At 24 years of age, 23 percent of individuals had received their bachelor’s degree,
an increase from 19 percent at 23 years of age. The percentage of individuals
enrolled in college decreased from 17 percent at age 23 to 13 percent at age 24.
Forty-six percent of 24-year olds had graduated from high school and were not
enrolled in college, and 9 percent had earned a General Educational Development (GED)
credential and were not enrolled in college. Ten percent of individuals were high
school dropouts during the October when they were age 24. (See table 1.)

Women were much more likely than men to have received a bachelor’s degree by the
October when they were age 24, and were equally likely to still be enrolled in
college. Twenty-eight percent of women had earned a bachelor’s degree, compared with
19 percent of men. At age 24, women were less likely than men to be a high school
dropout or a high school graduate not enrolled in college. (See table 1.)

There remains a large and growing gap in educational attainment among racial and
ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic whites are nearly three times as likely as Hispanics
or Latinos to have received their bachelor’s degree at age 24. Twenty-eight percent
of non-Hispanic whites had received their bachelor’s degree, compared with 11 percent
of non-Hispanic blacks and 10 percent of Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic blacks
and Hispanics or Latinos are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to be high
school dropouts in the October they were age 24.

Schooling and Training between Ages 23 and 24

Some people delay their college enrollment for a year or more after high school, and
others enroll in college and then leave before earning a degree. By the October when
age 23, a large proportion of individuals who will successfully attain a bachelor’s
degree had already done so, since only 17 percent of individuals were still enrolled
in college the October when age 23. (See table 1.) By the October of the following year,
23 percent of those college-enrolled individuals were no longer enrolled in college
or training, while 26 percent had earned a bachelor’s degree. (See table 2.) Of those
enrolled in college the October when age 23, an equal percent of men and women had
earned their bachelor’s degree by the following October when age 24 (27 and 25 percent,
respectively).

Nonwhites continue to lose ground academically. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-
Hispanic blacks and Hispanics or Latinos who were enrolled in college in the October
when age 23 were more likely to have left college by October of the following year
without a degree.

Instead of attending college, some young adults enroll in training to further their
skills. Five percent of high school graduates who were not enrolled in college at
age 23 were in a training program during the October when age 24, while 2 percent of
those previously enrolled in college at age 23 were enrolled in a training program at
age 24.

Employment Status at Age 24 of Young Adults Not Enrolled in School

At age 24, labor force status differed substantially by educational attainment. Those
with more education were more likely to be employed in civilian jobs and less likely
to not be in the labor force. Sixty percent of high school dropouts were employed in
civilian jobs in the October they were age 24. At the same age, 76 percent of high
school graduates who had never enrolled in college were employed in civilian jobs,
and another 4 percent were serving in the Armed Forces. Among 24-year-old high school
graduates who had some college experience, but had not earned a bachelor’s degree and
were no longer enrolled in college, 80 percent were employed in civilian jobs, and
4 percent were serving in the Armed Forces. Ninety-two percent of 24-year olds, who
had earned a bachelor’s degree and were no longer enrolled, were employed in civilian
jobs, while 2 percent were serving in the Armed Forces. (See table 3.)

While men and women who had attended college or graduated from college are equally
likely to be employed at age 24, at lower education levels, men are more likely to be
working than women. Sixty-nine percent of male high school dropouts were employed in
the civilian labor force during the October when they were age 24, compared with 49
percent of female dropouts. Among high school graduates who had never enrolled in
college, 79 percent of men and 70 percent of women were employed in civilian jobs,
and 7 percent of men and 1 percent of women were serving in the military. Eighty-one
percent of men and 79 percent of women who had attended some college, but had not
earned a bachelor’s degree and were no longer enrolled, were employed in civilian
jobs in the October when they were age 24. Seven percent of men in this educational-
attainment group were serving in the military, compared with 2 percent of women. Among
those who had earned a bachelor’s degree and were no longer enrolled, approximately
94 percent of both men and women were either employed in civilian jobs or serving in
the military during the October when they were age 24.

Employment Attachment of Young Adults

Individuals had an average of 5.4 jobs from the ages of 18 to 24 in 1998-2009. On
average, men held 5.1 jobs and women held 5.6. (See table 4.) In this report, a job
is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with a particular employer. (See the
Technical Note for additional information on the definition of a job.)

On average, young adults represented by the survey sample were employed during 74
percent of all the weeks occurring from age 18 to age 24. They were unemployed--that
is, without jobs but seeking and available for work--5 percent of the weeks. They
were not in the labor force--that is, neither working nor seeking work--21 percent
of the weeks.

The amount of time employed differs substantially between educational-attainment groups,
especially among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic blacks with
less than a high school diploma spent the same percent of time employed as they spent
out of the labor force, 42 percent. By comparison, non-Hispanic blacks high school
graduates who had never enrolled in college spent 62 percent of weeks employed and 25
percent of weeks out of the labor force. Non-Hispanic blacks with a bachelor’s degree
or more education were employed 69 percent of weeks from age 18 to age 24. Hispanic or
Latino high school dropouts spent 61 percent of weeks employed, compared with 75 percent
of weeks for Hispanic or Latino high school graduates.

The amount of time spent in the labor force also differs by sex. Men with less than a
high school diploma spent 62 percent of weeks employed from age 18 to age 24. These men
also spent 12 percent of weeks unemployed. By comparison, women with less than a high
school diploma spent 45 percent of weeks employed and 10 percent of weeks unemployed
from age 18 to age 24. Women without a high school diploma spent as much time out of the
labor force as they did employed. Women with a bachelor’s degree or more spent a larger
proportion of weeks employed than did men with a bachelor’s degree or more (75 versus
69 percent).

Duration of Employment Relationships

By their 25th birthday, nearly all young adults had held at least one job since age 18,
although high school dropouts, especially female and non-Hispanic black dropouts, were
less likely ever to have held a job than were young adults with more education. Most 
jobs held through age 24 were of relatively short duration. Of the jobs held by 18- to
24-year-old workers, 56 percent ended in 1 year or less, and another 14 percent ended in
less than 2 years. Eleven percent of jobs lasted 2 years or more. Another 20 percent of
jobs were ongoing at the time of the 2009-10 survey, and their ultimate duration is
therefore not yet known. Jobs held by high school dropouts were more likely to end in 1
year or less than were jobs held by workers with more education. (See table 5.)




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release were obtained using data from the first
13 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).  The
NLSY97 collects extensive information on labor market behavior and
educational experiences.  Information about respondents' families and
communities also is obtained in the survey.

   This survey is conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at
the University of Chicago and the Center for Human Resource Research at
The Ohio State University, under the direction and sponsorship of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  Partial
funding support for the survey has been provided by the Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of
Justice, the Office of Vocational and Adult Education of the U.S.
Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Defense, the National
Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services, and the National Science Foundation.

Sample

   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is a nationally
representative sample of 8,984 young men and women who were ages 12 to
16 on December 31, 1996.  This sample is composed of the following
groups:

  -- A cross-sectional sample designed to represent the
     noninstitutionalized, civilian segment of young people living in the
     U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984.

  -- Supplemental samples of Hispanic or Latino and black youths living in
     the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984.

   The thirteenth round of annual interviews took place between October 2009 and
May 2010.  This release examines the period from respondents 18th birthday
until the month before respondents were age 25.  All results except the first
two age categories of table 1 are weighted using the survey weights from the
round in which the respondents were age 24.  The estimates of school enrollment
status at ages 22 and 23 use the survey weights from the round in which the
respondents were those ages.  The survey weights correct for oversampling of
some demographic groups and nonresponse.  When weighted, the data represent all
people who were  born in the years 1980 to 1984 and living in the U.S. in 1997.
Not represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who were born from 1980 to
1984 and moved to the U.S. after 1997.  NLSY97 sample members remain eligible
to be interviewed during military service or if they become incarcerated or
institutionalized.

Work history data

   The total number of jobs that people hold during their work life is an easy
concept to understand but a difficult one to measure. Reliable estimates require
a survey that interviews the same people over the course of their entire work
life and also keeps track of all the jobs they ever held. The NLSY97 tracks the
number of jobs that people have held, but the respondents in this survey are
still young, and have many years of schooling and work life ahead of them. As
the cohort continues to age, however, more complete information will become
available.

   A unique feature of the NLSY97 is that it collects the beginning and ending
dates of all jobs held by a respondent so that a longitudinal history can be
constructed of each respondent’s work experiences. The NLSY97 work history data
provide a week-by-week work record of each respondent from January 1, 1994,
through the most recent survey date. These data contain information on the
respondent’s labor force status each week, the usual hours worked per week at
all jobs, and earnings for all jobs. If a respondent worked at more than one
job in any week, hours and earnings are obtained for additional jobs. When a
respondent who missed one or more consecutive survey rounds is interviewed
again, he or she is asked to provide information about all time since the last
interview.

Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

   Because the NLSY97 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the same people are
surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents change with each survey round.
It is important to keep in mind this inherent link between the calendar years 
and the ages of the respondents.  The youngest respondents in the sample (birth
year 1984) turned 24 during calendar year 2008, whereas the oldest respondents
(birth year 1980) turned 24 during calendar year 2004.  Some respondents may not
be used in all tables if information about their work history is incomplete.

Definitions

   School enrollment status.  If a respondent was enrolled in college at any point
during the month of October, he or she is counted as enrolled. If a respondent
had not earned a high school diploma or General Educational Development (GED)
credential, he or she is counted as a high school dropout.

   Training.  The NLSY97 obtains information on formal training experiences
outside of regular schooling.  The training questions explore what kinds of
training respondents obtain, where and when they are trained, how the training
is paid for, and what skills are acquired. Training programs include: Business
or secretarial training; vocational, technical, or trade training; vocational
rehabilitation centers; licensed practical nursing or registered nursing programs;
apprenticeship programs; adult basic education and GED programs; correspondence
courses; formal company training or seminars; and government training.

   Employed.  The NLSY97 collects employment histories for civilian jobs and
military service.  Respondents are classified as employed if they did any work 
during the specified time period as paid employees, as self-employed proprietors
of their own businesses,  as unpaid workers in a business owned by a member of
their family, or if they were serving in the Armed Forces.

   Unemployed.  Respondents are classified as unem-ployed if they did not work
during the specified time period but reported that they looked for work or were
on layoff from a job.  No probing for intensity of job search is done.

   Not in the labor force.  Respondents are classified as not in the labor force
if they did not work or look for work during the specified time period.

   Job.  A job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with a particular
employer. Jobs are therefore employer-based, not position-based.  If a respondent
indicates that he or she left a job but in a subsequent survey returned to the
same job, it would be counted as a new job.  For example, if an individual worked
in a retail establishment, quit, and then resumed working for the same employer
at a  later date, this sequence would count as two jobs, rather than one.  For
self-employed workers, each "new" job is defined by the individuals themselves.

   Race and ethnic groups.  In this release, the findings are reported for non-
Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics or Latinos. These groups are
mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other groups, which are included in the
overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the sur-
vey sample is not sufficiently large to pro-vide statistically reliable estimates.
In other BLS publications, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks,
and Hispanics or Latinos, but these groups are not mutually exclusive."Hispanic
or Latino" is considered to be an ethnic group, and people in that group can be of
any race.  Most other BLS publications include estimates for Hispanics or Latinos
in the white and black race groups in addition to the Hispanic or Latino ethnic
group.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.




Table 1. Educational attainment of young adults during the October when ages 22 to 24 in 2002-2009 by sex,
race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)
                                                             Educational attainment	
                                                     High School   General Educational
Characteristic                      Total     High  graduates, not  Development (GED)    Enrolled    Bachelor's
                                             school   enrolled in    recipients, not       in          degree
                                            dropouts   college     enrolled in college   college     or more (1)

Total, October when age 22.....   100.0       11.3      44.1               7.3            27.3          9.7

  Men .........................   100.0       12.4      46.4               8.5            25.4          6.9
  Women .......................   100.0       10.1      41.7               5.9            29.3         12.7

  White, non-Hispanic .........   100.0	       9.0      43.1               7.0            29.2         11.5
  Black, non-Hispanic .........   100.0       17.3      47.1              10.3            20.4          4.4
  Hispanic or Latino ..........   100.0       17.2      49.4               5.8            23.1          3.6

Total, October when age 23 ....   100.0       10.6      45.6               7.9            17.0         18.7

  Men .........................   100.0       11.7      47.9               9.2            16.7         14.2
  Women .......................   100.0        9.4      43.1               6.6            17.4         23.4

  White, non-Hispanic .........   100.0        8.3      44.4               7.6            17.0         22.4
  Black, non-Hispanic .........   100.0       16.4      47.8              11.3            15.5          8.8
  Hispanic or Latino ..........   100.0       16.6      52.2               6.8            16.1          8.1

Total, October when age 24 ....   100.0       10.2      45.5               8.5            12.6         23.0

  Men .........................   100.0       11.2      47.8               9.9            12.2         18.7
  Women .......................   100.0        9.2      43.0               6.9            13.1         27.6

  White, non-Hispanic .........   100.0        8.2      44.4               8.0            11.9         27.5
  Black, non-Hispanic .........   100.0       15.7      48.5              12.4            12.1         11.1
  Hispanic or Latino ..........   100.0       15.4      51.1               7.7            15.3         10.1

   1 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or 
medical degrees.
   NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12
to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 2. School or training enrollment status during the October when age 24 in 2004-2009 by school enrollment
status during the October when age 23, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

School enrollment status                  School enrollment status during 
During the October                            the October when age 24              Earned bachelor's degree
when age 23                           Not enrolled      Enrolled   Enrolled in  Not enrolled    Enrolled in
                            Total     in school or        in        training     in graduate    graduate or
                                     training program  college (2) program (3)    program      professional
                                                                                                 program

High School graduates, not
enrolled in college (1) ..  100.0         87.4           6.9          5.3            0.4             (4)

Men ....................... 100.0         87.6           5.8          6.3            0.3             (4)
Women ..................... 100.0         87.2           8.2          4.1            0.5             (4)

White, non-Hispanic ....... 100.0         88.0           6.4          5.2            0.4             (4)
  Men ..................... 100.0         87.5           5.9          6.5            0.2             (4)
  Women ................... 100.0         88.5           7.1          3.6            0.7             (4)
Black, non-Hispanic ....... 100.0         88.3           6.9          4.5            0.3             (4)
  Men ..................... 100.0         92.4           3.5          3.6            0.4             (4)
  Women ................... 100.0         83.5          10.9          5.5            0.2             (4)
Hispanic or Latino ........ 100.0         85.3           8.6          5.8            (4)             0.2
  Men ..................... 100.0         84.1           8.7          7.1            (4)             0.1
  Women ................... 100.0         86.9           8.5          4.3            (4)             0.3

Enrolled in college ....... 100.0         22.6          49.9          1.6           21.8             4.0

Men ....................... 100.0         21.9          49.7          1.8           21.2             5.3
Women ..................... 100.0         23.4          50.1          1.4           22.4             2.6
 
White, non-Hispanic ....... 100.0         20.4          48.0          1.7           25.4             4.5
  Men ..................... 100.0         19.9          47.4          2.1           24.2             6.3
  Women ................... 100.0         20.9          48.6          1.2           26.7             2.6
Black, non-Hispanic ....... 100.0         32.8          49.9          2.4           13.2             1.7
  Men ..................... 100.0         34.9          45.0          0.8           17.4             2.0
  Women ................... 100.0         31.1          53.9          3.8            9.8             1.4
Hispanic or Latino ........ 100.0         26.2          58.6          1.3           10.5             3.4
  Men ..................... 100.0         25.6          58.0          2.5            9.0             4.9
  Women ................... 100.0         26.9          59.2          (4)           12.1             1.8

   1 Respondents who have received a General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high
school graduates.
   2 A small percent of respondents were enrolled in both formal schooling (that is, high school or
college) and training. They are counted in the formal schooling categories only.
   3 Training includes any courses, training programs, or apprenticeships designed to help people find a
job, improve their job skills, or learn a new job. Training also may include a GED preparation course.
   4 Less than .05 percent.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had earned a bachelor's degree by the October when age 23.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16
on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable
estimates.




Table 3. Employment status of young adults not enrolled in school during the October when age 24
in 2004-2009 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

Educational attainment during the         Employment status during the October when age 24
  October when age 24                           Employed   Serving in               Not in the
                                        Total   civilian  Armed Forces	Unemployed labor force

Total ..............................    100.0     76.9       3.0           4.4         15.7

  Men ..............................    100.0     77.7       4.9           5.1         12.4
  Women ............................    100.0     75.9       1.1           3.8         19.2

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     79.8       3.1           3.5         13.6
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     67.2       2.8           7.3         22.8
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     75.1       2.9           5.1         16.9

High school dropouts ...............    100.0     60.2       0.1           8.9         30.9

  Men ..............................    100.0     69.2       0.1           9.8         20.9
  Women ............................    100.0     48.6       (1)           7.7         43.6

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     64.7       (1)           8.2         27.1
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     45.5       0.2          11.8         42.5
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     65.4       (1)           7.3         27.3

High school graduates, never enrolled
  in college (2) ......                 100.0     75.6       4.3           4.7         15.5

  Men ..............................    100.0     79.3       6.8           4.5          9.4
  Women ............................    100.0     70.1       0.5           5.0         24.3

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     78.6       4.4           3.1         13.9
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     66.9       4.3           8.9         19.9
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     72.7       4.4           5.6         17.4

Some college, no longer enrolled ...    100.0     80.1       4.4           4.2         11.3

  Men ..............................    100.0     81.3       6.7           4.9          7.1
  Women ............................    100.0     78.9       2.1           3.4         15.6

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     81.5       4.7           3.3         10.5
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     74.9       3.4           6.4         15.2
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     82.6       4.2           3.6          9.6

Bachelor's degree or more,
no longer enrolled (3) .............    100.0     92.1       1.5           2.2          4.1

  Men ..............................    100.0     91.4       2.4           3.0          3.2
  Women ............................    100.0     92.6       0.9           1.7          4.9

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     92.3       1.5           1.8          4.3
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     93.2       0.5           3.0          3.3
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     93.1       1.8           2.9          2.2

   1 Less than .05 percent.
   2 Respondents who have received a General Educational Development credential are counted as
high school graduates.
   3 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees
such as law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were
ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually
exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are
not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large
to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 4. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 through
age 24 in 1998-2009 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                           Average   Percent of total weeks while ages 18 to 24
Characteristic                                             number                  in 1998-2009
                                                             of     Employed     Unemployed     Not in
                                                            jobs                              labor force

Total, ages 18 to 24 in 1998-2009 .......................  5.4         73.6           5.4         20.6
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  5.0         54.7          10.9         33.7
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  5.0         74.9           7.1         17.6
  Some college or associate degree ......................  5.4         77.8           4.7         17.2
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  5.9         72.3           3.0         24.4

Men .....................................................  5.1         75.3           5.8         18.5
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  5.2         62.3          12.1         25.1
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  5.1         79.3           7.3         12.9
  Some college or associate degree ......................  5.1         79.4           4.6         15.7
  Bachelors degree or more (2) ..........................  5.4         68.5           3.1         28.1

Women ...................................................  5.6         71.8           5.0         22.9
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  4.7         45.3           9.5         44.5
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  4.8         68.5           6.8         24.3
  Some college or associate degree ......................  5.7         76.2           4.8         18.7
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  6.3         75.2           2.9         21.6

White, non-Hispanic .....................................  5.6         76.1           4.4         19.1
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  6.0         57.6          10.7         30.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  5.1         78.5           5.8         15.3
  Some college or associate degree ......................  5.6         80.2           3.7         15.8
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  6.1         73.5           2.8         23.5

Black, non-Hispanic .....................................  5.0         63.6           9.8         26.1
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  3.5         42.4          15.2         41.8
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  4.7         62.3          11.9         25.2
  Some college or associate degree ......................  5.3         69.8           8.5         21.5
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  6.0         69.3           4.0         26.4

Hispanic  or Latino .....................................  4.7         73.5           5.7         20.6
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  4.3         60.7           7.2         31.7
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  4.6         74.7           6.9         18.1
  Some college or associate degree ......................  4.8         77.5           4.9         17.4
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  5.0         71.7           3.7         24.2

   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2 Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees or professional degrees,
such as law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 25 when interviewed in 2009-10.
   Percentages do not sum to 100 due to a small number of respondents whose employment
status cannot be determined for all weeks.
   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of men and women who were ages were ages 12
to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable
estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 24.




Table 5. Duration of employment relationship with a single employer for all jobs from age 18 through age 24 in 1998-2009
by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                                      Percent distribution of duration of employment
                                                           Percent                    relationships
                                                            ever                More than 1             Ongoing at
Characteristic                                             held a      1 year    year but    2 years   the 2009-10
                                                            job       or less   less than    or more     survey
                                                                                 2 years

Total, ages 18 to 24 in 1998-2009 ........................  98.4        55.9      13.8        10.7         19.6
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  94.4        64.4      11.6         7.1         16.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.2        55.2      13.1        10.6         21.1
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.7        54.8      14.3        11.4         19.5
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  99.5        55.3      14.3        11.0         19.3

Men ......................................................  98.1        55.4      13.0        10.4         21.2
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  95.5        61.1      11.7         8.0         19.3
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.1        54.3      12.8        10.1         22.8
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.2        54.6      13.6        11.1         20.7
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  98.9        56.0      12.7        10.5         20.8

Women ....................................................  98.7        56.4      14.5        11.1         18.0
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  93.0        68.7      11.4         6.0         13.8
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.2        56.4      13.5        11.4         18.7
  Some college or associate degree .......................  99.1        55.1      15.0        11.6         18.3
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................   (3)        54.8      15.5        11.5         18.2

White, non-Hispanic ......................................  98.9        55.7      13.8        11.2         19.3
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  96.5        66.2      10.9         7.4         15.6
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.7        54.1      12.9        11.2         21.8
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.8        55.1      14.0        12.3         18.6
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  99.7        55.6      14.7        10.8         18.9

Black, non-Hispanic ......................................  96.5        60.4      12.7         8.3         18.7
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  87.8        69.3      11.4         5.0         14.3
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  95.9        62.2      12.8         7.5         17.5
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.7        58.2      12.9         8.2         20.6
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  99.6        55.3      12.9        12.6         19.2

Hispanic  or Latino ......................................  98.6        52.0      14.4        10.6         23.0
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  95.6        56.3      13.2         7.8         22.6
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.7        52.0      13.4        11.8         22.8
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.7        51.1      15.6        10.6         22.8
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................   (3)        49.8      14.1        11.6         24.5

   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or medical
degrees.
   3 Number rounds to 100 percent.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who  had not yet turned age 25 when interviewed in 2009-10.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on
December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other
race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the
survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is
determined as of age 24.




Last Modified Date: February 09, 2012
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