Economic News Release

Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release



Internet: http://www.bls.gov/mfp/home.htm	 	USDL 08-1213
Technical information: (202) 691-5618			For release: 10:00 a.m. EDT
Media contact: (202) 691-5902 				Friday, August 29, 2008


                           MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS 
                            FOR DETAILED INDUSTRIES, 2006

      Multifactor productivity -- defined as output per unit of combined inputs -- 
increased in almost three out of five four-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2006.  
More manufacturing industries experienced an increase in multifactor productivity over a 
longer period.  From 1987 to 2006, multifactor productivity increased in almost two-
thirds of manufacturing industries.
      
      This news release now covers two transportation industries, air transportation 
(NAICS 481) and line-haul railroads (NAICS 482111), that were previously published in 
separate reports.  Multifactor productivity increased for both of these transportation 
industries in 2006 and over the longer term.
      
	Multifactor productivity indexes relate the change in output to the change in the 
combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases consumed in producing that 
output.  Multifactor productivity measures the joint influences on economic growth of a 
variety of factors, including technological change, returns to scale, enhancements in 
managerial and staff skills, changes in the organization of production, and other 
efficiency improvements.
	 
2005-06, Manufacturing Industries

      Multifactor productivity rose in 50 of the 86 manufacturing industries in 2006, as 
output rose in 48 industries and combined inputs declined in 35 industries.  Changes in 
multifactor productivity were broadly distributed and varied greatly across industries, 
even within 3-digit industry groups. (See Table 1.)

      The largest increase in multifactor productivity, 23.9 percent, occurred in 
computer and peripheral equipment (NAICS 3341), followed by an increase of 13.5 
percent in communications equipment (NAICS 3342).  Output rose rapidly in those 
industries, greatly exceeding the growth in combined inputs.  Multifactor productivity 
declined 16.0 percent in other nonferrous metal production (NAICS 3314), where 
combined inputs rose although output decreased.  The largest industries had more 
moderate movements in multifactor productivity.  Changes for the twenty largest 
manufacturing industries varied from -4.5 percent to 4.6 percent.
 
      The number of manufacturing industries with annual multifactor productivity 
growth increased slightly in 2006 after dropping from 2004 to 2005. For 
most industries, input growth in 2006 was led by increases in intermediate purchases.  
Purchases of intermediates increased in 54 industries, while capital services increased in 
36 industries and labor hours rose in 37 industries.

2005-06, Transportation Industries

	Multifactor productivity rose 3.6 percent in air transportation (NAICS 481) in 
2006, as output rose and combined inputs fell.  Multifactor productivity rose 2.6 percent 
in line-haul railroads (NAICS 482111), as output and combined inputs both increased.

Historical Trends, Manufacturing Industries

      From 1987 to 2006, multifactor productivity rose in 56 manufacturing industries. 
(See Table 2.)   Output and combined inputs both rose in 67 industries. (The industries 
with increasing output were not always the same as those with increasing inputs.)  
Although more industries registered multifactor productivity growth from 1987 to 2006 
than from 2005 to 2006, the average annual change in multifactor productivity was more 
modest for most industries over the longer term.  On average, multifactor productivity 
grew between 0.1 percent and 3.0 percent per year in 53 industries, and exceeded 3 
percent per year in only three industries.

      The five manufacturing industries with the fastest growth in multifactor 
productivity over the longer period were all in the computer and electronic products 
subsector (NAICS 334).  The multifactor productivity growth rates of 17.2 percent per 
year in computer and peripheral equipment (NAICS 3341) and 14.2 percent in 
semiconductors and electronic components (NAICS 3344) were much faster than those of 
any other manufacturing industry.

      Multifactor productivity declined in 28 industries from 1987 to 2006.  However, 
the average decline over the period was less than 1 percent per year for all but eight 
industries. The largest decline in multifactor productivity over the longer period was 1.9 
percent per year in accessories and other apparel (NAICS 3159).

	Table 3 shows average annual multifactor productivity growth by industry 
between 1987 and 2006 and for various subperiods.  From 2000 to 2006, multifactor 
productivity grew in 63 manufacturing industries, more than in any of the other periods 
shown.  By comparison, 35 manufacturing industries had multifactor productivity growth from
1995 to 2000.  However, multifactor productivity growth from 2000 to 2006 was slower in the
two industries that led manufacturing productivity growth from 1995 to 2000: computer and
peripheral equipment (NAICS 3341) and semiconductors and electronic components (NAICS 3344).

Historical Trends, Transportation Industries

      From 1987 to 2006, multifactor productivity increased 2.6 percent per year in 
line-haul railroads, as output rose 2.6 percent and combined inputs remained unchanged.  
Multifactor productivity rose more slowly in air transportation, 1.2 percent per year, as 
output gains averaging 3.4 percent per year were offset by a 2.3 percent average annual 
increase in combined inputs.
      
Revised Measures

	Revisions to industry multifactor productivity measures in this release mainly 
reflect revisions to trends in intermediate inputs, including materials and purchased 
services.  Those revisions mostly result from the incorporation of data from the 2002 
Benchmark Input-Output (IO) Tables (April, 2008) published by the Bureau of Economic 
Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce.  For some industries, the 2002 IO data 
caused large revisions to nominal values of purchased services after 1997.  Revisions also 
reflect the adoption of chain-weighted price indexes for deflating cost of materials, 
purchased services, and materials and supplies inventories, and changes to commodity 
weights for those price indexes based on the 2002 IO data.  For most industries, the new 
data reflect more rapid growth in industry purchases of intermediates, especially services, 
and a resulting slower growth in multifactor productivity.

	The measures for manufacturing industries in this news release incorporate data 
from the 2006 Annual Survey of Manufactures of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. 
Department of Commerce.  The output and labor input measures included in this release 
are the same as those used in the labor productivity measures, most recently updated on 
August 21, 2008.


Additional Information

	Tables containing multifactor productivity and related indexes for the industries 
included in this release are accessible on the Multifactor Productivity website at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/home.htm.   More detailed data and information are available 
upon request by sending an email to dipsweb@bls.gov or by calling the Division of 
Industry Productivity Studies (202-691-5618).  Information in this report will be made 
available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5618; 
TDD message referral phone number: 1-800-877-8339.




                                                 Technical Note

Output

	Manufacturing industry output is measured as annual sectoral output, the total value, in real terms, of 
goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. Industry value of production is derived by adjusting 
industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-industry transfers and resales. For most 
manufacturing industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal value of production, but for a few 
detailed industries physical quantities of output are measured. Output measures for manufacturing industries are 
constructed using data primarily from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, 
U.S. Department of Commerce, together with information on price changes chiefly from the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics (BLS). 
	
	For air transportation and line-haul railroads, annual real output is measured by aggregating freight ton-
miles and passenger-miles. For air transportation, data on passenger-miles and freight ton-miles from the Bureau 
of Transportation Statistics (BTS), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), are combined using revenue 
weights from that source. For line-haul railroads, data on freight ton-miles and passenger miles from the Surface 
Transportation Board (STB) of DOT, the Association of American Railroads (AAR), and AMTRAK are 
aggregated using operating expenses from those sources as weights.  
	
	Wherever possible, the indexes of industry output are calculated with a Tornqvist formula. This formula 
aggregates the growth rates of the various industry outputs between two periods, using their relative shares in 
industry value of production, averaged over the two periods, as weights.
	
Combined Inputs

	The index of combined inputs is a Tornqvist index of separate quantity indexes of labor, 
capital, and intermediate purchases.  The annual growth rates of the various inputs are aggregated using their 
relative cost shares in total industry value of production as weights.  The labor weight is based on labor 
compensation including fringe benefits. The weight for intermediate purchases is based on the total cost of 
materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services.  The capital weight is the value of net production minus
the values of labor compensation and intermediate purchases.

Capital Input

	Capital input reflects the flow of services derived from the stock of physical assets. Capital 
services are estimated by calculating capital stocks; changes in the stocks are assumed to be proportional to 
changes in capital services for each asset.  For the manufacturing industries, physical capital is composed of
26 categories of equipment, 2 categories of structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land. 
	
	Capital stocks are calculated using the perpetual inventory method, which takes into account the 
continual additions to and subtractions from the stock of capital as new investment and retirement of old capital 
occur.  The perpetual inventory method measures stocks at the end of a year equal to a weighted sum of all past 
investments, where the weights are the asset's efficiency relative to a new asset. A hyperbolic age-efficiency 
function is assumed for calculating the relative efficiency of an asset at different ages. 
       
	For manufacturing industries, estimates of investment by asset type are derived using annual capital 
expenditures from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, along with estimates 
of asset detail by industry from the capital flow tables of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).  Price 
changes are removed from the annual investment data before calculating stocks. Price deflators for each asset 
category are constructed by combining detailed price indexes (mostly PPIs) with weights from the BEA capital 
flow tables that reflect each industry's use of individual asset commodities. 
      
	For air transportation, a weighted index of 44 types of airframes and 34 types of engines is derived from 
quantities and purchase prices from BTS. For assets other than airframes and engines, current dollar capital 
stocks are calculated with the perpetual inventory method. Inventories of parts and supplies are also included; 
the current dollar series is deflated with a weighted cost index based on data from the Air Transport Association 
(ATA) and BTS.  Indexes for aircraft and engines, non-aircraft assets, and parts and supplies inventories are 
aggregated using cost share weights to derive an overall measure of capital input.
      
	For line-haul railroads, current dollar investment for 10 categories of equipment and 13 categories of 
structures, obtained from STB and AMTRAK, were deflated with BLS producer price indexes and deflators based on
BEA data.  An estimate of capitalized hours was removed from the labor input measure in order to avoid
double-counting, because some capitalized labor costs are embedded in the railroad investment data. The perpetual
inventory method was used to calculate capital stocks for each of the items. Inventories of materials and supplies
are also included.  Estimates of investments in land from STB and AMTRAK were deflated with price indexes from BEA.  
       
	The index of aggregate capital input for each manufacturing and transportation industry is calculated as 
an annually-chained Tornqvist quantity index.  To construct the index, the growth rates of the stocks of each 
type of asset are aggregated using weights that are the average of each asset type's cost share in successive 
years.  The asset costs are estimated by multiplying the asset stocks by implicit rental prices.
       
Labor Input

	For manufacturing, the industry labor input measures represent the hours paid to wage and salary 
workers in the industry. The primary source of data on employment and hours is the BLS Current Employment 
Statistics (CES) survey, which provides monthly data on the number of jobs held by wage and salary workers 
employed directly in nonfarm establishments. The CES survey also provides data on the average weekly hours 
of production workers in these establishments. Data from the BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) are used to 
supplement the CES data. The Division of Industry Productivity Studies (DIPS) estimates the average weekly 
hours of nonproduction workers for each industry using data from the CPS together with the CES data. The 
hours of all workers are treated as homogeneous and are directly aggregated. 
	
	For air transportation and line-haul railroads, labor input measures are derived primarily from DOT 
data. For air transportation, annual estimates are based on monthly data from BTS. For line-haul railroads, total 
labor hours for supervisory and nonsupervisory workers are derived from STB data and supplemented with data 
from AAR. For the railroad industry, the labor input measures use the same source data as that used in the labor 
productivity series which includes an adjustment to remove capitalized labor hours. 

Intermediate Purchases Input

	The index of intermediate purchases is constructed as a Tornqvist index of separate 
quantities of materials, services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each industry. Except for electricity
consumed by manufacturing industries, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities are derived by
deflating current-dollar values with appropriate price deflators. 
       
	For manufacturing industries, nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity and quantities of 
electricity consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of 
the Census. To avoid double counting, an adjustment is made to the materials estimates to exclude the value of 
intra-industry commodity transfers. Purchased business services are estimated using benchmark input-output 
tables and other annual industry data BEA.  
      
	Constant-dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current-dollar industry purchases by 
a weighted price deflator for each industry. Materials deflators are constructed for each industry by combining 
detailed producer price indexes and import price indexes from BLS using weights based on detailed commodity data 
from the BEA benchmark input-output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business services are 
constructed in a similar manner.
      
	Annual total fuels consumed by each industry are also deflated with weighted price deflators.  Producer 
price indexes for individual fuel categories are weighted together with weights reflecting detailed fuels 
expenditures by industry from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy.
      
	For air transportation, detailed cost of materials, services, fuels, and electricity from the BTS 
were deflated using cost indexes from ATA.  For line-haul railroads, intermediate purchases data from STB 
were supplemented with data from other sources including AAR, AMTRAK, EIA, and the Edison Electric 
Institute. The nominal values were deflated with producer price indexes from BLS and implicit price deflators 
calculated from BEA investment data.




Table 1.   Multifactor productivity and related data for 88 industries, percent change, 2005-2006

                                                                                        Percent change, 2005-2006
                                                                2006     --------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       Employment  Multifactor         Combined                Intermediate
 code                                                       (thousands)  productivity Output  inputs   Labor Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         49           -0.4     -1.5    -1.1     8.5     0.7      -3.0
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           61           -3.7     -3.6     0.1    -1.9     0.6       0.1
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    75           -2.4     -4.7    -2.3    -3.5    -0.6      -2.9
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty       176           -1.1     -0.6     0.5     3.3    -0.1       0.1
3115         Dairy products                                     131           -4.0      1.3     5.6     0.7     1.5       7.2
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                 506            0.0      4.4     4.4     4.8     2.8       4.6
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging           41            3.0      4.8     1.8    -4.3     2.0       3.0
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                280           -4.5     -2.3     2.3     2.1    -0.3       3.0
3119         Other food products                                160            1.3      4.8     3.5     4.7     1.5       4.5

3121         Beverages                                          171           -1.7     -0.8     0.9     6.5     0.4       0.2
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                        24            0.6     -3.8    -4.4    -5.7    -4.5      -3.7

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       48           -0.4     -8.7    -8.4    -6.2    -4.2      -9.4
3132         Fabric mills                                        90           -1.3     -9.1    -7.9   -12.5    -4.7      -7.2
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                  58           -5.3    -17.3   -12.7    -8.4    -5.1     -15.0

3141         Textile furnishings mills                           90           -5.5    -10.5    -5.3    -4.1    -1.5      -7.4
3149         Other textile product mills                         71            0.4     -4.1    -4.4    -1.9    -1.9      -6.3

3151         Apparel knitting mills                              35            6.6      0.0    -6.1    -3.0    -4.1      -9.1
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                184            3.4     -2.3    -5.5    -5.6    -3.8      -6.3
3159         Accessories and other apparel                       20           -1.6    -18.9   -17.6   -10.8    -4.6     -21.4

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               4           -7.4    -27.1   -21.3   -26.8    -5.6     -20.9
3162         Footwear                                            17            5.8      1.3    -4.2    -7.3    -3.0      -2.7
3169         Other leather products                              15           10.6     11.1     0.5    -4.7     5.0      -0.1

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                     118           -3.3      1.3     4.8    -0.5     1.7       6.3
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products               120            2.3      1.8    -0.5    -4.5     2.9       0.3
3219         Other wood products                                321           -1.2      0.3     1.5     1.1     4.1       1.4

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  136            1.9      1.2    -0.7    -1.1    -3.2       0.8
3222         Converted paper products                           334           -0.3     -1.1    -0.8    -2.7     1.8      -0.9

3231         Printing and related support activities            634            0.4      0.8     0.4    -0.5     1.2       0.8

3241         Petroleum and coal products                        113           -3.0      0.4     3.5     1.2     3.3       3.6

3251         Basic chemicals                                    148            0.9      2.2     1.3    -0.3    -0.6       2.2
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers               105            2.5     -0.9    -3.3    -4.2    -1.0      -3.7
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              38           -1.8     -3.7    -2.0    -2.4    -2.2      -1.9
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      292            2.0      4.8     2.8     0.3     1.1       5.5
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                     67           -4.6     -4.6    -0.1    -0.2    -1.7       0.2
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries          111            1.0      6.2     5.1    -0.2     0.6      10.0
3259         Other chemical products and preparations           105           -3.6     -3.0     0.6     1.4    -3.5       0.6

3261         Plastics products                                  631           -2.7     -0.2     2.5     1.2     1.1       3.4
3262         Rubber products                                    156           -2.7     -3.3    -0.6    -8.1    -0.6       2.9

3271         Clay products and refractories                      61           -6.9     -4.0     3.1    -1.7    -0.1       7.2
3272         Glass and glass products                           102            0.6      0.8     0.2    -6.6    -1.1       4.0
3273         Cement and concrete products                       248           -3.5      3.8     7.5     7.2     2.9       9.6
3274         Lime and gypsum products                            19           -4.4     -1.8     2.7     0.5     4.8       1.6
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  80           -0.9      4.9     5.9     7.2     1.1       7.6

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      97            0.1      1.5     1.4     1.3    -2.5       2.8
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                 61            1.4     -3.2    -4.5     2.1    -3.2      -6.1
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                     73           -3.1      1.2     4.4     3.0    -1.2       5.8
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                   73          -16.0     -7.9     9.6    -2.6    -1.2      13.4
3315         Foundries                                          161            1.8      1.8     0.0    -0.7    -0.7       0.4

3321         Forging and stamping                               113            4.2      6.4     2.1     2.8     0.7       2.3
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                              54            2.5     -0.9    -3.4    -3.1    -3.3      -3.6
3323         Architectural and structural metals                412            3.1      8.2     4.9     4.1     2.5       5.7
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             94            5.0      7.1     2.0     6.0     0.1       1.0
3325         Hardware                                            34            0.9     -2.1    -2.9    -1.6    -2.3      -3.8
3326         Spring and wire products                            58           -3.2     -3.8    -0.7    -2.0     0.1      -0.2
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                353            2.2      5.8     3.5     5.1     2.0       2.9
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals       149           -0.8      0.7     1.5     1.5    -0.8       2.2
3329         Other fabricated metal products                    287            3.5      7.2     3.6     2.5     0.0       6.2

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery    220            2.0      7.5     5.4     7.6     2.2       5.8
3332         Industrial machinery                               123            6.2     10.0     3.6    -0.5    -1.6       6.0
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery          109            4.2      5.6     1.4    -0.5    -2.4       2.8
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment        156            3.0      0.4    -2.5     3.3    -0.5      -4.7
3335         Metalworking machinery                             200           -0.1      0.4     0.5    -0.4    -1.0       1.4
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment           101            0.7      3.9     3.1     7.1     1.8       2.4
3339         Other general purpose machinery                    272            1.7      3.8     2.1    -0.1     0.7       3.3

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  196           23.9     25.1     1.0    -5.0    -1.2       2.5
3342         Communications equipment                           141           13.5     17.7     3.7    -5.1     0.7       6.9
3343         Audio and video equipment                           31            8.3     -1.1    -8.7    -5.4    -1.8      -9.6
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           458            2.0      2.3     0.3     2.7     1.0      -1.3
3345         Electronic instruments                             440            1.3      4.2     2.9     1.5     2.9       3.6
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       32           -2.5     -7.2    -4.8    -4.3    -3.2      -5.1

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         59            2.2      0.2    -1.9    -4.5    -1.3      -1.1
3352         Household appliances                                80            1.9     -1.8    -3.6    -6.7    -3.4      -2.9
3353         Electrical equipment                               155            1.2      3.6     2.3     4.0    -1.7       2.8
3359         Other electrical equipment and components          139           -2.1     -0.4     1.7     4.6    -1.9       1.9

3361         Motor vehicles                                     237            4.6      2.6    -1.9    -7.1    -0.9      -1.5
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  179            1.8      3.8     2.0     6.9     1.7       0.8
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                655            2.4     -3.7    -6.0    -3.4    -2.3      -6.9
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       474            0.1     -0.1    -0.3     5.8    -1.4      -2.9
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              28            7.0     15.1     7.6     6.8     1.3       9.0
3366         Ship and boat building                             156            1.8      1.6    -0.2     5.1    -1.2      -2.4
3369         Other transportation equipment                      41            3.6      5.0     1.4    -2.2     4.8       1.6

3371         Household and institutional furniture              371           -1.4     -2.3    -0.9    -4.9     0.0       0.8
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                      136           -0.2      3.9     4.1     4.2    -0.7       5.9
3379         Other furniture-related products                    51            2.1     -1.2    -3.2    -3.0    -1.7      -3.8

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                     308            1.4      4.4     3.0     1.5     4.6       2.5
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                  341            1.3      1.7     0.4    -2.2     2.2       1.2

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                 457            3.6      1.5    -2.0    -3.5     0.3      -1.5
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                186            2.6      4.7     2.0     1.5     0.4       3.2





Table 2.   Multifactor productivity and related data for 88 industries, average annual percent change, 1987-2006

                                                                       Average annual percent change, 1987-2006
                                                             ------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                        Multifactor          Combined                  Intermediate
 code                                                        productivity  Output   inputs    Labor  Capital  purchases

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                           0.8       2.3       1.5     -0.8     2.4       1.5
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                            -0.2       1.3       1.5     -1.2     1.3       1.8
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                      0.6       0.9       0.3     -1.2     1.5       0.1
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty          0.2       1.5       1.2     -0.2     1.8       1.3
3115         Dairy products                                       -0.5       1.0       1.6     -0.5     2.1       1.8
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                    0.8       2.5       1.6      1.5     2.9       1.5
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging             0.1       1.3       1.2     -1.4     1.4       1.7
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                  -1.3       0.6       2.0      0.2     2.2       2.8
3119         Other food products                                   0.4       2.3       1.8      1.3     1.5       2.1

3121         Beverages                                             0.8       1.7       1.0     -0.3     0.9       1.2
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                         -0.4      -2.1      -1.7     -3.5    -1.9      -2.2

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                         0.7      -0.6      -1.3     -4.4    -0.5      -0.4
3132         Fabric mills                                          1.1      -1.5      -2.5     -6.1    -1.1      -1.3
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                    0.2      -2.2      -2.5     -3.9    -1.0      -2.3

3141         Textile furnishings mills                             0.3       0.0      -0.2     -1.3     0.0       0.0
3149         Other textile product mills                           0.3       0.7       0.4     -1.0     1.9       0.8

3151         Apparel knitting mills                                0.9      -3.7      -4.5     -6.1    -1.4      -4.6
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                  -0.4      -5.0      -4.6     -7.5    -1.6      -4.3
3159         Accessories and other apparel                        -1.9      -5.5      -3.7     -3.6    -0.8      -3.9

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               -1.3      -4.9      -3.6     -6.1    -1.4      -3.6
3162         Footwear                                             -0.3      -6.5      -6.2     -8.5    -2.9      -5.6
3169         Other leather products                                1.7      -1.3      -3.0     -4.6    -0.9      -2.7

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                        0.3       1.3       1.0     -1.4     0.2       1.8
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                 -0.3       1.6       1.9      0.7     2.2       2.4
3219         Other wood products                                  -0.7       1.0       1.7      0.0     2.0       2.4

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                     0.7       0.3      -0.4     -2.9     0.3       0.1
3222         Converted paper products                             -0.1       0.6       0.7     -0.8     1.7       0.9

3231         Printing and related support activities              -0.5       0.3       0.8     -0.8     2.7       1.3

3241         Petroleum and coal products                           0.7       1.3       0.6     -1.6     1.4       0.7

3251         Basic chemicals                                      -0.6       0.6       1.2     -2.4     1.0       2.1
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                  0.1       1.3       1.1     -1.7     1.4       1.5
3253         Agricultural chemicals                                1.4       1.2      -0.2     -1.4    -0.9       0.5
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                        -1.2       4.2       5.4      2.7     5.7       6.2
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                      -1.2       0.3       1.5     -1.1     0.9       2.2
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries             0.4       2.9       2.5     -0.6     2.4       3.1
3259         Other chemical products and preparations             -1.3       0.4       1.7     -1.9     0.9       3.1

3261         Plastics products                                     0.2       3.0       2.7      0.4     4.0       3.3
3262         Rubber products                                       0.7       1.1       0.4     -1.6     0.9       1.3

3271         Clay products and refractories                        0.1      -0.5      -0.6     -1.8    -0.2       0.1
3272         Glass and glass products                              0.7       0.8       0.2     -1.7     1.2       0.7
3273         Cement and concrete products                          0.0       2.1       2.2      1.6     1.4       2.7
3274         Lime and gypsum products                             -0.2       0.6       0.8     -0.8     1.2       1.0
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                    0.8       1.7       0.9     -0.1     0.5       1.6

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production        1.3       1.9       0.6     -2.9    -1.8       2.6
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                  -0.3      -0.1       0.3     -0.5    -1.4       1.0
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                       0.1       0.7       0.6     -2.0    -0.1       1.5
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                    -1.5      -1.2       0.4     -2.1    -0.5       1.1
3315         Foundries                                             0.2       1.2       1.0     -1.3     0.2       2.8

3321         Forging and stamping                                  1.0       2.2       1.2     -0.9     1.9       2.2
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                               -0.4      -0.2       0.2     -1.8     0.5       1.4
3323         Architectural and structural metals                  -0.1       2.2       2.3      0.9     1.6       3.2
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers               0.5      -0.1      -0.5     -0.7     0.0      -0.6
3325         Hardware                                             -0.2      -1.1      -1.0     -3.1     0.1      -0.2
3326         Spring and wire products                              0.9       1.2       0.3     -1.6     1.4       1.0
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                   1.1       3.5       2.4      1.2     2.9       3.4
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals          1.3       3.5       2.2      0.4     2.5       3.2
3329         Other fabricated metal products                       0.1       0.6       0.6     -0.7     0.8       1.3

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery       0.7       3.3       2.6      0.4     0.0       4.0
3332         Industrial machinery                                  0.4       2.3       1.9     -0.8     2.6       3.3
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery            -0.5       0.0       0.5     -1.8     0.5       1.7
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment           0.9       2.2       1.3     -0.2     1.7       1.9
3335         Metalworking machinery                                0.7       0.8       0.1     -1.4     1.2       1.2
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment             -0.4       2.2       2.7     -0.3     1.0       4.1
3339         Other general purpose machinery                       0.4       2.0       1.6     -0.9     0.8       3.1

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                    17.2      19.4       1.9     -4.1     1.3       3.6
3342         Communications equipment                              3.4       5.4       1.9     -2.6     3.2       4.0
3343         Audio and video equipment                             2.5       3.7       1.2     -3.4     1.1       2.1
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components             14.2      16.3       1.8     -1.2     6.7       1.0
3345         Electronic instruments                               -0.1       1.8       1.9     -2.2     1.0       5.2
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction         3.0       2.1      -0.8     -0.4     2.0      -1.3

3351         Electric lighting equipment                           0.3       0.3       0.1     -1.8     0.6       0.7
3352         Household appliances                                  1.9       1.8      -0.1     -2.7     0.1       0.7
3353         Electrical equipment                                  0.2       0.3       0.1     -2.6    -0.4       1.8
3359         Other electrical equipment and components             0.0       0.3       0.3     -1.7     0.6       1.1

3361         Motor vehicles                                        0.6       2.6       2.0     -1.5     1.5       2.4
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                    -0.3       3.0       3.3      1.6     2.2       3.8
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                   1.1       3.3       2.2      0.1     1.8       3.0
3364         Aerospace products and parts                         -1.0      -1.2      -0.2     -2.7    -0.2       1.5
3365         Railroad rolling stock                                1.3       6.0       4.7      0.7    -0.5       6.7
3366         Ship and boat building                               -0.6       1.0       1.7     -0.5    -0.2       3.2
3369         Other transportation equipment                        1.4       5.5       4.1      0.2     3.3       5.3

3371         Household and institutional furniture                 0.1       1.4       1.3     -0.6     1.7       2.2
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                         0.4       1.8       1.4     -0.6     2.0       2.4
3379         Other furniture-related products                      0.7       2.6       1.9      0.4     0.8       2.7

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                        1.5       4.8       3.3      1.1     5.3       3.7
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                     0.7       1.9       1.2     -0.8     2.2       2.0

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                    1.2       3.4       2.3      0.4     4.1       3.4
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                   2.6       2.6       0.0     -2.1    -0.5       2.5





Table 3.  Multifactor productivity trends, 1987-2006 and selected subperiods

                                                                          Average annual percent change
                                                             ------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       1987-2006  1987-90  1990-95  1995-00  2000-06  2005-06
 code

                             Manufacturing

3111         Animal food                                         0.8      0.6      0.3     -0.8      2.7     -0.4
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                          -0.2      0.0      0.5      0.3     -1.2     -3.7
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    0.6     -0.4      0.3      1.8      0.2     -2.4
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty        0.2     -2.6      1.1      0.9      0.4     -1.1
3115         Dairy products                                     -0.5     -0.3     -0.6     -0.7     -0.4     -4.0
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                  0.8     -1.1      1.2      1.2      1.2      0.0
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging           0.1     -1.3      0.0     -0.4      1.2      3.0
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                -1.3     -4.9      0.4     -0.9     -1.2     -4.5
3119         Other food products                                 0.4     -0.2      0.4     -0.2      1.3      1.3

3121         Beverages                                           0.8      0.3      0.9     -1.0      2.4     -1.7
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                       -0.4     -1.1     -0.7      0.5     -0.7      0.6

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       0.7      0.0      0.3      0.0      1.8     -0.4
3132         Fabric mills                                        1.1     -0.2      1.3     -0.1      2.5     -1.3
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                  0.2     -0.2     -0.1      1.1      0.1     -5.3

3141         Textile furnishings mills                           0.3     -0.6      1.2     -1.0      1.0     -5.5
3149         Other textile product mills                         0.3     -1.0     -0.5     -0.1      1.8      0.4

3151         Apparel knitting mills                              0.9      0.9      2.0     -2.7      3.0      6.6
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                -0.4     -1.3      0.5     -1.7      0.3      3.4
3159         Accessories and other apparel                      -1.9      1.0      0.4     -4.9     -2.7     -1.6

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing             -1.3     -3.5     -2.0      4.1     -4.0     -7.4
3162         Footwear                                           -0.3     -1.8      0.3     -1.0      0.7      5.8
3169         Other leather products                              1.7     -0.4     -2.0      2.0      5.7     10.6

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      0.3      2.4      0.2     -1.0      0.4     -3.3
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products               -0.3     -0.7     -0.4     -0.8      0.3      2.3
3219         Other wood products                                -0.7     -0.8     -1.2     -1.0      0.0     -1.2

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                   0.7     -1.7     -0.4      1.2      2.3      1.9
3222         Converted paper products                           -0.1     -0.7     -0.2     -0.3      0.5     -0.3

3231         Printing and related support activities            -0.5     -0.2     -0.4     -1.5      0.2      0.4

3241         Petroleum and coal products                         0.7     -2.0      1.9      1.9      0.0     -3.0

3251         Basic chemicals                                    -0.6     -1.0     -3.3     -1.1      2.3      0.9
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                0.1     -0.8      1.0     -0.8      0.6      2.5
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              1.4      2.1      1.0     -1.2      3.5     -1.8
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                      -1.2     -1.8     -2.5     -2.2      1.1      2.0
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                    -1.2     -2.0     -0.8     -2.0     -0.5     -4.6
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries           0.4     -1.4      0.2     -1.9      3.7      1.0
3259         Other chemical products and preparations           -1.3     -1.7      0.1     -0.9     -2.5     -3.6

3261         Plastics products                                   0.2     -0.8      1.0      0.4      0.0     -2.7
3262         Rubber products                                     0.7      1.4      1.2      0.9     -0.2     -2.7

3271         Clay products and refractories                      0.1      0.7      1.6      0.3     -1.5     -6.9
3272         Glass and glass products                            0.7     -0.3      1.7      1.7     -0.5      0.6
3273         Cement and concrete products                        0.0      0.5      0.4      0.0     -0.7     -3.5
3274         Lime and gypsum products                           -0.2     -1.4     -2.4      0.6      1.8     -4.4
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  0.8     -1.3      1.9     -0.4      1.9     -0.9

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      1.3      1.3      2.0      1.9      0.3      0.1
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                -0.3      1.1      2.3     -0.1     -3.3      1.4
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                     0.1     -0.3     -0.7      0.0      1.1     -3.1
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                  -1.5     -0.6      1.1     -0.3     -5.1    -16.0
3315         Foundries                                           0.2      0.0      1.5      0.0     -0.5      1.8

3321         Forging and stamping                                1.0     -0.7      1.0      0.9      1.8      4.2
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                             -0.4     -1.4      0.9     -0.4     -0.9      2.5
3323         Architectural and structural metals                -0.1     -1.1      0.8     -0.7      0.2      3.1
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             0.5      0.5      1.3      0.2      0.0      5.0
3325         Hardware                                           -0.2     -2.2      0.7     -0.2      0.2      0.9
3326         Spring and wire products                            0.9      0.4      1.5      0.5      1.0     -3.2
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                 1.1      1.0      2.9      0.1      0.4      2.2
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals        1.3      0.8      2.0     -0.6      2.6     -0.8
3329         Other fabricated metal products                     0.1     -1.8      0.2     -0.8      1.7      3.5

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery     0.7      2.3     -0.2     -1.0      2.0      2.0
3332         Industrial machinery                                0.4      0.1      1.5     -0.4      0.3      6.2
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery          -0.5      0.8     -0.6     -1.1     -0.5      4.2
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment         0.9     -0.3      0.6      0.5      2.0      3.0
3335         Metalworking machinery                              0.7      0.0      1.3     -0.9      1.9     -0.1
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment           -0.4     -0.6     -0.1      0.9     -1.7      0.7
3339         Other general purpose machinery                     0.4      0.4      0.0     -0.1      1.1      1.7

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  17.2      5.4     12.6     25.3     21.0     23.9
3342         Communications equipment                            3.4      3.7      4.0      3.1      3.0     13.5
3343         Audio and video equipment                           2.5      3.7      2.1      0.9      3.7      8.3
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           14.2      7.1     18.1     22.7      8.1      2.0
3345         Electronic instruments                             -0.1      1.6      0.0     -3.2      1.6      1.3
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       3.0      1.2      5.8      0.4      3.8     -2.5

3351         Electric lighting equipment                         0.3     -1.8      0.1      0.3      1.4      2.2
3352         Household appliances                                1.9     -0.4      2.4      1.1      3.3      1.9
3353         Electrical equipment                                0.2      0.4      1.8     -2.0      0.7      1.2
3359         Other electrical equipment and components           0.0     -1.8      1.1      0.7     -0.6     -2.1

3361         Motor vehicles                                      0.6      0.2     -1.4      0.4      2.7      4.6
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                  -0.3     -2.9      2.0     -1.9      0.6      1.8
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                 1.1     -0.8      2.1      0.2      2.2      2.4
3364         Aerospace products and parts                       -1.0     -2.8     -1.6     -1.4      0.8      0.1
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              1.3      2.2     -1.3      4.1      0.6      7.0
3366         Ship and boat building                             -0.6      0.0     -2.0     -0.4      0.1      1.8
3369         Other transportation equipment                      1.4     -1.7      4.2     -0.6      2.3      3.6

3371         Household and institutional furniture               0.1     -0.4      0.7     -0.7      0.7     -1.4
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                       0.4     -2.6      0.2      1.7      0.9     -0.2
3379         Other furniture-related products                    0.7      0.0      0.6     -0.3      2.1      2.1

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                      1.5      2.2      0.2      2.0      1.7      1.4
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                   0.7      1.2      0.5      0.0      1.3      1.3

                           Transportation

481          Air Transportation                                  1.2     -0.9      0.7      0.0      3.6      3.6
482111       Line-Haul Railroads                                 2.6      4.4      4.1      1.4      1.6      2.6



Last Modified Date: August 29, 2008
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