Economic News Release

Employment Experience of Youths: Results from a Longitudinal Survey News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, March 1, 2013                  USDL-13-0339

Technical information:  (202) 691-7410  *  nls_info@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/nls
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


(NOTE: This news release was reissued on March 27, 2013, to correct data in Table
4. No other data or analysis was affected.)

(NOTE: This news release was reissued on March 22, 2013, to correct data in Table
1, 2, and 4. No other data or analysis was affected.)

(NOTE: This news release was reissued on March 5, 2013, to correct data in Table 2
for Hispanics or Latinos with a bachelor's degree or more, no longer enrolled and
not in the labor force during the October when age 25. No other data or analysis 
were affected.)


     AMERICA'S YOUTH AT 25: SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, NUMBER OF JOBS HELD
     AND LABOR MARKET ACTIVITY: RESULTS FROM A LONGITUDINAL SURVEY
     

By the October when they were 25 years of age, 30 percent of women and 22 percent 
of men had received a bachelor's degree, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. Additionally, nearly the same percentage of men and women (13 and 
14 percent respectively) were enrolled in college at age 25. 

These findings are from the first 14 annual rounds of the National Longitudinal 
Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative survey of about 9,000 young
men and women who were born during the years 1980 to 1984. These respondents
were ages 12 to 17 when first interviewed in 1997, and ages 25 to 31 when
interviewed for the 14th time in 2010-11. The survey provides information on
work and nonwork experiences, training, schooling, income, assets, and other
characteristics. The information provided by respondents is representative
of all men and women born in the early 1980s and living in the United States
when the survey began in 1997.

This release focuses on the school enrollment and employment experiences of 
these individuals from their 18th birthday until they turned 26. Highlights 
from the longitudinal survey include:

  --During the October when they were 25 years old, 22 percent of men
    had received a bachelor's degree, compared with 30 percent of women.
    (See table 1.)

  --Five percent of male high school graduates who had never enrolled
    in college were in the Armed Forces during the October when they were
    age 25, as were 6 percent of the 25-year-old men who had attended
    college but had not earned a bachelor's degree and were no longer
    enrolled. Three percent of 25-year-old men with a bachelor's degree
    were serving in the Armed Forces. About 1 percent of women in each of
    these educational attainment categories were in the Armed Forces at
    age 25. (See table 2.)

  --Individuals born from 1980 to 1984 held an average of 6.3 jobs
    from ages 18 to 25. On average, those with more education held more
    jobs than those with less education. (See table 3.)

  --Men held an average of 4.0 jobs from ages 18 to 21 and 3.2 jobs
    from ages 22 to 25 while women held an average of 4.2 jobs and 3.2
    jobs at those ages. In general, from ages 22 to 25, individuals with
    more education held more jobs, worked more weeks, and were less likely
    to be out of the labor force. (See table 4.)

  --High school graduates who had never enrolled in college were
    employed an average of 69 percent of the weeks from ages 18 to 21,
    and 76 percent of weeks from ages 22 to 25. In comparison, those who
    had dropped out of high school were employed 51 percent of weeks from
    ages 18 to 21, and 58 percent of weeks from ages 22 to 25. (See table 4.)

  --By their 26th birthday, 5 percent of youths who had not received
    a high school diploma had never held a job since the time they turned
    18. Of all jobs held by high school dropouts since age 18, nearly two-
    thirds lasted less than a year. (See table 5.)

Educational Attainment at age 25

At 25 years of age, 26 percent of individuals had received their bachelor's 
degree, up from 23 percent at age 24, and 19 percent at age 23. The percent of 
individuals enrolled in college rose slightly from 13 to 14 percent between 
ages 24 and 25. Forty-three percent of 25 year olds had graduated from high 
school and were not enrolled in college, and 8 percent had earned a General 
Educational Development (GED) credential and were not enrolled in college. 
Nine percent of individuals were high school dropouts during the October 
when they were age 25. (See table 1.)

Women were much more likely than men to have received a bachelor's degree 
by the October they were age 25 and were equally likely to still be enrolled 
in college. Thirty percent of women had earned a bachelor's degree, compared 
with 22 percent of men. At age 25, women were less likely than men to be 
high school dropouts or high school graduates not enrolled in college. 

At age 25, there was a large difference in educational attainment among 
racial and ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics were about twice 
as likely as whites to be high school dropouts in the October they were age 25. 
In comparison, whites were more than twice as likely as blacks or Hispanics 
to have received their bachelor's degree by this age. Thirty percent of 
whites had received their bachelor's degree, compared with 14 percent of 
blacks and 12 percent of Hispanics.

Employment Status at age 25 of Young Adults Not Enrolled in School

Among those not enrolled in school the October when age 25, labor force 
status differed substantially by educational attainment. Those with more 
education were more likely to be employed in civilian jobs and less likely 
to be out of the labor force. Sixty percent of high school dropouts were 
employed in civilian jobs in the October they were age 25. At the same 
age, 76 percent of high school graduates who had never enrolled in 
college were employed in civilian jobs, and another 3 percent were serving 
in the Armed Forces. Among 25-year-old high school graduates who had some 
college experience but had not earned a bachelor's degree and were no longer 
enrolled in college, 81 percent were employed in civilian jobs and 3 percent 
were serving in the Armed Forces. Ninety-one percent of 25-year-olds who 
had earned a bachelor's degree and were no longer enrolled were employed 
in civilian jobs, while 2 percent were serving in the Armed Forces. (See
table 2.)

During the October when age 25, men were more likely to be serving in
the Armed Forces than women (4 percent compared to 1 percent). Among
high school graduates who had never enrolled in college, 5 percent of
men and 1 percent of women were serving in the Armed Forces; for those
who had attended college without earning a bachelor's degree, nearly 6
percent of men and 1 percent of women were in the Armed Forces. Of
those with a bachelor's degree, 3 percent of men and 1 percent of
women were in the Armed Forces.

Employment Attachment of Young Adults from ages 18 to 25

Individuals had an average of 6.3 jobs from the ages of 18 through 25 in 
1998-2010. On average, men held 6.2 jobs and women held 6.4 jobs. (See 
table 3.) In this release, a job is defined as a period of work, including 
gaps, with a particular employer. (See the Technical Note for additional 
information on the definition of a job.)

On average, young adults represented by the survey sample were employed 
during 72 percent of all the weeks occurring from age 18 through age 25. 
They were unemployed--that is, without jobs but seeking work--6 percent of 
the weeks. They were not in the labor force--that is, neither working nor 
seeking work--22 percent of the weeks.

Overall, men at these ages spent more time employed and less time out of 
the labor force than women, but this varied greatly by education. Men 
with less than a high school diploma spent 62 percent of weeks employed 
from ages 18 to 25. These men also spent 13 percent of weeks unemployed. 
In comparison, women with less than a high school diploma spent 44 percent 
of weeks employed and 10 percent of weeks unemployed from ages 18 to 25. 
Women without a high school diploma spent 46 percent of weeks from ages 18 
to 25 out of the labor force, more weeks than they did employed. Women 
with a bachelor's degree or more education spent a larger proportion of 
weeks employed than did similarly educated men (76 versus 70 percent) and 
less time out of the labor force (21 versus 27 percent).

The amount of time employed differs between educational-attainment groups, 
especially among blacks. From ages 18 to 25, blacks with less than a high 
school diploma were employed in 40 percent of all weeks. In comparison, 
black high school graduates who had never enrolled in college were employed 
in 61 percent of weeks, and blacks with a bachelor's degree or more 
education were employed 68 percent of weeks from ages 18 to 25.

Examining these data by smaller age ranges reveals that despite being in 
the labor force a greater percentage of weeks, individuals held fewer jobs 
from ages 22 to 25 than they did from ages 18 to 21. While ages 18 to 21, 
individuals held an average of 4.1 jobs and were out of the labor force 27 
percent of weeks. From ages 22 to 25, individuals held 3.2 jobs while being 
out of the labor force just 17 percent of weeks. This pattern was similar 
for all gender, and racial and ethnic groups at all levels of educational 
attainment. (See table 4.)

Employment differences by education begin early in workers’ careers. From 
ages 18 to 21, high school dropouts were employed 51 percent of weeks, and 
out of the labor force 37 percent of weeks. In comparison, high school 
graduates worked 69 percent of weeks from ages 18 to 21, and were out of 
the labor force for 24 percent of weeks. This pattern persists at later ages. 
From ages 22 to 25, high school dropouts worked 58 percent of weeks and 
were out of the labor force for 32 percent of weeks, compared to high school 
graduates, who worked 76 percent of weeks and were out of the labor force 17 
percent of weeks. The labor force participation of college graduates undergoes 
the greatest change. For college graduates, the percent of weeks worked
rose from 64 percent at ages 18 to 21, to 83 percent at ages 22 to 25. These 
individuals spent 34 percent of weeks out of the labor force from ages 18 
to 21, but only 14 percent of weeks out of the labor force from ages 22 to 25, 
less than all other educational attainment categories.

The racial employment gap is more pronounced at lower levels of educational 
attainment. From ages 22 to 25, white dropouts spent 61 percent of weeks
employed and 28 percent of weeks out of the labor force, while black dropouts 
spent 44 percent of weeks employed and 42 percent of weeks out of the 
labor force. This difference is much lower among those who hold a bachelor's 
degree. At the same age, white college graduates spent 13 percent of weeks 
out of the labor force and 84 percent of weeks employed and black college 
graduates spent 17 percent of weeks out of the labor force and 79 percent 
employed.

Duration of Employment Relationships

By their 26th birthday, nearly all young adults had held at least one job 
since age 18. Most jobs held through age 25 were of relatively short 
duration. Of the jobs held by 18- to 25-year-old workers, 56 percent ended 
in 1 year or less, and another 14 percent ended in less than 2 years. 
Twelve percent of jobs lasted 2 years or more. Another 18 percent  of jobs 
were ongoing at the time of the 2010-11 survey, and their ultimate duration 
is therefore not yet known. (See table 5.)

Jobs held by high school dropouts were more likely to end in 1 year or less 
than were jobs held by workers with more education. In particular, of the 
jobs held by women high school dropouts, 70 percent ended in 1 year or less, 
while 6 percent lasted 2 years or more.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release were obtained using data from the first
14 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97).  The
NLSY97 collects extensive information on labor market behavior and
educational experiences.  Information about respondents' families and
communities also is obtained in the survey.

   This survey is conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at
the University of Chicago and the Center for Human Resource Research at
The Ohio State University, under the direction and sponsorship of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  Partial
funding support for the survey has been provided by the Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of
Justice, the Office of Vocational and Adult Education of the U.S.
Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Defense, the National
Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services, and the National Science Foundation.

Sample

   The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 is a nationally
representative sample of 8,984 young men and women who were ages 12 to
16 on December 31, 1996.  This sample is composed of the following
groups:

  -- A cross-sectional sample designed to represent the
     noninstitutionalized, civilian segment of young people living in the
     U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984.

  -- Supplemental samples of Hispanic or Latino and black youths living in
     the U.S. in 1997 and born between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1984.

   The fourteenth round of annual interviews took place between October 2010 and
May 2011.  This release examines the period from respondents' 18th birthday
until the month before respondents were age 26.  All results except the first
two age categories of table 1 are weighted using the survey weights from the
round in which the respondents were age 25.  The estimates of school enrollment
status at ages 23 and 24 use the survey weights from the round in which the
respondents were those ages.  The survey weights correct for oversampling of
some demographic groups and nonresponse.  When weighted, the data represent all
people who were  born in the years 1980 to 1984 and living in the U.S. in 1997.
Not represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who were born from 1980 to
1984 and moved to the U.S. after 1997.  NLSY97 sample members remain eligible
to be interviewed during military service or if they become incarcerated or
institutionalized.

Work history data

   The total number of jobs that people hold during their work life is an easy
concept to understand but a difficult one to measure. Reliable estimates require
a survey that interviews the same people over the course of their entire work
life and also keeps track of all the jobs they ever held. The NLSY97 tracks the
number of jobs that people have held, but the respondents in this survey are
still young, and have many years of schooling and work life ahead of them. As
the cohort continues to age, however, more complete information will become
available.

   A unique feature of the NLSY97 is that it collects the beginning and ending
dates of all jobs held by a respondent so that a longitudinal history can be
constructed of each respondent's work experiences. The NLSY97 work history data
provide a week-by-week work record of each respondent from January 1, 1994,
through the most recent survey date. These data contain information on the
respondents labor force status each week, the usual hours worked per week at
all jobs, and earnings for all jobs. If a respondent worked at more than one
job in any week, hours and earnings are obtained for additional jobs. When a
respondent who missed one or more consecutive survey rounds is interviewed
again, he or she is asked to provide information about all time since the last
interview.

Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

   Because the NLSY97 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the same people are
surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents change with each survey round.
It is important to keep in mind this inherent link between the calendar years 
and the ages of the respondents.  The youngest respondents in the sample (birth
year 1984) turned 25 during calendar year 2009, whereas the oldest respondents
(birth year 1980) turned 25 during calendar year 2005.  Some respondents may not
be used in all tables if information about their work history is incomplete.

Definitions

   School enrollment status.  If a respondent was enrolled in college at any point
during the month of October, he or she is counted as enrolled. If a respondent
had not earned a high school diploma or General Educational Development (GED)
credential, he or she is counted as a high school dropout.

   Training.  The NLSY97 obtains information on formal training experiences
outside of regular schooling.  The training questions explore what kinds of
training respondents obtain, where and when they are trained, how the training
is paid for, and what skills are acquired. Training programs include: Business
or secretarial training; vocational, technical, or trade training; vocational
rehabilitation centers; licensed practical nursing or registered nursing programs;
apprenticeship programs; adult basic education and GED programs; correspondence
courses; formal company training or seminars; and government training.

   Employed.  The NLSY97 collects employment histories for civilian jobs and
military service.  Respondents are classified as employed if they did any work 
during the specified time period as paid employees, as self-employed proprietors
of their own businesses,  as unpaid workers in a business owned by a member of
their family, or if they were serving in the Armed Forces.

   Unemployed.  Respondents are classified as unemployed if they did not work
during the specified time period but reported that they looked for work or were
on layoff from a job.  No probing for intensity of job search is done.

   Not in the labor force.  Respondents are classified as not in the labor force
if they did not work or look for work during the specified time period.

   Job.  A job is defined as a period of work with a particular employer.
Jobs are therefore employer-based, not position-based.  If a respondent
indicates that he or she left a job but in a subsequent survey returned to the
same job, it would not be counted as a new job.  For self-employed workers,
each "new" job is defined by the individuals themselves.

   Race and ethnic groups.  In this release, the findings are reported for non-
Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics or Latinos. These groups are
mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other groups, which are included in the
overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the sur-
vey sample is not sufficiently large to pro-vide statistically reliable estimates.
In other BLS publications, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks,
and Hispanics or Latinos, but these groups are not mutually exclusive."Hispanic
or Latino" is considered to be an ethnic group, and people in that group can be of
any race.  Most other BLS publications include estimates for Hispanics or Latinos
in the white and black race groups in addition to the Hispanic or Latino ethnic
group.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.




Table 1. School enrollment status of young adults during the October when ages 23 to 25 in 2003-10 
by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity 

(Percent distribution)
                                                             School enrollment status

                                                     High School   General Educational
Characteristic                    Total       High  graduates, not  Development(GED)    Enrolled    Bachelor's
                                             school   enrolled in    recipients, not       in          degree
                                            dropouts   college     enrolled in college   college     or more(1)

Total, October when age 23 ....   100.0       10.6      45.5               7.9            17.1         18.7

  Men .........................   100.0       11.7      47.9               9.2            16.8         14.2
  Women .......................   100.0        9.4      43.0               6.6            17.3         23.4

  White, non-Hispanic .........   100.0	       8.3      44.4               7.6            17.0         22.4
  Black, non-Hispanic .........   100.0       16.4      47.7              11.3            15.6          8.8
  Hispanic or Latino ..........   100.0       16.6      52.1               6.8            16.2          8.1

Total, October when age 24 ....   100.0       10.2      45.4               8.5            12.7         23.0

  Men .........................   100.0       11.1      47.8               9.9            12.3         18.7
  Women .......................   100.0        9.2      42.9               6.9            13.2         27.6

  White, non-Hispanic .........   100.0        8.2      44.3               8.0            12.0         27.5
  Black, non-Hispanic .........   100.0       15.7      48.4              12.3            12.4         11.1
  Hispanic or Latino ..........   100.0       15.4      50.9               7.6            15.5         10.2

Total, October when age 25 ....   100.0        9.4      42.9               8.4            13.5         25.7

  Men .........................   100.0       10.2      45.0               9.9            13.2         21.5
  Women .......................   100.0        8.5      40.7               6.8            13.7         30.2

  White, non-Hispanic .........   100.0        7.5      41.7               8.0            12.4         30.2
  Black, non-Hispanic .........   100.0       14.4      45.9              11.4            14.3         13.8
  Hispanic or Latino ..........   100.0       15.0      49.3               8.4            15.0         12.3


   1 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law
or medical degrees.
   NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 
to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not 
exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their
representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 2. Employment status of young adults not enrolled in school during the October when age 25
in 2005-10 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

(Percent distribution)

Educational attainment during         Employment status during the October when age 25
the October when age 25                     	Employed   Serving in                 Not in
                                        Total   civilian  Armed Forces	Unemployed labor force

Total ..............................    100.0     76.7       2.6           4.6         16.1

  Men ..............................    100.0     78.1       4.2           5.2         12.5
  Women ............................    100.0     75.2       0.9           4.1         19.8

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     79.0       2.5           4.0         14.4
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     67.7       2.6           8.0         21.8
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     76.7       2.7           4.1         16.4

High school dropouts ...............    100.0     60.0       0.1           6.6         33.3

  Men ..............................    100.0     68.3       0.2           7.9         23.6
  Women ............................    100.0     49.3       (1)           4.8         45.9

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     65.7       (1)           5.5         28.8
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     42.8       0.5          11.6         45.1
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     69.7       (1)           3.7         26.6

High school graduates, 
never enrolled in college (2) ......    100.0     76.0       3.0           4.7         16.3

  Men ..............................    100.0     81.6       4.7           4.6          9.0
  Women ............................    100.0     67.8       0.7           4.8         26.7

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     77.7       2.9           4.2         15.2
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     67.7       3.9           7.8         20.5
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     78.2       3.4           3.6         14.8

Some college, no longer enrolled ...    100.0     81.3       3.4           3.9         11.5

  Men ..............................    100.0     82.8       5.6           3.7          7.9
  Women ............................    100.0     79.7       1.0           4.1         15.2

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     83.0       3.4           3.2         10.4
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     76.4       2.4           6.8         14.4
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     80.1       4.2           3.6         12.1

Bachelor's degree or more, 
no longer enrolled (3) .............    100.0     91.2       1.5           2.7          4.6

  Men ..............................    100.0     91.7       2.6           2.7          2.9 
  Women ............................    100.0     90.8       0.6           2.7          5.9

  White, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     91.4       1.5           2.7          4.4
  Black, non-Hispanic ..............    100.0     94.3       0.9           3.3          1.6
  Hispanic or Latino ...............    100.0     87.5       1.6           0.5          4.7


   1 Less than .05 percent.
   2 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development 
(GED)) credential.
   3 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as 
law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were
ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually
exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are
not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to 
provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 3. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 
through age 25 in 1998-2010 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                          Average      Percent of total weeks while ages 
Characteristic                                            number             18 to 25 in 1998-2010	
                                                            of       Employed     Unemployed     Not in 
                                                           jobs                                labor Force

Total, ages 18 to 25 in 1998-2010 .......................  6.3         71.8           6.1         22.1
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  5.8         54.1          11.7         34.3
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  6.2         72.3           7.0         17.6
  Some college or associate degree ......................  6.4         76.6           5.7         17.7
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  6.6         73.0           3.0         24.0

Men .....................................................  6.2         73.5           6.6         19.9
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  6.1         61.7          12.9         25.3
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  6.3         75.9           7.5         17.1
  Some college or associate degree ......................  6.2         79.0           5.6         15.4
  Bachelors degree or more (2) ..........................  6.1         69.5           3.1         27.4

Women ...................................................  6.4         70.1           5.5         24.4
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  5.4         44.2          10.1         45.7
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  6.0         68.0           6.5         25.5
  Some college or associate degree ......................  6.5         74.3           5.7         19.9
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  7.0         75.7           2.9         21.4

White, non-Hispanic .....................................  6.5         74.9           5.0         20.2
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  6.6         58.7          11.3         30.0
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  6.4         76.1           5.6         18.3
  Some college or associate degree ......................  6.5         79.0           4.7         16.3
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  6.8         74.3           2.8         22.9

Black, non-Hispanic .....................................  5.9         60.9          10.6         28.5
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  4.6         39.6          15.5         44.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  5.8         60.8          11.7         27.4
  Some college or associate degree ......................  6.4         68.4           9.5         22.1
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  6.3         68.2           4.1         27.7

Hispanic or Latino ......................................  5.7         71.2           6.5         22.3
  Less than a high school diploma .......................  5.2         56.6           8.5         31.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ..  5.7         70.9           7.6         21.5
  Some college or associate degree ......................  5.8         76.5           5.6         18.0
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) .........................  5.8         73.0           3.4         23.5

   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) 
credential.
   2 Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees or professional degrees, such as
law or medical degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 26 when interviewed in 2010-11.
Percentages do not sum to 100 percent due to a small number of respondents whose employment status 
cannot be determined for all weeks. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young 
men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups 
are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, 
are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large 
to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 25.




Table 4. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 through age 25 
in 1998-2010 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity


                                                              Age 18 to 21 in 2998-2006          Age 22 to 25 in 2002-10
                                                                 Percent of total weeks                Percent of total weeks
                     Characteristic                     Average                     Not in Average                      Not in
                                                        Number  Employed Unemployed labor  number  Employed  Unemployed labor 
                                                        of jobs                     force  of jobs                      force

Total ..................................................  4.1     66.7      6.4     26.9    3.2      77.0       5.8      17.2
  Less than a high school diploma ......................  3.7     50.5     12.8     36.7    2.8      57.7      10.8      31.6
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) .  4.1     68.7      7.6     23.7    3.0      76.0       6.6      17.4
  Some college or associate degree .....................  4.2     73.1      6.1     20.8    3.1      80.1       5.4      14.6
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ........................  4.0     63.6      2.7     33.8    3.6      82.5       3.3      14.2

Men ....................................................  4.0     67.4      7.1     25.5    3.2      79.6       6.2      14.2
  Less than a high school diploma ......................  3.9     57.5     14.5     28.0    2.9      66.0      11.6      12.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) .  4.1     70.5      8.2     21.3    3.1      80.3       6.8      12.9
  Some college or associate degree .....................  4.1     74.6      6.0     19.4    3.1      83.3       5.4      11.3
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ........................  3.7     58.1      2.8     39.1    3.4      80.9       3.4      15.6

Women ..................................................  4.2     66.0      5.7     28.3    3.2      74.2       5.4      20.5
  Less than a high school diploma ......................  3.3     41.5     10.6     47.9    2.6      46.9       9.5      43.3
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) .  4.1     66.1      6.8     27.1    2.8      70.0       6.3      23.8
  Some college or associate degree .....................  4.4     71.7      6.1     22.2    3.1      77.0       5.4      17.7
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ........................  4.3     67.8      2.6     29.6    3.7      83.7       3.2      13.2

White, non-Hispanic ....................................  4.3     70.3      5.1     24.5    3.3      79.4       4.9      15.7
  Less than a high school diploma ......................  4.2     56.2     11.9     32.0    3.1      61.1      11.0      27.9
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) .  4.3     73.6      6.0     20.4    3.1      78.6       5.3      16.1
  Some college or associate degree .....................  4.4     76.6      4.9     18.5    3.2      81.4       4.5      14.1
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ........................  4.2     65.1      2.5     32.4    3.7      83.6       3.1      13.4

Black, non-Hispanic ..................................... 3.6     54.5     11.3     43.2    3.0      67.4       9.9      22.8
  Less than a high school diploma ......................  2.8     35.2     17.4     47.3    2.3      43.9      14.0      42.1
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) .  3.6     54.7     12.6     32.7    2.9      67.0      11.1      21.9
  Some college or associate degree .....................  4.0     62.5     10.1     27.5    3.3      74.3       8.9      18.8
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ........................  3.7     57.2      3.8     39.0    3.5      79.2       4.2      16.6

Hispanic or Latino .....................................  3.7     65.7      7.4     27.0    2.9      76.8       5.7      17.5
  Less than a high school diploma ......................  3.3     53.9     10.7     35.5    2.6      65.4       6.5      28.1
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) .  3.8     65.8      8.4     25.8    2.8      76.0       6.9      17.2
  Some college or associate degree .....................  3.8	  70.9      6.2     22.9    3.0      82.1       4.9      13.1
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ........................  3.5     66.4      3.5     30.2    3.2      79.7       3.4      16.9


   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees, such as law or medical 
degrees.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 26 when interviewed in 2010-11.
Totals do not add to 100 percent due to a small number of respondents whose employment status cannot be determined for
all weeks. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on 
December 31, 1996. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race 
groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample
is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 5. Duration of employment relationship with a single employer for all jobs from age 18 through age 25 in 
1998-2010 by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                                                      Percent distribution of duration of employment
                                                          Percent of                    relationships
                                                          those who             More than 1            Ongoing at the
                   Characteristic                            ever      1 year    year but    2 years     2010 - 11
                                                            held a    or less   less than    or more      survey
                                                             job                 2 years     

Total, ages 18 to 25 in 1998-2010 ........................  98.6        55.8      14.3        11.8         18.1
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  94.7        65.0      12.9         7.3         14.8
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.6        55.2      13.9        11.9         18.9
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.7        55.2      14.1        12.1         18.5
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  99.7        54.3      15.2        12.7         17.8

Men ......................................................  98.4        55.1      13.8        11.5         19.6
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  95.6        60.6      13.1         8.6         17.7
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.9        54.9      14.1        11.1         19.8
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.1        54.3      13.7        12.0         19.9
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  99.4        54.7      13.6        12.2         19.5

Women ....................................................  98.8        56.4      14.8        12.2         16.6
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  93.7        70.0      12.7         5.8         11.4
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  98.0        55.8      13.7        13.1         17.5
  Some college or associate degree .......................  99.3        56.1      14.5        12.2         17.2
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................   (3)        54.0      16.5        13.1         16.4

White, non-Hispanic ......................................  99.1        55.9      14.1        12.3         17.7
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  95.8        68.6      12.4         7.3         11.7
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  99.0        54.5      13.6        12.6         19.3
  Some college or associate degree .......................  99.1        55.8      13.6        12.6         18.0
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................   (3)        54.4      15.6        12.6         17.4

Black, non-Hispanic ......................................  97.2        59.2      13.6         9.1         18.1
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  90.3        66.1      10.3         4.7         19.0
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  96.9        62.0      14.3         7.8         16.0
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.4        57.7      13.6         9.6         19.1
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................  99.6        54.1      14.9        13.0         18.0

Hispanic  or Latino ......................................  98.5        52.2      14.9        12.9         20.0
  Less than a high school diploma ........................  95.8        55.6      14.8        10.2         19.3
  High school graduates, never enrolled in college (1) ...  99.3        50.5      14.8        14.6         20.0
  Some college or associate degree .......................  98.4        52.5      15.0        12.4         20.0
  Bachelor's degree or more (2) ..........................   (3)        50.8      14.8        13.9         20.6


   1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent (General Education Development (GED)) credential.
   2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees or professional degrees such as law or medical 
degrees.
   3 Number rounds to 100 percent.
   NOTE: This table excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 26 when interviewed in 2010-11. The National 
Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 consists of young men and women who were ages 12 to 16 on December 31, 1996. Race 
and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are 
included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not 
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates. Educational attainment is determined as of age 25.




Last Modified Date: March 27, 2013
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