Economic News Release

Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing News Release


Internet address:	        http://www.bls.gov/mfp
Historical, technical		USDL 08-0857
information:	(202) 691-5606	For Release: 10:00 AM EDT
Media contact:	(202) 691-5902	Thursday, May 1, 2008


MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING, 2006


Multifactor productivity, defined as output per unit of combined inputs, was
reported today by  the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of the U.S. Department
of Labor for the manufacturing sector and for durable goods, nondurable 
goods, and three-digit (NAICS) manufacturing industries for the year 2006.  

In manufacturing, the annual rates of multifactor productivity change for 2006
were:

	1.6 percent in the manufacturing sector,
	3.2 percent in the durable goods manufacturing sector, and
       -0.2 percent in the nondurable goods manufacturing sector.

At 1.6 percent, multifactor productivity growth in the manufacturing sector 
grew more rapidly than the 0.4 percent increase posted in 2005 (as revised).
This occurred as durable goods manufacturing productivity growth accelerated
to 3.2 percent from 2.5 percent and nondurable goods manufacturing 
producitivity fell less, dropping 0.2 percent in 2006 after a 1.8 percent 
decrease in 2005.  The 2005-06 annual changes are summarized in table A and 
further detail and historical measures are shown in tables 1 through 3.

Multifactor productivity is designed to measure the joint influences on
economic growth of technological change, efficiency improvements, returns to 
scale, reallocation of resources, and other factors, allowing for the 
effects of capital, labor and, in the case of the manufacturing sector, 
intermediate inputs (energy, materials, purchased business services). 
Multifactor productivity, therefore, differs from labor productivity 
(output per hour worked) measures that are published quarterly by BLS since
it includes information on capital services and other data that are not 
available on a quarterly basis.

The data sources and methods used in the preparation of the manufacturing 
series differ from those used in preparing the private business and private
nonfarm business multifactor series and therefore the measures are not 
directly comparable.  See BLS News Release, Multifactor Productivity Trends,
2006, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/prod3.pdf, for information on 
multifactor productivity measurement in the private business and private 
nonfarm business sectors.


Table A.  Compound average annual rates of growth for multifactor 
productivity, output per hour of all persons, output per unit of capital 
services and related measures in the manufacturing sector for selected 
periods, 1987 to 2006
						
 	                1987-06	1987-90	1990-95	1995-00	2000-06	2005-06
						
Productivity						
   Multifactor 
   productivity1 	  1.4	 0.2	  1.2	  2.0	  1.6	  1.6
						
   Output per hour
   of all persons	  3.6	 1.8	  3.4	  4.6	  3.8	  1.2
	 					
   Output per unit
   of capital services	  0.2	-0.1	  0.5	  0.3	  0.0	  1.3
   						
Sectoral Output	          2.5	 2.1	  3.3	  4.5	  0.4	  1.8
					 	
Inputs						
   Hours2	         -1.1	 0.4     -0.1    -0.1	 -3.3	  0.6
   Capital services	  2.3	 2.2	  2.8	  4.2	  0.3	  0.5
   Energy	         -0.7	 2.0	  1.6    -2.5	 -2.4	 -5.5
   Non-energy materials   2.0	 1.6	  3.6	  4.9	 -1.5	 -1.0
   Purchased business 
   services	          2.6	 5.5	  3.0	  2.4	  1.1	  2.0
   Combined inputs3	  1.1	 2.0	  2.0	  2.5	 -1.2	  0.3
						
1Output per unit of combined labor hours, capital, energy, materials, and 
business services inputs.
2Hours at work of all persons. 
3The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of nominal costs.	
	
Changes in 2006

Multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector rose 1.6 percent in
2006 (see table A).   This is the fifth consecutive year that multifactor 
productivity rose in manufacturing (see table 1).  The 2006 multifactor
productivity gain reflected a 1.8 percent increase in sectoral output and a 
0.3 percent increase in combined inputs. The increase in combined inputs was
down from the sharp 3.3 percent increase in 2005.  Capital services grew 0.5 
percent in 2006, after remaining unchanged in 2005.  Hours grew 0.6 percent 
in 2006, materials declined 1.0 percent and purchased business services rose
2.0 percent.

Within manufacturing, multifactor productivity for durable goods increased 
in 2006 while it fell for nondurable goods (table 3).  The manufacturing 
industries that showed the largest multifactor productivity growth in 2006 
were all durable goods industries; computer and electronic products 
(7.6 percent), transportation equipment (4.0 percent), and wood products 
(3.0 percent).  One durable goods industry showed the sharpest decline in 
multifactor productivity, nonmetallic mineral products (-3.1 percent).  The
other two industries that showed sharp declines were nondurable goods 
industries; textile mills and textile product mills (-2.6 percent) and 
plastics and rubber products (-1.9 percent).

 
Historical trends in manufacturing

Multifactor productivity (output per unit of combined inputs) differs from 
labor productivity (output per hour worked) in the treatment of both capital
and intermediate inputs (energy, materials, and business services).  Labor
productivity measures do not explicitly account for the effects of capital
nor do they account for changes in the effects of intermediate inputs on 
output growth.  As a result, changes in input intensity (the ratio of other
inputs to labor hours) can influence labor productivity growth.  In contrast,
multifactor productivity treats capital and intermediate inputs as explicit 
factors of production and, therefore, is net of changes in input intensity.
Historical trends in labor productivity growth can be disaggregated into the
sum of multifactor productivity growth plus the contributions of the 
intensities of capital and of intermediate inputs.

The relationship between labor productivity growth and these components can
be seen in table B and chart 1.  Chart 1 shows how the relative contributions
of multifactor productivity, capital intensity, and intermediate input 
intensity shifted in the latter half of the 1990’s.  These contributions have
somewhat slowed during the 2000-2006 period.

The contribution of each input’s intensity equals the change in the ratio of
that input to hours multiplied by that input's cost share.  Historically, the 
labor share is about a third of total cost, the capital share about a sixth, 
the materials share about 30 percent of total cost, and the business services
share about 20 percent.  The energy share is historically only about 3 percent
of total cost.

Multifactor productivity in manufacturing grew 1.4 percent annually between 
1987 (the starting point of the series) and 2006 (see table A).  Sectoral 
output increased at a 2.5 percent annual rate over the period and combined 
inputs rose an average of 1.1 percent per year.   Of the 3.6 percent growth 
rate in output per hour (labor productivity), 1.4 percent can be attributed 
to increases in multifactor productivity, 0.5 percent to the contribution of
capital intensity, 0.8 percent to changes in materials intensity, and 0.8 
percent to changes in business services intensity (see table B).  The 
remaining input, energy, was a very small share of total inputs; therefore, 
it made no discernable contribution to output per hour.

From 1995 to 2000, multifactor productivity in manufacturing rose more 
rapidly than in previous periods, averaging 2.0 percent per year.  Sectoral
output growth increased to an average of 4.5 percent per year (table A) 
while combined inputs advanced an average of 2.5 percent per year, slightly 
faster than in the early 1990s.  In the 2000-2006 period, multifactor 
productivity grew at a slower rate than in the 1995-2000 period, averaging 
1.6 percent per year.  Labor productivity slowed to a still-robust average 
annual growth rate of 3.8 percent per year.  The contribution of capital 
intensity was slightly slower in the 2000-2006 period than in the 1995-2000
period, increasing an average of 0.6 percent annually (table B).  The 
contribution of the intensity of information processing equipment grew 0.2 
percent while that of other capital services rose 0.4 percent during the 
2000-2006 period.  The contribution of materials intensity dropped to an 
average annual increase of 0.5 percent from the 1.4 percent growth shown in 
the 1995-2000 period while the contribution of business services intensity
accelerated to 1.0 percent.


Table B.  Compound average annual rates of growth in output per hour of all
persons and the contributions of capital intensity, intermediate inputs 
intensity, and multifactor productivity, manufacturing sector, 1987 to 2006
						
	                1987-06	1987-90	1990-95	1995-00	2000-06	2005-06
Manufacturing						
						
Output per hour
of all persons	          3.6	  1.8	  3.4	  4.6	  3.8	 1.2
						
Contribution of
capital intensity1	  0.5	  0.3	  0.4	  0.7	  0.6	 0.0
						
Contribution of 
information processing
equipment and software2	  0.2	  0.2	  0.2	  0.4	  0.2	 0.1
				  		
Contribution of
all other capital 
services	          0.3	  0.1	  0.2	  0.4	  0.4	-0.1
						
Contribution of 
energy intensity3	  0.0	  0.0	  0.0    -0.1	  0.0	-0.2
						
Contribution of 
materials intensity4	  0.8	  0.3	  1.0	  1.4	  0.5	-0.5
						
Contribution of
purchased business
services intensity5	  0.8	  0.9	  0.6	  0.5	  1.0	 0.3
						 
Multifactor 
productivity6	          1.4	  0.2	  1.2	  2.0	  1.6	 1.6
						
1Growth rate in capital services per hour multiplied by capital's share
of current dollar costs.
2Growth rate of information processing equipment and software per hour 
multiplied by its share of total costs.
3Growth rate in energy services per hour multiplied by energy’s share of
current dollar costs.
4Growth rate in materials services per hour multiplied by materials’ share
of current dollar costs.
5Growth rate in business services per hour multiplied by business services’
share of current dollar costs.
6Output per unit of combined inputs.


Over the entire 1987-2006 period, multifactor productivity advanced most 
rapidly in the computer and electronic products industry (see table 3).  
This industry’s 9.6-percent average annual growth rate during this period
was 8.0 percentage points higher than the industry with the next highest 
growth rate, apparel, leather, and allied products.  In the 1995-2000 period,
multifactor productivity grew very rapidly in the computer and electronic 
products industry, 15.9 percent per year.  In the 2000-2006 period, the 
growth rate slowed to 6.7 percent.  Three industries experienced a decline 
in multifactor productivity over the 1987-2006 period: food, beverage, and 
tobacco products (-0.3 percent); chemical products (-0.1 percent); and 
electrical equipment, appliances, and components (-1.0 percent).


Summary of methods for the manufacturing sector and manufacturing industries

The manufacturing multifactor productivity measures describe the relationship
between output in real terms and the inputs involved in its production.  They
do not measure the specific contributions of labor, capital, or any other 
factor of production.  Rather, multifactor productivity is designed to measure 
the joint influences on economic growth of technological change, efficiency 
improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources due to shifts in 
factor inputs across industries, and other factors.  The multifactor 
productivity indexes are derived by dividing an output index by an index of 
the combined input of labor, capital services, energy, non-energy materials,
and business service inputs.  

The multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing differ in several ways
from those for private business and private nonfarm business in their 
treatment of labor input, output, and classes of factor inputs.  First, 
the manufacturing measure of labor input is a direct aggregate of hours.  
This is in contrast to the major sector measures for which estimates of the 
effects of changing labor composition have been developed. 

Next, the output concept used for multifactor productivity in manufacturing 
is “sectoral output.”  Sectoral output is similar to gross output, but 
excludes shipments from one establishment to another within the same 
manufacturing industry or sector.  In contrast, the output concept used for
private business and nonfarm business is “gross product originating” and is 
similar to “real value added”.  Gross product originating in private business 
equals gross domestic product in the economy less general government,
government enterprises, private households (including the rental value of 
owner-occupied real estate), and non-profit institutions.  Gross product
originating excludes intermediate transactions between businesses.

The output index for manufacturing is computed using a chained superlative 
index (Tornqvist) of three-digit NAICS industry outputs.   Industry output 
is measured as sectoral output, the total value of goods and services leaving
the industry. Wherever possible, the indexes of industry output are calculated
with a Tornqvist formula. This formula aggregates the growth rates of the 
various industry outputs between two periods, using their relative shares in 
industry value of production averaged over the two periods as weights.  
Industry output measures for manufacturing industries are constructed using
data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the 
Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with information on price
changes, primarily from BLS. 

 

The resulting manufacturing multifactor productivity measure compares what is
produced in the manufacturing sector with the inputs used to produce it.  The
comparison excludes flows of intermediate inputs between manufacturing 
establishments from measures of both output and inputs.  However, the 
comparison does include capital service inputs and capital goods produced, 
even when these goods are produced and consumed in manufacturing.    

Multifactor productivity in manufacturing compares "sectoral output" to 
three classes of inputs: 1) hours at work of labor employed within 
manufacturing; 2) capital services employed by manufacturing establishments;
and 3) purchases of energy, materials, and business services from outside 
of manufacturing (intermediates). 

Hours paid of production workers are obtained from the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) survey.  The hours of these employees are then converted 
to an at-work basis by using information from the Employment Cost Index 
(ECI) of the National Compensation Survey (NCS) and the Hours at Work 
Survey.  Hours at work for nonproduction workers are derived using data 
from the Current Population Survey (CPS), the CES, and the NCS.  The 
hours at work of proprietors are derived from the CPS.  Hours at work data
reflect Productivity and Costs data as of the March 5, 2008 news release.
Therefore, it reflects the benchmark revisions to the CES survey and other 
revisions to hours released on February 1, 2008.  The construction of hours 
at work follows the methods used in the private business sector described 
in USDL 08-0410, Multifactor Productivity Trends, 2006, 
http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/prod3.pdf, except that hours in 
manufacturing are directly aggregated and do not include the effects of 
changing labor composition. 

Capital input measures the services derived from the stock of physical 
assets and software.  The assets included are fixed business equipment, 
structures, inventories, and land.  Among equipment, BLS provides additional 
detail for information processing equipment and software (IPES). IPES is 
composed of four broad classes of assets: computers and related equipment, 
software, communications equipment, and other IPES equipment.  Computers and 
related equipment includes mainframe computers, personal computers, printers, 
terminals, tape drives, storage devices, and integrated systems.  Software
is comprised of pre-packaged, custom, and own-account software.  
Communications equipment is not further differentiated. “Other IPES" includes
medical equipment and related instruments, electromedical instruments, 
nonmedical instruments, photocopying and related equipment, and office and 
accounting machinery.  

The aggregate capital input measures are obtained by Tornqvist aggregation
of the capital stocks for each asset type within each of the eighteen 
manufacturing NAICS industry groupings using estimated rental prices for each
asset type.  Each rental price reflects the nominal rate of return to all 
assets within the industry and rates of economic depreciation and revaluation 
for the specific asset; rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. 
Data on investments in physical assets and software are obtained from BEA.  
Nonfarm industry detail for land is based on IRS book value data.  
Current-dollar gross product originating (GPO) data, obtained from BEA, are
used in estimating capital rental prices.


In manufacturing, intermediates are the largest input in terms of costs.  
Furthermore, research has shown that substitution among inputs, including 
intermediates, affects productivity change.  Therefore, it is important to 
include intermediates in productivity measures at the level of manufacturing.
In contrast, the more aggregate productivity measures compare "value-added" 
output with two classes of inputs, capital and labor.  Because of these 
differences in methods, productivity change in manufacturing cannot be 
directly compared with changes in private business or private nonfarm 
business.  

Intermediate inputs (energy, materials, and purchased business services) are 
obtained from BEA based on BEA annual input-output tables.  Tornqvist indexes
of each of these three input classes are derived at the 3-digit NAICS level 
and then aggregated to total manufacturing.  As with the sectoral output 
measures, materials inputs are adjusted to exclude transactions between 
establishments within the same sector.

The five input indexes (capital services, hours, energy, materials, and 
purchased business services) are combined using Tornqvist aggregation, 
employing weights that represent each component's share of total costs. 
Total costs are defined as the value of manufacturing sectoral output.  The
index uses changing weights: The share in each year is averaged with the 
preceding year's share.

Multifactor productivity data incorporate NAICS input-output tables and 
revised BEA chain-type price and quantity indexes for intermediate inputs 
(energy, materials, and business services).  See tables at 
http://www.bea.gov/Industry/Index.htm , Gross Domestic Product by Industry. 

BLS built multifactor productivity measures from three-digit NAICS detail.  
Most of the critical data used to calculate these measures were not reported
on a NAICS basis for years prior to 1998.  Detailed GDP by industry data were
available from 1998 forward. But from 1987 to1997, many of the income 
components needed to construct capital rental prices were obtained by applying
1997 SIC-to-NAICS conversion factors to SIC data and adjusting to the 
estimated NAICS totals.  A similar procedure was applied to manufacturing 
inventories, energy, materials, and business services.    Land data were only
available from 1998 to 2004 on a NAICS basis.  As a consequence, land 
estimates from 1987 to 1997 were calculated using a combination of SIC to
NAICS conversion factors and more detailed IRS data.  Data for 2005 and 2006
were extrapolated using detailed IRS data for 2004. 

Comprehensive tables containing additional data beyond the scope of this 
press release are available upon request at 202-691-5606 or at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm .  More detailed information on methods, 
limitations, and data sources of capital and labor are provided in BLS 
Bulletin 2178 (September 1983), Trends in Multifactor Productivity, 1948-81.  
Methods for measuring manufacturing multifactor productivity are discussed in 
"Measurement of productivity growth in U.S. manufacturing” in the July 1995
issue of the Monthly Labor Review.  See http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprgul95.pdf. 
More detailed data can be obtained from our web site at http://www.bls.gov/mfp
or by request at 202-691-5606.


Table 1.  Manufacturing Sector: Productivity and related measures, 1988-2006			
										
Percent change from previous year									
      
      Productivity	 	           Inputs
	
      Output  Output                                           Purc-    Comb-  
      per     per     Multi-   Sect-	   Cap-	 	       hased    ined
      hour    unit    factor   oral        ital                busi-    units 
      of all  of      Product- out-	   Serv-        Mater- ness     of all    
Year  persons capital ivity1   put  Hours2 ices  Energy ials   services inputs3  
										

1988    2.1    3.4     1.7     5.2   3.0    1.7    4.0    1.4    8.9     3.4
1989    1.0   -0.6    -0.5     1.6   0.6    2.2   -0.2    1.9    6.0     2.2
1990    2.2   -3.0    -0.7    -0.3  -2.5    2.8    2.1    1.4    1.8     0.4
1991    2.6   -4.0    -0.3    -1.7  -4.2    2.4   -0.3   -0.6   -0.7    -1.4
1992    3.8    0.8    -0.6     3.3  -0.5    2.4   -0.9    8.6    7.1     3.9
1993    2.5    1.3     2.7     3.9   1.3    2.5    3.2    0.9    0.2     1.2
1994    3.5    3.1     2.7     6.0   2.4    2.8    3.1    3.9    3.7     3.1
1995    4.5    1.5     1.8     5.3   0.7    3.7    3.0    5.3    4.9     3.4
1996    3.6   -0.7     0.5     3.4  -0.2    4.1   -2.9    9.0   -0.4     2.9
1997    5.5    2.6     2.8     7.4   1.7    4.6   -1.9    8.0    4.1     4.4
1998    5.4    0.1     2.3     5.2  -0.2    5.0   -2.6    5.2    3.2     2.9
1999    4.5   -0.3     0.8     3.8  -0.7    4.1    0.1    5.0    5.3     3.0
2000    4.0   -0.4     3.5     2.7  -1.3    3.1   -5.2   -2.6    0.0    -0.7
2001    1.6   -6.5    -1.3    -5.1  -6.5    1.5   -9.4   -6.7    0.7    -3.8
2002    6.9   -1.2     3.7    -0.7  -7.1    0.6   -1.5   -5.3   -2.5    -4.2
2003    6.2    1.0     2.8     1.0  -4.9    0.0   -5.5   -0.8    0.9    -1.8
2004    2.3    2.3     2.6     1.7  -0.5   -0.6   -0.5   -0.4   -2.1    -0.9
2005    4.8    3.7     0.4     3.7  -1.1    0.0    9.1    5.9    7.8     3.3
2006	1.2    1.3     1.6     1.8   0.6    0.5	  -5.5	 -1.0	 2.0	 0.3

1. Sectoral output per unit of combined inputs.                                                                                                                               
2. Hours at work of all persons.  
3. Combined units of capital services, hours, energy, non-energy materials,
   and purchased business services, superlative chain index.
   
Source: Output data are from the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of 
        Commerce, and modified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS),
        U.S. Department of Labor.  Compensation and hours data are from BLS.
        Capital measures are based on data supplied by BEA.  See also
        Summary of Methods in this release.


Table 2.  Manufacturing Sector: Productivity and related measures, 1987-2006			
										
Indexes (2000=100)									
      
      Productivity	 	           Inputs
	
      Output  Output                                           Purc-    Comb-  
      per     per     Multi-   Sect-	   Cap-	 	       hased    ined
      hour    unit    factor   oral        ital                busi-    units 
      of all  of      Product- out-	   Serv-        Mater- ness     of all    
Year  persons capital ivity1   put  Hours2 ices4 Energy ials   services inputs3  
										
1987   64.1    96.4    85.0    64.1 100.0   66.5   99.1  63.2   65.2     75.4
1988   65.4    99.7    86.4    67.4 103.1   67.6  103.1  64.1   71.0     78.0
1989   66.1    99.1    86.0    68.5 103.7   69.2  102.9  65.3   75.2     79.7
1990   67.5    96.1    85.4    68.3 101.1   71.1  105.1  66.2   76.6     80.0
1991   69.3    92.2    85.1    67.1  96.9   72.8  104.7  65.8   76.0     78.9
1992   71.9    93.0    84.6    69.3  96.4   74.5  103.7  71.5   81.5     82.0
1993   73.8    94.3    86.8    72.0  97.7   76.4  107.1  72.1   81.6     83.0
1994   76.4    97.2    89.2    76.3 100.0   78.5  110.4  74.9   84.7     85.6
1995   79.8    98.7    90.8    80.3 100.6   81.4  113.7  78.9   88.8     88.5
1996   82.7    98.0    91.2    83.1 100.4   84.8  110.4  86.0   88.5     91.1
1997   87.3   100.6    93.8    89.2 102.2   88.7  108.2  92.9   92.1     95.1
1998   92.0   100.7    95.9    93.8 101.9   93.2  105.4  97.7   95.0     97.8
1999   96.1   100.4    96.7    97.4 101.3   97.0  105.5 102.6  100.0    100.7
2000  100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0 100.0  100.0  100.0 100.0  100.0    100.0
2001  101.6    93.5    98.7    94.9  93.5  101.5   90.6  93.3  100.7     96.2
2002  108.6    92.3   102.4    94.3  86.8  102.1   89.3  88.4   98.2     92.1
2003  115.3    93.2   105.2    95.2  82.6  102.1   84.4  87.7   99.1     90.5
2004  117.9    95.4   108.0    96.9  82.2  101.6   84.0  87.3   97.0     89.7
2005  123.5    98.9   108.4   100.4  81.3  101.5   91.6  92.4  104.5     92.7
2006  125.0   100.2   110.1   102.3  81.8  102.0   86.6	 91.5  106.6	 92.9

1. Sectoral output per unit of combined inputs.                                                                                                                               
2. Hours at work of all persons.  
3. Combined units of capital services, hours, energy, non-energy materials,
   and purchased business services, superlative chain index.
   
Source: Output data are from the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of 
        Commerce, and modified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS),
        U.S. Department of Labor.  Compensation and hours data are from BLS.
        Capital measures are based on data supplied by BEA.  See also
        Summary of Methods in this release.



Table 3.  Compound average annual rates of growth in the multifactor             
productivity measures for manufacturing industries in selected periods,
1987-2006

Average annual percent


Industry           1987-   1987-   1990-   1995-   2000-   2005- 
                   2006    1990    1995    2000    2006    2006  

								
Manufacturing 	      1.4    0.2    1.2     2.0     1.6	    1.6	 
								 
Nondurable            0.2   -0.6    0.7    -0.3     0.6	   -0.2  
  manufacturing         
Food, beverage,	     -0.3   -1.7    1.5    -1.9     0.3	   -0.5	 
  and tobacco  
  products							
Textile mills  	      0.9    1.0    0.7     1.3     0.8    -2.6	 
  and textile 
  product mills 						
Apparel, leather,     1.6    0.1    2.8     0.6	    2.0     2.1 
  and allied
  products							
								
Paper products	      0.3   -0.4   -0.1     0.1     1.1    -1.2	 
Printing and          0.4    0.6   -0.3     0.3     1.1	    0.6	 
  related support 
  activities	          
Petroleum and coal    0.0   -0.1    0.6     0.2	   -0.6     0.7	 
  products	 
Chemical products    -0.1   -1.0   -0.8	    0.0	    1.0	    0.4	 
Plastics and rubber   0.7    0.7    0.6	    1.2	    0.4    -1.9	 
  products  	 
								
Durable manufacturing 2.3    0.9    1.6     3.6     2.4     3.2	 
Wood products 	      0.3    1.0   -1.2     0.1	    1.2     3.0	 
Nonmetallic mineral   0.5    0.3    1.0     0.8    -0.1	   -3.1	 
  products 	  
Primary metals        0.7    1.1    0.1     0.5     1.1    -0.5	 
Fabricated metal      0.5   -0.1    1.0     0.1     0.7	    1.8	 
  products 	 
Machinery 	      0.0    1.0   -1.7    -0.7     1.7     2.0	 
								
Computer and          9.6    5.6    9.6    15.9	    6.7     7.6	 
  electronic 
  products	 
Electrical           -1.0   -2.2   -2.0    -1.1	    0.7	   -0.7	 
  equipment,
  appliances,	
  and components						
Transportation        0.4   -1.7   -0.3     0.3     2.0     4.0	 
  equipment 	
Furniture and         0.3   -0.8    0.7     0.4     0.3     1.1	 
  related products 	 
Miscellaneous         1.4    2.4    0.3     1.7	    1.6	    0.7	 
  manufacturing   	 


Note: Multifactor productivity measures by industry do not sum up to aggregate
      manufacturing measures because industry measures excluded transactions
      only within the specific industry while the aggregate manufacturing
      measures also exclude transactions between all manufacturing industries.
      

Last Modified Date: May 01, 2008
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