Economic News Release

Productivity and Costs by Industry: Manufacturing, Mining, and Selected Service-Providing Industries News Release



For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, June 10, 2010                                    	USDL-10-0775

Technical Information:	  (202) 691-5618  •  dipsweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/lpc 
Media Contact:	          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

NOTE: This release was reissued on Friday, July 9, 2010 to correct errors in measures of 
employment, hours, and productivity for agriculture, construction, and mining machinery 
manufacturing (NAICS 3331) and machinery manufacturing (NAICS 333).  Other minor corrections 
have been made to measures for the following industries: NAICS 321, 3219, 482111, 491, 4911, 
541921, 561311, 56172.  Corrections have been made to tables 1 and 2; no changes were required
to the text and the charts in the news release.

                                    PRODUCTIVITY AND COSTS BY INDUSTRY:
                   MANUFACTURING, MINING, AND SELECTED SERVICE-PROVIDING INDUSTRIES, 2008

Labor productivity -- defined as output per hour -- rose in 46 percent of the 138 detailed manufacturing, 
mining, and service-providing industries studied in 2008, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 
today. This was down from the 62 percent that recorded productivity increases the previous year. Unit 
labor costs, which reflect the total labor costs required to produce a unit of output, declined in 30 percent 
of the industries, compared to 20 percent in 2007.

Fewer industries recorded productivity increases in 2008 than in any other year since 1988.  Output rose in 
fewer industries and hours declined in more industries in 2008 compared to 2007. Output rose in 41 of the 
138 industries examined, compared to 72 in 2007; hours declined in 101, compared to 79 industries in 
2007. The percent of industries with output increases declined each year from 2005 to 2008, with the 
largest drop occurring in 2008. The percent of industries with declining hours rose each year 
from 2006 to 2008, with the largest increase occurring in 2008.  

Over the 1987 to 2008 period, labor productivity increased in 92 percent of the industries. Unit labor costs 
declined in 18 percent of the industries. (See table 2.) Productivity growth rates for the industries studied
show a more negative distribution in the most recent year compared to the longer-term period from 1987 to 2008.

With this release, productivity and cost measures are published for the first time for general freight 
trucking, local (NAICS 48411) and for general freight trucking (NAICS 4841). The latter combines the 
previously published measures for long-distance general freight trucking with the new measures for local 
freight trucking. Trends in the local freight trucking industry are strongly affected by business cycles and 
the overall economic environment. While productivity in this industry declined slightly in 2008, between 
1994 and 2008 productivity increased at an average rate of 3.1 percent per year. The widespread adoption 
of onboard computer systems, satellite-based tracking, and wireless internet have contributed to substantial 
increases in efficiency in this industry.

Industry labor productivity measures are updated as data become available. Productivity data through 2008 
for industries in wholesale and retail trade were published on August 28, 2009 and can be found on the 
BLS Labor Productivity and Costs web site at www.bls.gov/lpc.

Manufacturing

Labor productivity increased in 35 of the 86 detailed manufacturing industries in 2008, compared with 51 
in 2007. (See table 1.) Productivity growth was highest in the computer and electronic products subsector, 
led by the computer and peripheral equipment and magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction 
industries. Output rose in only 20 percent of the industries, compared to 45 percent in 2007, while hours 
declined in 78 percent of the industries, compared to 64 percent in 2007. However, unit labor costs 
declined in a greater number of industries than in the previous year -- about 23 percent of the industries in 
2008, compared to 14 percent in 2007.

Service-Providing

Labor productivity rose in slightly fewer of the measured service-providing industries in 2008 than in 
2007.  Led by wireless telecommunications carriers and employment placement agencies, labor 
productivity increased in 26 of the 47 detailed service-providing industries studied in 2008, compared with 
32 in 2007. Output rose in 43 percent of the service-providing industries in 2008, compared to 64 percent 
in 2007, while labor hours declined in 70 percent, compared to 49 percent in 2007. Unit labor costs 
declined in 43 percent of the service-providing industries in 2008, compared to 32 percent in 2007.  

Mining

Labor productivity in the overall mining sector fell 3.0 percent in 2008, an improvement over the 7.6 
percent decline in 2007. Although productivity fell or showed little change in the four mining extraction 
industries, productivity grew rapidly in support activities for mining, where output rose sharply while hours 
increased only modestly. Unit labor costs fell in only one of the five mining industries in 2008.

Among the largest (those with employment over 500,000) manufacturing and service industries and the overall 
mining sector, engineering services recorded the largest productivity increase and aerospace products and parts 
had the largest decline.

Year-to-year movements in industry productivity measures may be erratic, particularly in smaller 
industries. The annual measures based on sample data may differ from measures generated by a census of 
establishments in the industry. Annual changes in an industry’s output and use of labor may reflect cyclical 
changes in the economy as well as long-term trends. As a result, long-term productivity changes tend to be 
more reliable indicators of industry performance than year-to-year changes.



                                         Technical Note

Labor Productivity: The industry labor productivity measures describe the relationship between industry 
output and the labor time involved in its production.  They show the changes from period to period in the 
amount of goods and services produced per hour. Although the labor productivity measures relate output to 
hours of all persons in an industry, they do not measure the specific contribution of labor or any other 
factor of production.  Rather, they reflect the joint effects of many influences, including changes in 
technology; capital investment; utilization of capacity, energy, and materials; the use of purchased services 
inputs, including contract employment services; the organization of production; managerial skill; and the 
characteristics and effort of the workforce.

Output:  Industry output is measured as an annual-weighted index of the changes in the various products 
or services (in real terms) provided for sale outside the industry. Real industry output is usually derived by 
deflating nominal sales or values of production using BLS price indexes, but for some industries it is 
measured by physical quantities of output. For manufacturing industries, industry output reflects sectoral 
value of production, derived by adjusting shipments for changes in inventories and removing intra-industry 
transactions.

Industry output measures are constructed primarily using data from the economic censuses and annual 
surveys of the Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with information on price changes 
primarily from BLS.  Output measures for some mining and utilities industries are based on physical 
quantity data from the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, while output 
measures for some transportation industries are based on physical quantity data from the Bureau of 
Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation. Other data sources for some industries include 
the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior; the U.S. Postal Service; the Postal Rate 
Commission; and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Labor Hours:  The primary source of data on industry employment and hours is the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey. The CES provides monthly data on the number of total and 
production or nonsupervisory worker jobs held by wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments, as 
well as data on the average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers in those establishments. 
CES data are supplemented or further disaggregated for some industries using data from the BLS Quarterly 
Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), the Bureau of the Census, or other sources. Data from the 
Current Population Survey (CPS) also supplement the CES data. CPS data are used to estimate employment 
and hours of self-employed and unpaid family workers in each industry. Data from the CPS, together with 
the CES data, are also used to estimate the historical average weekly hours of nonproduction or supervisory 
workers for each industry. Other sources of employment and hours data for some service industries 
include the Association of American Railroads, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Postal 
Service. Hours of all persons in an industry are treated as homogeneous and are directly aggregated.

Unit Labor Costs:  Unit labor costs represent the cost of labor required to produce one unit of output.  The 
unit labor cost indexes are computed by dividing an index of industry labor compensation by an index of 
real industry output.  Unit labor costs also describe the relationship between compensation per hour and 
real output per hour (labor productivity). Increases in hourly compensation increase unit labor costs; 
increases in labor productivity offset compensation increases and lower unit labor costs.

Compensation, defined as payroll plus supplemental payments, is a measure of the cost to the employer of 
securing the services of labor. Payroll includes salaries, wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, 
vacation and sick leave pay, and compensation in kind.  Supplemental payments include legally required 
expenditures and payments for voluntary programs. The legally required portion consists primarily of 
Federal old age and survivors’ insurance, unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. 
Payments for voluntary programs include all programs not specifically required by legislation, such as the 
employer portion of private health insurance and pension plans.

Revisions:  This news release incorporates data from the Census Bureau’s 2007 Economic Census and the 
annual benchmark revision of the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey published in February 
2010. Although labor productivity and cost data for manufacturing industries were published on a NAICS 
2007 basis in December 2009, this is the first release of productivity measures for the service-providing 
and mining industries classified according to the 2007 NAICS. Series for some industries may have 
changed as a result. All industry labor productivity and cost series are now on a NAICS 2007 basis. 

The mining industry measures have been revised to include, for the first time, the output of nonemployer 
firms and the employment, hours, and labor compensation of self-employed and unpaid family workers. 
Although small, the revision reflects a more complete accounting of the economic activity in each industry, 
and improves consistency with the measures for other sectors that account for the activity of these firms 
and workers.

All of the measures for 2008 in this release are preliminary and subject to revision.  

Additional Information:  Measures for the two added industries were developed using standard BLS 
methods as described above. While the rates of change reported by BLS in this news release are rounded to 
one decimal place, all industry productivity percent changes are calculated using index numbers to three 
decimal places.

Three industries that were previously available on the BLS web site are also included in this release: coin-
operated laundries and drycleaners (NAICS 812310); drycleaning and laundry services (except coin-
operated) (NAICS 812320); and linen and uniform supply (NAICS 81233).

Industry productivity and related indexes and rates of change can be accessed online by visiting the Labor 
Productivity and Costs web site at http://www.bls.gov/lpc. Levels of industry employment, hours, labor 
compensation, and value of production, and the implicit price deflator for output for these industries are 
available upon request by calling the Division of Industry Productivity Studies (202-691-5618) or by 
sending a request by e-mail to dipsweb@bls.gov. Information in this report will be made available to 
sensory-impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral phone 
number: 1-800-877-8339.

To subscribe to the industry productivity program’s electronic notification service, send an e-mail to 
dipsnews@bls.gov with the word “subscribe” in the subject line.



Table 1.   Percent change in output per hour, output, hours, compensation, and unit labor costs, 2007-2008

                                                                                      Percent change, 2007-2008
                                                                2008     ---------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                       Employment   Output                        Labor     Unit labor
 code                                                       (thousands)  per hour   Output    Hours  compensation   costs

                         Mining Industries

21       Mining                                                   725      -3.0       0.9       4.0      13.4       12.4
211      Oil and gas extraction                                   161      -9.0       1.5      11.6      17.7       15.9
2111     Oil and gas extraction                                   161      -9.0       1.5      11.6      17.7       15.9
212      Mining, except oil and gas                               230      -0.7      -1.4      -0.7       5.2        6.7
2121     Coal mining                                               82      -5.7       2.2       8.4      12.2        9.7
2122     Metal ore mining                                          40      -3.4       6.9      10.6      16.1        8.6
2123     Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying                 108       0.1     -10.7     -10.8      -6.8        4.4
213      Support activities for mining                            334      23.8      29.3       4.4      15.0      -11.0
2131     Support activities for mining                            334      23.8      29.3       4.4      15.0      -11.0

                             Utilities

2211     Power generation and supply                              404      -4.1      -1.6       2.6       3.7        5.4
2212     Natural gas distribution                                 107       0.8       1.0       0.2       3.5        2.5

                           Manufacturing

311      Food                                                    1511      -0.4      -0.6      -0.1       1.7        2.3
3111         Animal food                                           53      -6.0      -0.6       5.8       3.0        3.6
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                             62      -3.7       1.4       5.3       4.0        2.5
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                      74      -7.7      -8.2      -0.6      -5.5        3.0
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty         173      -2.3      -2.5      -0.1       0.6        3.1
3115         Dairy products                                       132       7.9       2.3      -5.2       5.6        3.2
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                   514       2.5       1.6      -0.9       0.4       -1.2
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging             39     -12.8     -13.6      -1.0      -5.2        9.8
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                  300      -7.5      -5.1       2.6       5.0       10.7
3119         Other food products                                  164       1.4      -0.1      -1.5       0.4        0.5

312      Beverages and tobacco products                           200      -2.5      -6.9      -4.5       1.6        9.1
3121         Beverages                                            179       0.1      -5.3      -5.4       2.9        8.6
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                          22     -13.0     -10.6       2.7      -4.6        6.7

313      Textile mills                                            161      -1.6     -15.6     -14.2     -12.6        3.5
3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                         37       1.3     -13.4     -14.5     -14.8       -1.6
3132         Fabric mills                                          72       5.3     -13.5     -17.8     -12.0        1.7
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                    52     -14.7     -22.2      -8.8     -11.8       13.3

314      Textile product mills                                    163      -3.2      -8.6      -5.7      -5.2        3.8
3141         Textile furnishings mills                             82      -2.6     -12.6     -10.2      -4.9        8.8
3149         Other textile product mills                           81      -0.5      -1.1      -0.6      -5.4       -4.4

315      Apparel                                                  221      -1.8     -13.7     -12.1     -10.4        3.9
3151         Apparel knitting mills                                32      -3.4     -15.0     -12.0     -15.2       -0.2
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                  172      -1.6     -13.2     -11.9      -9.2        4.6
3159         Accessories and other apparel                         17       0.0     -14.6     -14.6     -13.1        1.8

316      Leather and allied products                               36       3.6      -5.7      -9.0      -3.1        2.8
3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing                 5      -2.7     -12.3      -9.9      -0.5       13.5
3162         Footwear                                              17      18.1      11.6      -5.5       2.6       -8.1
3169         Other leather products                                15      -4.8     -16.5     -12.2      -8.4        9.7

321      Wood products                                            486      -2.0     -14.3     -12.5     -11.3        3.4
3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                       106       3.5      -9.4     -12.5      -5.6        4.2
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                  90      -4.0     -18.3     -14.9     -15.6        3.3
3219         Other wood products                                  290      -3.4     -14.6     -11.6     -11.7        3.4

322      Paper and paper products                                 446      -0.6      -4.3      -3.7      -1.0        3.5
3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                    127       0.5      -4.1      -4.6      -0.8        3.4
3222         Converted paper products                             319      -1.2      -4.5      -3.4      -1.0        3.6

323      Printing and related support activities                  623       1.4      -6.0      -7.3      -6.3       -0.4
3231         Printing and related support activities              623       1.4      -6.0      -7.3      -6.3       -0.4

324      Petroleum and coal products                              118      -3.0       0.6       3.7       0.0       -0.6
3241         Petroleum and coal products                          118      -3.0       0.6       3.7       0.0       -0.6

325      Chemicals                                                855      -6.7      -9.6      -3.1      -0.4       10.1
3251         Basic chemicals                                      153     -15.1     -12.3       3.4       1.9       16.1
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                 104      -8.5     -13.2      -5.2      -1.0       14.0
3253         Agricultural chemicals                                37      -1.1      -8.6      -7.6       1.5       11.0
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                        292      -1.3      -4.2      -2.9      -0.6        3.8
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                       62      -4.0      -9.1      -5.3      -1.8        8.0
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries            112      -5.6      -9.6      -4.3       1.2       12.0
3259         Other chemical products and preparations              96       0.8      -6.0      -6.7      -5.4        0.6

326      Plastics and rubber products                             734      -5.3      -9.2      -4.2      -4.9        4.8
3261         Plastics products                                    589      -4.8      -8.8      -4.2      -5.2        3.9
3262         Rubber products                                      145      -7.5     -11.4      -4.2      -3.7        8.7

327      Nonmetallic mineral products                             481      -4.5     -11.9      -7.7      -4.0        9.0
3271         Clay products and refractories                        57      -1.4      -9.4      -8.1      -7.7        1.8
3272         Glass and glass products                             104      -4.0      -3.5       0.5       1.1        4.8
3273         Cement and concrete products                         223      -7.1     -17.6     -11.3      -5.4       14.8
3274         Lime and gypsum products                              18      -1.7      -7.2      -5.6      -1.7        5.8
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                    79       1.2      -6.1      -7.2      -4.8        1.4

331      Primary metals                                           443       4.9       0.0      -4.7       2.3        2.3
3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production       100       8.5       6.7      -1.7       7.5        0.8
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                   62      -4.6      -7.9      -3.5       6.9       16.1
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                       66      -1.6      -9.4      -8.0       1.6       12.2
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                     67       4.6       2.1      -2.4       0.5       -1.6
3315         Foundries                                            148      -7.1     -13.4      -6.8      -3.7       11.2

332      Fabricated metal products                               1550       1.4      -3.2      -4.6       0.7        4.1
3321         Forging and stamping                                 107       0.1      -3.6      -3.7       1.7        5.5
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                                49      -3.3     -11.8      -8.8      -2.2       10.9
3323         Architectural and structural metals                  412      -0.9      -4.5      -3.7       0.0        4.8
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers               98      -2.1      -2.4      -0.3       8.7       11.3
3325         Hardware                                              30       7.7     -13.8     -19.9      -6.0        9.0
3326         Spring and wire products                              53       4.3      -6.6     -10.4      -3.3        3.5
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                  370       3.7      -0.9      -4.4       1.0        1.9
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals         145       1.2      -0.1      -1.3      -1.2       -1.2
3329         Other fabricated metal products                      286       4.0      -2.0      -5.8       0.9        2.9

333      Machinery                                               1201      -1.4      -2.0      -0.6       0.9        2.9
3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery      244       2.2       4.0       1.7       5.9        1.8
3332         Industrial machinery                                 124      -9.7     -13.6      -4.4      -3.8       11.3
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery            105       6.3      -0.4      -6.2       1.0        1.4
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment          151      -0.5      -2.9      -2.4       1.5        4.5
3335         Metalworking machinery                               195       0.1       0.5       0.4      -2.8       -3.3
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment             106      -2.7      -0.1       2.7       5.2        5.3
3339         Other general purpose machinery                      277      -4.3      -3.9       0.4       0.3        4.4

334      Computer and electronic products                        1255       6.7       6.9       0.3      -3.0       -9.3
3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                    185      32.8      35.8       2.2       7.8      -20.6
3342         Communications equipment                             130      -4.7      -2.4       2.4      -7.7       -5.5
3343         Audio and video equipment                             28     -15.7     -20.2      -5.3     -13.1        8.8
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components             434       4.4       3.1      -1.3      -6.8       -9.6
3345         Electronic instruments                               444       2.3       4.3       2.0      -0.2       -4.3
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction         35      19.3       3.7     -13.1      -5.7       -9.0

335      Electrical equipment and appliances                      429      -2.8      -3.3      -0.5       1.4        4.9
3351         Electric lighting equipment                           59       2.0      -3.1      -5.0      -0.2        3.0
3352         Household appliances                                  71      -3.9     -10.9      -7.3      -6.0        5.4
3353         Electrical equipment                                 161      -4.2      -0.1       4.2       4.4        4.5
3359         Other electrical equipment and components            138      -2.3      -2.6      -0.3       1.8        4.6

336      Transportation equipment                                1622      -5.5     -12.7      -7.7      -4.2        9.8
3361         Motor vehicles                                       192      -9.3     -19.9     -11.7     -10.4       11.8
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                    142      -5.8     -21.9     -17.1     -15.5        8.2
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                  550      -4.7     -17.1     -13.0      -9.9        8.7
3364         Aerospace products and parts                         508      -9.1      -6.9       2.4       3.3       10.9
3365         Railroad rolling stock                                29      16.7      18.0       1.1       2.1      -13.4
3366         Ship and boat building                               157      12.9       2.9      -8.9       5.4        2.5
3369         Other transportation equipment                        44       3.8       9.0       5.0       2.9       -5.6

337      Furniture and related products                           513       3.8      -8.9     -12.2      -9.2       -0.3
3371         Household and institutional furniture                335       4.8     -10.1     -14.2     -10.7       -0.7
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                        133       0.9      -5.1      -5.9      -5.7       -0.6
3379         Other furniture-related products                      45       2.5     -13.6     -15.7     -11.5        2.4

339      Miscellaneous manufacturing                              699       1.6       1.1      -0.4      -0.2       -1.4
3391         Medical equipment and supplies                       324       2.7       6.2       3.4       2.1       -3.9
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                    375      -0.6      -4.3      -3.7      -2.8        1.6

                   Transportation and Warehousing

481      Air transportation                                       427      -1.4      -3.1      -1.8      -0.6        2.6
482111   Line-haul railroads                                      184      -1.0      -1.0       0.1       0.8        1.8
4841     General freight trucking                                1196       0.2      -3.1      -3.3      -4.3       -1.2
48411    General freight trucking, local                          315      -0.1      -5.8      -5.7      -6.2       -0.4
48412    General freight trucking, long-distance                  881      -0.1      -2.4      -2.3      -3.6       -1.2
48421    Used household and office goods moving                    95       6.5      -5.7     -11.4      -4.4        1.3
491      Postal service                                           747      -1.4      -4.9      -3.5      -5.1       -0.3
4911     Postal service                                           747      -1.4      -4.9      -3.5      -5.1       -0.3

492      Couriers and messengers                                  612       4.9      -6.2     -10.5      -5.6        0.7
493      Warehousing and storage                                  681       0.3       4.1       3.8       3.1       -1.0
4931     Warehousing and storage                                  681       0.3       4.1       3.8       3.1       -1.0
49311    General warehousing and storage                          574       0.2       4.6       4.4       2.7       -1.8
49312    Refrigerated warehousing and storage                      49       3.0       0.6      -2.3       3.8        3.2

                            Information

511      Publishing                                               912       1.7      -1.3      -2.9       1.3        2.6
5111     Newspaper, book, and directory publishers                648      -2.0      -6.1      -4.1      -2.8        3.4
5112     Software publishers                                      265       4.3       4.2      -0.1       6.7        2.4
51213    Motion picture and video exhibition                      133      -3.3      -2.2       1.1      -0.8        1.5
515      Broadcasting, except internet                            328       2.4       0.3      -2.0      -1.4       -1.7
5151     Radio and television broadcasting                        241       0.0      -1.0      -1.0      -4.0       -3.1
5152     Cable and other subscription programming                  88       6.3       1.8      -4.2       7.0        5.1
5171     Wired telecommunications carriers                        683       3.2       2.9      -0.3       0.9       -1.9
5172     Wireless telecommunications carriers                     203      18.8      12.8      -5.1       5.0       -6.9

                       Finance and Insurance

52211    Commercial banking                                      1358       0.2       0.7       0.5      -2.4       -3.0

                 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

532111   Passenger car rental                                     124       4.9      -4.0      -8.4      -9.0       -5.3
53212    Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing                 60      -4.7      -5.5      -0.8       3.1        9.1
53223    Video tape and disc rental                               109      -6.9     -10.3      -3.7     -11.3       -1.1

                Professional and Technical Services

541213   Tax preparation services                                 152      -3.3       1.2       4.7       0.7       -0.5
54131    Architectural services                                   234       4.6       1.2      -3.2      -1.1       -2.3
54133    Engineering services                                     969       9.4       9.6       0.1       4.6       -4.5
54181    Advertising agencies                                     195       4.6       3.0      -1.5       1.3       -1.7
541921   Photography studios, portrait                             80       3.3       0.2      -3.1      -1.2       -1.4

                 Administrative and Waste Services

561311   Employment placement agencies                            260      16.7       4.8     -10.2      -1.4       -5.9
56151    Travel agencies                                          119       1.4      -1.2      -2.6       0.3        1.6
56172    Janitorial services                                     1225       2.5       2.9       0.3       4.7        1.8

                 Health Care and Social Assistance

6215     Medical and diagnostic laboratories                      227      11.8       8.9      -2.5       3.4       -5.0
621511   Medical laboratories                                     152       9.4       7.1      -2.1       5.1       -1.9
621512   Diagnostic imaging centers                                75      15.5      11.4      -3.5       0.0      -10.2

                Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

71311    Amusement and theme parks                                138       0.7      -1.0      -1.7       8.1        9.2
71395    Bowling centers                                           76       1.6      -4.2      -5.7      -2.0        2.3

                  Accommodation and Food Services

72       Accommodation and food services                        11742      -0.9      -1.6      -0.7       2.3        4.0
721      Accommodation                                           1900      -0.8      -2.2      -1.4       1.1        3.4
7211     Traveler accommodation                                  1825      -1.0      -2.3      -1.3       1.0        3.4
722      Food services and drinking places                       9842      -0.8      -1.4      -0.6       2.7        4.1
7221     Full-service restaurants                                4617      -1.8      -3.2      -1.4       2.1        5.5
7222     Limited-service eating places                           4178       0.3       0.5       0.2       3.3        2.7
7223     Special food services                                    686      -0.8      -0.9       0.0       3.8        4.7
7224     Drinking places (alcoholic beverages)                    362      -2.0      -2.3      -0.4       1.2        3.6

                           Other Services

8111     Automotive repair and maintenance                       1115      -0.5      -5.1      -4.6      -4.5        0.7
81142    Reupholstery and furniture repair                         25      -3.5      -6.2      -2.8      -2.7        3.7
81211    Hair, nail, and skin care services                       917       2.3       0.2      -2.1       1.7        1.5
81221    Funeral homes and funeral services                       108      -5.1      -0.8       4.5       2.2        3.1
8123     Drycleaning and laundry services                         370       0.6      -0.7      -1.3       0.2        0.9
812310   Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners                   49      -4.4      -2.5       2.0      -3.4       -0.9
812320   Drycleaning and laundry services                         183       2.0      -2.3      -4.2      -2.1        0.2
81233    Linen and uniform supply                                 137       0.0       1.3       1.3       3.0        1.7
81292    Photofinishing                                            24       7.0      -2.2      -8.6      -8.5       -6.5



Table 2.  Average annual percent change in output per hour, output, hours, compensation, and unit labor costs, 1987-2008

                                                                   Average annual percent change, 1987-2008
                                                             ----------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                         Output                        Labor     Unit labor
 code                                                         per hour   Output    Hours  compensation   costs

                          Mining Industries

21       Mining                                                 -0.4      -0.2       0.2       5.4       5.7
211      Oil and gas extraction                                  0.5      -0.8      -1.3       5.7       6.5
2111     Oil and gas extraction                                  0.5      -0.8      -1.3       5.7       6.5
212      Mining, except oil and gas                              2.0       0.8      -1.1       2.3       1.4
2121     Coal mining                                             2.4       0.1      -2.3       0.7       0.6
2122     Metal ore mining                                        1.9       2.2       0.4       5.0       2.7
2123     Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying                1.0       0.6      -0.4       3.4       2.8
213      Support activities for mining                           3.1       5.6       2.4       9.0       3.2
2131     Support activities for mining                           3.1       5.6       2.4       9.0       3.2

                              Utilities

2211     Power generation and supply                             2.4       1.1      -1.3       2.8       1.6
2212     Natural gas distribution                                2.8       1.3      -1.5       3.3       2.0

                            Manufacturing

311      Food                                                    1.1       1.4       0.3       3.1       1.7
3111         Animal food                                         2.7       2.0      -0.7       3.4       1.3
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                           2.1       1.3      -0.8       2.2       0.9
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                    0.8      -0.1      -0.9       1.8       1.9
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty        1.6       1.3      -0.3       2.9       1.5
3115         Dairy products                                      1.6       1.0      -0.6       3.2       2.2
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                  0.9       2.3       1.4       3.8       1.5
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging           0.9       0.1      -0.8       3.0       2.8
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                 0.4       0.3      -0.2       2.4       2.1
3119         Other food products                                 0.5       2.0       1.6       4.2       2.1

312      Beverages and tobacco products                          0.6      -0.3      -0.9       1.7       1.9
3121         Beverages                                           1.9       1.5      -0.4       2.3       0.8
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                        0.5      -3.1      -3.6      -0.6       2.6

313      Textile mills                                           3.5      -2.6      -5.9      -2.5       0.0
3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                       4.2      -1.5      -5.4      -2.0      -0.6
3132         Fabric mills                                        4.8      -2.6      -7.1      -2.7      -0.1
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                  0.6      -3.6      -4.2      -2.6       1.0

314      Textile product mills                                   0.8      -1.1      -1.9       0.9       2.0
3141         Textile furnishings mills                           0.7      -1.5      -2.2       0.2       1.7
3149         Other textile product mills                         1.4      -0.2      -1.5       1.9       2.1

315      Apparel                                                -1.3      -8.1      -6.9      -5.3       3.1
3151         Apparel knitting mills                             -0.6      -6.8      -6.2      -6.0       0.8
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                -1.4      -8.5      -7.2      -5.2       3.6
3159         Accessories and other apparel                      -2.6      -6.9      -4.4      -4.3       2.8

316      Leather and allied products                             2.2      -4.5      -6.6      -2.8       1.8
3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing              0.7      -4.8      -5.4      -2.5       2.4
3162         Footwear                                            2.5      -5.6      -7.9      -4.3       1.3
3169         Other leather products                              1.5      -3.5      -4.9      -1.1       2.5

321      Wood products                                           1.3       0.1      -1.3       2.5       2.5
3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      2.5       0.1      -2.3       1.4       1.3
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                0.7      -0.1      -0.8       2.2       2.3
3219         Other wood products                                 1.1       0.1      -1.0       3.2       3.0

322      Paper and paper products                                2.0       0.2      -1.7       1.5       1.3
3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                   3.0      -0.2      -3.1       0.5       0.6
3222         Converted paper products                            1.5       0.5      -1.0       2.4       1.9

323      Printing and related support activities                 1.5       0.1      -1.3       1.8       1.6
3231         Printing and related support activities             1.5       0.1      -1.3       1.8       1.6

324      Petroleum and coal products                             2.6       1.2      -1.3       3.9       2.7
3241         Petroleum and coal products                         2.6       1.2      -1.3       3.9       2.7

325      Chemicals                                               1.8       1.0      -0.7       3.4       2.3
3251         Basic chemicals                                     2.7       0.5      -2.1       2.1       1.6
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                2.2       0.5      -1.6       2.0       1.5
3253         Agricultural chemicals                              2.6       0.5      -2.1       1.9       1.4
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                       0.7       3.0       2.4       6.6       3.4
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                     1.0      -0.3      -1.4       2.6       2.9
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries           3.0       2.3      -0.7       3.1       0.8
3259         Other chemical products and preparations            2.4       0.0      -2.3       1.5       1.4

326      Plastics and rubber products                            2.0       1.7      -0.3       3.0       1.3
3261         Plastics products                                   1.9       2.0       0.1       3.5       1.4
3262         Rubber products                                     2.1       0.4      -1.7       1.4       1.0

327      Nonmetallic mineral products                            1.2       0.7      -0.5       2.5       1.8
3271         Clay products and refractories                      1.3      -1.1      -2.4       0.2       1.4
3272         Glass and glass products                            2.0       0.5      -1.5       1.2       0.7
3273         Cement and concrete products                        0.4       1.1       0.6       3.6       2.5
3274         Lime and gypsum products                            1.0       0.0      -1.0       3.1       3.1
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                  1.7       1.5      -0.2       3.2       1.6

331      Primary metals                                          2.6       0.5      -2.1       1.2       0.7
3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production      5.2       2.5      -2.6       0.6      -1.8
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                -0.9      -1.6      -0.7       1.7       3.4
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                     2.5      -0.1      -2.5       1.1       1.1
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                   1.5      -0.9      -2.3       2.3       3.3
3315         Foundries                                           2.0       0.1      -1.9       1.2       1.2

332      Fabricated metal products                               1.6       1.5      -0.2       3.1       1.6
3321         Forging and stamping                                2.9       1.8      -1.0       2.6       0.8
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                              1.4      -0.9      -2.3       1.5       2.5
3323         Architectural and structural metals                 1.1       1.8       0.7       4.2       2.3
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers             0.8       0.3      -0.5       2.3       2.0
3325         Hardware                                            1.3      -2.6      -3.8      -0.9       1.7
3326         Spring and wire products                            2.8       0.7      -2.0       1.9       1.1
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                 2.5       3.3       0.8       4.6       1.3
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals        3.0       3.4       0.3       3.7       0.4
3329         Other fabricated metal products                     1.7       0.9      -0.8       2.1       1.2

333      Machinery                                               2.5       1.9      -0.6       2.5       0.6
3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery     3.0       3.6       0.6       3.6      -0.1
3332         Industrial machinery                                2.5       1.6      -0.9       2.6       1.0
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery           1.6      -0.2      -1.7       0.6       0.8
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment         2.1       1.7      -0.4       2.5       0.8
3335         Metalworking machinery                              2.1       0.6      -1.5       1.7       1.1
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment            2.0       1.8      -0.2       1.9       0.0
3339         Other general purpose machinery                     2.6       1.9      -0.7       3.0       1.1

334      Computer and electronic products                       12.2       9.8      -2.2       1.4      -7.7
3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                  24.8      20.1      -3.8      -2.1     -18.5
3342         Communications equipment                            7.4       4.5      -2.7       0.8      -3.5
3343         Audio and video equipment                           3.9       0.3      -3.5       0.6       0.3
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components           16.8      15.2      -1.4       2.3     -11.2
3345         Electronic instruments                              4.4       2.5      -1.8       2.2      -0.3
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction       3.5       2.0      -1.5       1.2      -0.8

335      Electrical equipment and appliances                     2.7       0.5      -2.1       1.6       1.1
3351         Electric lighting equipment                         2.1       0.3      -1.8       1.8       1.4
3352         Household appliances                                4.0       0.9      -3.0      -0.1      -1.0
3353         Electrical equipment                                2.8       0.6      -2.1       1.6       1.0
3359         Other electrical equipment and components           2.0       0.2      -1.8       2.2       2.0

336      Transportation equipment                                2.9       1.4      -1.4       1.3      -0.2
3361         Motor vehicles                                      3.4       1.2      -2.2       0.9      -0.3
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                   1.3       1.2       0.0       3.9       2.7
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                 2.9       2.0      -0.8       1.2      -0.8
3364         Aerospace products and parts                        1.7      -0.5      -2.1       0.7       1.2
3365         Railroad rolling stock                              5.2       5.9       0.7       4.2      -1.6
3366         Ship and boat building                              2.2       1.3      -0.9       2.8       1.5
3369         Other transportation equipment                      6.8       7.2       0.4       5.0      -2.1

337      Furniture and related products                          1.9       0.6      -1.2       2.4       1.7
3371         Household and institutional furniture               1.8       0.3      -1.5       2.2       1.9
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                       1.8       0.9      -0.9       2.5       1.6
3379         Other furniture-related products                    2.3       1.8      -0.5       2.8       1.0

339      Miscellaneous manufacturing                             3.0       3.0       0.0       4.5       1.4
3391         Medical equipment and supplies                      3.6       5.0       1.3       5.9       0.9
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                   2.2       1.3      -0.9       3.2       1.9

                   Transportation and Warehousing

481      Air transportation                                      2.9       3.1       0.2       2.9      -0.2
482111   Line-haul railroads                                     4.2       2.2      -1.9       1.2      -1.0
4841     General freight trucking (2)                            1.3       2.5       1.1       3.9       1.4
48411    General freight trucking, local (2)                     3.1       4.0       0.8       4.3       0.4
48412    General freight trucking, long-distance                 1.3       2.8       1.5       3.0       0.2
48421    Used household and office goods moving                 -0.6      -0.2       0.4       2.5       2.7
491      Postal service                                          0.9       0.7      -0.2       4.1       3.3
4911     Postal service                                          0.9       0.7      -0.2       4.1       3.3

492      Couriers and messengers                                -0.2       2.2       2.4       4.8       2.5
493      Warehousing and storage (1)                             2.7       6.1       3.4       6.1      -0.1
4931     Warehousing and storage (1)                             2.7       6.1       3.4       6.1      -0.1
49311    General warehousing and storage (1)                     5.0       8.5       3.3       6.7      -1.6
49312    Refrigerated warehousing and storage (1)               -0.3       3.0       3.2       4.8       1.8

                             Information

511      Publishing                                              3.8       4.1       0.3       5.7       1.5
5111     Newspaper, book, and directory publishers               0.0      -1.0      -1.0       3.3       4.4
5112     Software publishers                                    14.4      21.9       6.5      12.3      -7.9
51213    Motion picture and video exhibition                     1.2       1.9       0.7       3.7       1.7
515      Broadcasting, except internet                           1.6       2.7       1.1       5.0       2.2
5151     Radio and television broadcasting                       0.4       0.6       0.1       4.0       3.4
5152     Cable and other subscription programming                3.6       8.3       4.5      10.4       2.0
5171     Wired telecommunications carriers                       4.4       3.8      -0.5       2.9      -0.9
5172     Wireless telecommunications carriers                    9.5      22.4      11.9      15.6      -5.6

                        Finance and Insurance

52211    Commercial banking                                      3.5       3.5       0.0       5.5       1.9

                 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing

532111   Passenger car rental                                    1.8       2.9       1.1       5.7       2.8
53212    Truck, trailer, and RV rental and leasing               3.7       2.9      -0.8       3.6       0.6
53223    Video tape and disc rental                              4.2       4.4       0.2       3.0      -1.3

                 Professional and Technical Services

541213   Tax preparation services                                0.7       3.3       2.6       4.7       1.3
54131    Architectural services                                  1.5       3.9       2.3       6.0       2.1
54133    Engineering services                                    1.8       4.0       2.2       6.9       2.7
54181    Advertising agencies                                    2.0       2.4       0.4       4.9       2.5
541921   Photography studios, portrait                           0.1       2.3       2.2       4.7       2.3

                  Administrative and Waste Services

561311   Employment placement agencies (2)                       7.6       8.9       1.2       7.3      -1.5
56151    Travel agencies                                         6.2       5.1      -1.0       4.1      -1.0
56172    Janitorial services                                     2.2       4.2       2.0       6.0       1.7

                  Health Care and Social Assistance

6215     Medical and diagnostic laboratories (2)                 4.3       7.4       3.0       6.1      -1.2
621511   Medical laboratories (2)                                3.6       6.1       2.4       5.4      -0.7
621512   Diagnostic imaging centers (2)                          5.0       9.4       4.2       7.8      -1.5

                 Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation

71311    Amusement and theme parks                               0.1       3.0       2.9       6.6       3.5
71395    Bowling centers                                         0.4      -1.5      -1.9       1.3       2.8

                   Accommodation and Food Services

72       Accommodation and food services                         0.9       2.4       1.5       5.5       3.0
721      Accommodation                                           1.7       2.9       1.2       5.3       2.4
7211     Traveler accommodation                                  1.7       2.9       1.2       5.3       2.3
722      Food services and drinking places                       0.6       2.3       1.6       5.5       3.2
7221     Full-service restaurants                                0.6       2.3       1.7       6.4       4.0
7222     Limited-service eating places                           0.6       2.5       1.8       5.3       2.8
7223     Special food services                                   1.7       2.9       1.1       4.1       1.2
7224     Drinking places (alcoholic beverages)                  -0.4      -0.6      -0.1       2.4       2.9

                           Other Services

8111     Automotive repair and maintenance                       1.0       1.6       0.6       4.0       2.4
81142    Reupholstery and furniture repair                      -0.2      -2.0      -1.8       1.1       3.2
81211    Hair, nail, and skin care services                      2.3       3.1       0.8       5.3       2.1
81221    Funeral homes and funeral services                     -0.5      -0.2       0.4       4.3       4.5
8123     Drycleaning and laundry services                        0.9       0.6      -0.3       3.1       2.5
812310   Coin-operated laundries and drycleaners                 1.9       0.7      -1.2       3.1       2.5
812320   Drycleaning and laundry services                        0.6      -0.6      -1.2       1.8       2.4
81233    Linen and uniform supply                                0.3       1.7       1.3       4.6       2.8
81292    Photofinishing                                          0.7      -4.8      -5.4      -2.3       2.6


(1) For NAICS industries 493, 4931, 49311, and 49312, average annual percent changes are for 1992-2008.
(2) For NAICS industries 4841, 48411, 561311, 6215, 621511, and 621512, average annual percent changes are for 1994-2008.

Last Modified Date: July 09, 2010
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