Economic News Release

Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing News Release

For release 10:00 a.m.  (EDT) Tuesday, June 26, 2012	USDL-12-1288
Technical information:	(202) 691-5606 •  mfpweb@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/mfp
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov


MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING - 2010


Manufacturing sector multifactor productivity increased at an annual rate of
7.5 percent in 2010, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
This was the largest increase recorded in the series, which began in 1987. 
(See chart 1, table A.) The multifactor productivity gain in 2010 reflected 
a 6.4 percent increase in output and a 1.1 percent decrease in combined 
inputs. 

Multifactor productivity measures the change in output per unit of combined 
inputs. Multifactor productivity in manufacturing is designed to measure the
joint influences on economic growth of technological change, efficiency 
improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources, and other factors,
allowing for the effects of capital, labor and intermediate inputs 
(energy, materials, purchased business services). Multifactor productivity 
measures differ from labor productivity (output per hour worked) measures 
that are published quarterly by BLS because multifactor productivity measures
include information on capital services and intermediate inputs. Also, data 
needed to construct multifactor productivity are not available on a quarterly
basis.

Durable manufacturing sector multifactor productivity increased 12.7 percent 
in 2010, following a decline of 4.7 percent in 2009. This was the largest
increase recorded in the series, which began in 1987.  Nondurable
manufacturing sector multifactor productivity increased 2.7 percent in
2010, following a 0.9 percent decrease in 2009.  The gain in 2010 was 
the largest increase since 2003. (See table C, table 3.)

Historical trends in manufacturing

Multifactor productivity in manufacturing grew 1.5 percent annually from 
1987 to 2010 as sectoral output increased at a faster rate, 1.7 percent, 
than combined inputs, 0.2 percent. During the same period, output per hour
(labor productivity) increased 3.4 percent. (See table A.) Of the 3.4 
percent growth rate in labor productivity, multifactor productivity added 
1.5 percent, capital intensity contributed 0.6 percent, materials intensity
added 0.8 percent, and purchased business services intensity added a 0.5 
percent increase. The contribution of energy intensity was unchanged. 
(See table B.)

For the 2007-2010 period, multifactor productivity rose at an annual rate of
1.3 percent compared to a 2.0 percent annual growth rate in the 2000-2007 
period. The multifactor productivity average annual growth rate in 2007-2010
would have been significantly lower had it not been buoyed by the sharp 
increase of 7.5 percent in 2010.

In 2010, the number of manufacturing industries that exhibited increasing 
multifactor productivity, output, and combined inputs grew from the previous
year.  Fourteen out of eighteen manufacturing industries exhibited increases
in multifactor productivity, fifteen showed increasing output, and seven 
showed increasing combined inputs. (See chart 2.)  Only four manufacturing 
industries exhibited a decrease in multifactor productivity in 2010: textile
mills and textile product mills, paper products, primary metals, and 
electrical equipment, appliances, and components. (See table 3.)
 
Revised measures

Previous and revised productivity measures and related data for 2008 and 2009
for the manufacturing, durable manufacturing, and nondurable manufacturing 
sectors are displayed in table C.  In 2009, multifactor productivity in 
manufacturing was revised to a decline of 2.8 percent compared to a decline 
of 5.7 percent as previously reported.  In the nondurable manufacturing 
sector, multifactor productivity fell 0.9 percent compared to the previously
reported decline of 3.1 percent.  Multifactor productivity in the durable 
manufacturing sector was revised to a decline of 4.7 percent instead of a 
decline of 8.0 percent.  The upward revision of multifactor productivity in 
all three sectors was largely the result of a downward revision in the growth
of combined inputs in all three sectors.  The revisions in both years were due
to the annual revision of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) 
released on December 13, 2011.

Table A.  Compound annual growth rates for productivity, sectoral output, and 
inputs in the manufacturing sector for selected periods, 1987-2010

In percent						
 	                1987- 1987- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2007- 2009-
			2010  1990  1995  2000  2007  2010  2010
Productivity						
   Multifactor 
   productivity1	 1.5   0.3   1.2   1.8   2.0   1.3   7.5
   Output per hour  
   of all persons	 3.4   1.8   3.4   4.8   3.9   1.9   6.5
   Output per unit 
   of capital services	-0.2  -0.1   0.7   0.8   0.3  -4.7   6.7
   						
Sectoral Output	         1.7   2.1   3.3   4.6   0.7  -4.0   6.4

Inputs
						
   Combined inputs2	 0.2   1.9   2.1   2.8  -1.3  -5.3  -1.1
      Labor hours3      -1.7   0.4  -0.1  -0.1  -3.1  -5.8  -0.1
      Capital services   1.9   2.3   2.6   3.8   0.4   0.7  -0.3
      Energy	        -0.4   1.9   1.7   5.9  -3.9  -7.7   2.9
      Materials          0.9   1.6   3.7   5.9  -1.1  -7.4  -3.7
      Purchased business  
      services	         0.9   5.3   3.2   1.3   0.2  -6.2   0.4
						
1Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, 
and purchased business services.
2The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar 
costs.
3Hours at work of all persons. 

Table B.  Compound annual growth rates in output per hour of all persons and
contributions of capital intensity, intermediate inputs intensity, and 
multifactor productivity in the manufacturing sector for selected periods, 
1987-2010

In percent						
	                    1987- 1987- 1990- 1995- 2000- 2007- 2009-
			    2010  1990  1995  2000  2007  2010  2010
Manufacturing						
						
Output per hour 
of all persons	             3.4   1.8   3.4   4.8   3.9   1.9   6.5
						
Contribution of 
capital intensity1	     0.6   0.3   0.4   0.7   0.6   1.3  -0.1
						
      Contribution of 
      information 
      processing
      equipment 
      and software2	     0.2   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.1   0.3   0.0
						
      Contribution
      of all
      other capital
      services               0.4   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.5   1.0  -0.1

Contribution of 
intermediate inputs3	     1.3   1.2   1.8   2.2   1.2  -0.7  -0.9

      Contribution 
      of energy      
      intensity4	     0.0   0.0   0.0   0.2   0.0  -0.1   0.1
						
      Contribution 
      of materials    
      intensity5	     0.8   0.4   1.1   1.8   0.6  -0.5  -1.1
						
      Contribution 
      of purchased   
      business 
      services 
      intensity6	     0.5   0.8   0.6   0.3   0.6  -0.1   0.1
						
Multifactor 
productivity7	             1.5   0.3   1.2   1.8   2.0   1.3   7.5
						
1Capital services per hour multiplied by capital's share of current dollar
costs.
2Information processing equipment and software per hour multiplied by its  
share of total current dollar costs.
3Intermediate inputs per hour multiplied by intermediate inputs share of
current dollar costs.
4Energy per hour multiplied by energy’s share of current dollar costs.
5Materials per hour multiplied by materials’ share of current dollar costs.
6Purchased business services per hour multiplied by purchased business’
services' share of current dollar costs.
7Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials,  
and purchased business services.

Table C.  Previous and revised productivity and related measures for the 
2008-2009 and 2007-2008 periods
                                                  Inputs
                                                                       Purc-
                       Multi-   Sect- Com-         Cap-	 	       hased 
                       factor   oral  bined        ital                busi- 
                       Product- out-  In-          Serv-        Mater- ness
Sector                 ivity1   put   puts2 Hours3 ices  Energy ials   services
Annual percent change, 
2008-2009
Manufacturing								
Previous	         -5.7 -12.5   -7.2  -12.6   1.2  -11.4	 -8.0	-5.3
Revised	                 -2.8 -12.9  -10.4  -13.0   0.1	 -24.1	-13.1   -9.1
Durable manufacturing							
Previous	         -8.0 -19.3  -12.3  -15.1   1.5	 -22.3	-17.3	-9.8
Revised	                 -4.7 -20.3  -16.3  -15.4  -0.1	 -28.0	-26.8  -13.4
Nondurable manufacturing						
Previous	         -3.1  -6.6   -3.6   -8.3   1.1	  -4.4	 -4.8    0.4
Revised	                 -0.9  -6.4   -5.6   -8.6   0.2	 -21.4	 -6.6	-2.4
								
Annual percent change, 
2007-2008
Manufacturing								
Previous                 -0.1  -4.4   -4.3   -4.0   2.8	   3.9	 -5.0  -11.9
Revised	                 -0.4  -4.5   -4.1   -4.0   2.4	   0.7	 -5.1	-9.6
Durable manufacturing		 				
Previous                  2.2  -5.7   -7.7   -4.2   1.7	   0.4	-12.6  -14.3
Revised	                  0.6  -5.8   -6.3   -4.2   1.3	  -1.8	-11.1	-9.0
Nondurable manufacturing						
Previous   	         -2.2  -3.5   -1.3   -3.7   3.6	   6.3	 -0.9	-8.7
Revised	                 -1.3  -3.6   -2.3   -3.6   3.2	   2.4	 -2.1  -10.6
								
1Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and 
purchased business services.
2The growth rate of each input is weighted by its share of current dollar costs.
3Hours at work of all persons.

Technical Notes

Capital Services 

Capital services are the services derived from the stock of physical assets
and software. There are 86 asset types for fixed business equipment and 
software, structures, inventories, and land. The aggregate capital services 
measures are obtained by Tornqvist aggregation of the capital stocks for 
each asset type within each of the eighteen manufacturing NAICS industry 
groupings using estimated rental prices for each asset type. Each rental 
price reflects the nominal rate of return to all assets within the industry 
and rates of economic depreciation and revaluation for the specific asset; 
rental prices are adjusted for the effects of taxes. Data on investments in 
physical assets and software are obtained from Bureau of Economic Analysis 
(BEA). Nonfarm industry detail for land is based on IRS book value data.  

Labor Hours 

The construction of the hours measures follows the methodology described in 
USDL 12-0494, Multifactor Productivity Trends, 2010, 
http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/prod3_03212012.pdf. Hours in 
manufacturing are directly aggregated and do not include the effects of 
labor composition. Hours data for the manufacturing multifactor productivity
measures include hours for all persons working in the manufacturing sector – 
wage and salary workers, the self-employed and unpaid family workers. The 
primary source of hours data is the BLS Current Employment Statistics (CES) 
survey. Hours paid of production workers are also obtained primarily from 
the CES survey. The hours of these employees are then converted to an at-work 
basis by using information from the Employment Cost Index (ECI) of the 
National Compensation Survey (NCS) and the BLS Hours at Work Survey. Hours
at work for nonproduction workers are derived using data from the 
Current Population Survey (CPS), the CES, and the NCS. The hours at work 
of proprietors are derived from the CPS.  

Hours at work data are based on underlying hours data published in the 
February 2, 2012, USDL-12-0162, Productivity and Costs, 
http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/prod2_02022012.pdf. Therefore, the 
data do not reflect the benchmark revisions to the CES and other revisions 
to hours released on March 7, 2012. 

Intermediate Inputs 

In manufacturing, intermediate inputs consist of energy, materials, and 
purchased business services, and represent a large share of production 
costs. Research has shown that substitution among inputs, including 
intermediate inputs, affects productivity change. Therefore, it is 
important to account for intermediate inputs in productivity measures at 
the level of manufacturing. In contrast, the more aggregate productivity
measures compare "value-added" output with two classes of inputs, capital
and labor. Because of these differences in concepts and methodology, 
productivity change in manufacturing cannot be directly compared with 
changes in private business or private nonfarm business.  

Data on intermediate inputs are obtained from BEA based on BEA annual 
input-output tables. Tornqvist indexes of each of these three input 
classes are derived at the 3-digit NAICS level and then aggregated to 
total manufacturing. Materials inputs are adjusted to exclude 
transactions between establishments within the same sector.


Combined Inputs 

The five input indexes (capital services, hours, energy, materials, and
purchased business services) are combined using chained superlative 
Tornqvist aggregation, employing weights that represent each component's
share of total costs. Total costs are defined as the current dollar value
of manufacturing sectoral output.  

Capital Intensity 
Capital intensity is the ratio of capital services to hours worked in the
production process. The higher the capital to hours ratio, the more capital
intensive the production process is. 

In a production process, profit maximizing/cost-minimizing firms adjust the
factor proportions of capital and labor if the price of one factor falls 
relative to the price of the other factor; there would be a tendency for the
firms to substitute the less expensive factor for the more expensive one. In 
the short run, changes in hours worked are more variable than changes in
capital services. Changes in hours worked in business cycles can result in
volatility of the capital intensity ratio over short periods of time. In 
the long run an increase in wages relative to the price of capital will 
induce the firm to substitute capital for labor, resulting in an increase 
in capital intensity. 

Sectoral Output 

The output concept used for multifactor productivity in manufacturing is
“sectoral output”. Sectoral output equals gross output (sales, receipts, 
and other operating income, plus commodity taxes plus changes in inventories),
excluding transactions between establishments within the same sector. 
In contrast, the output concept used for private business and private
nonfarm business is “real value added”. Real value added output in private
business equals gross domestic product less general government, government 
enterprises, private households (including the rental value of owner-occupied
real estate), and non-profit institutions. Real value added output excludes 
intermediate transactions between businesses.

The output index for manufacturing is computed using a chained superlative 
index (Tornqvist) of three-digit NAICS industry outputs. Industry output is 
measured as sectoral output, the total value of goods and services leaving 
the industry. Wherever possible, the indexes of industry output are 
calculated with a Tornqvist formula. This formula aggregates the growth 
rates of the various industry outputs between two periods, using their 
relative shares in industry value of production averaged over the two periods
as weights. BLS industry output measures for manufacturing industries are 
constructed using data from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the
Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, together with information
on price changes, primarily from BLS. 

Multifactor Productivity 

The manufacturing multifactor productivity measures describe the relationship
between output in real terms and the inputs involved in its production. 
Manufacturing multifactor productivity measures exclude intermediate inputs
between manufacturing establishments from both output and inputs.
Multifactor productivity measures do not account for the specific 
contributions of labor, capital, or intermediate inputs. Rather, they are
designed to measure the joint influences on economic growth of technological
change, efficiency improvements, returns to scale, reallocation of resources
due to shifts in factor inputs across industries, and other factors. The 
multifactor productivity indexes are derived by dividing an output index by
an index of the combined inputs of labor hours, capital services, energy,
non-energy materials, and purchased business services.  

Other information 

Comprehensive tables containing more detailed data than that which is 
published in this press release are available upon request at 202-691-5606 
or at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprdload.htm. More detailed information on 
methods, limitations, and data sources of capital and labor are provided 
in BLS Bulletin 2178 (September 1983), Trends in Multifactor Productivity,
1948-81 and on the BLS Multifactor Productivity website under the title 
“Technical Information About the BLS Multifactor Productivity Measures”
for Major Sectors and 18 NAICS 3-digit Manufacturing Industries at 
http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprtech.pdf. Methods for measuring manufacturing 
multifactor productivity are discussed in "Measurement of productivity 
growth in U.S. manufacturing” in the July 1995 issue of the Monthly Labor
Review. See http://www.bls.gov/mfp/mprgul95.pdf.  

Table 1. Manufacturing sector: productivity and related measures for the 
         1987-2010 period 			
										
Annual percent change from previous year							
      
      Productivity	 	          Inputs
      Output  Output  Multi-                                  Purc-    Comb-  
      per     per     factor Sect-	  Cap-	              hased    ined
      hour    unit    Prod-  oral         ital                busi-    units 
      of all  of      uctiv  out-	  Serv-  Ene-  Mater- ness     of all    
Year  persons capital ity1   put   Hours2 ices   rgy   ials   services inputs3  
1988   2.1     3.3     2.0   5.2    3.0    1.8   4.1    1.0     8.7      3.1
1989   1.0    -0.7    -0.5   1.6    0.6    2.4  -0.3    2.1     5.8      2.1
1990   2.2    -3.0    -0.7  -0.3   -2.5    2.7   1.9    1.7     1.5      0.4
1991   2.6    -3.9    -0.4  -1.7   -4.2    2.3  -0.3   -0.5    -0.8     -1.3
1992   3.8     1.0    -0.6   3.3   -0.5    2.2  -1.0    8.6     7.5      4.0
1993   2.6     1.5     2.6   3.9    1.3    2.4   3.4    0.8     0.8      1.3
1994   3.5     3.3     2.6   5.9    2.3    2.5   3.6    4.3     3.9      3.3
1995   4.5     1.7     1.8   5.2    0.7    3.5   2.9    5.4     4.9      3.4
1996   3.6    -0.6     0.3   3.4   -0.2    4.1  -2.7    9.0    -0.3      3.1
1997   5.4     2.8     2.7   7.3    1.8    4.5  -2.0    8.0     4.1      4.5
1998   5.5     0.7     1.3   5.2   -0.3    4.5   3.8    8.4     3.4      3.9
1999   4.8     0.6     1.2   4.1   -0.7    3.5  23.3    6.2     0.9      2.9
2000   4.4     0.5     3.6   3.0   -1.3    2.5   9.1   -1.9    -1.4     -0.6
2001   1.8    -5.8    -1.0  -4.8   -6.5    1.0   9.2   -6.4    -1.7     -3.8
2002   7.2    -0.6     3.3  -0.4   -7.1    0.2 -22.6    1.0    -3.2     -3.6
2003   6.2     1.3     3.7   1.0   -4.9   -0.3 -10.2   -1.6    -0.8     -2.5
2004   2.3     2.5     3.7   1.7   -0.5   -0.8  -6.3   -0.8    -6.3     -1.9
2005   4.7     3.2     1.5   3.6   -1.1    0.4  10.3    1.6     8.3      2.0
2006   1.0     0.9     2.3   1.7    0.7    0.7  -4.2   -1.1    -2.7     -0.7
2007   3.9     0.7     0.8   2.1   -1.6    1.4   0.6   -0.1     8.6      1.3
2008  -0.5    -6.8    -0.4  -4.5   -4.0    2.4   0.7   -5.1    -9.6     -4.1
2009   0.0   -13.0    -2.8 -12.9  -13.0    0.1 -24.1  -13.1    -9.1    -10.4
2010   6.5     6.7     7.5   6.4   -0.1   -0.3   2.9   -3.7     0.4     -1.1

1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, 
   and purchased business services.
2. Hours at work of all persons.
3. Combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and 
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.

Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures
         using output data published by the Bureau ofthe Census, U.S. 
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours 
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied 
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in 
         this release.

Table 2.Manufacturing sector: indexes of productivity and related 
        measures, 1987-2010 			
										
Indexes 2005=100									
      
      Productivity	 	           Inputs
	
      Output  Output  Multi-                                 Purc-    Comb-  
      per     per     factor Sect-	   Cap-	             hased    ined
      hour    unit    Prod-  oral          ital              busi-    units 
      of all  of      uctiv  out-	   Serv- Ene- Mater- ness     of all    
Year  persons capital ity1   put   Hours2  ices  rgy  ials   services inputs3  
										
1987  51.2    92.8    76.6   63.1  123.2   67.9  83.4  63.9   71.5     82.3
1988  52.3    95.9    78.2   66.3  126.9   69.1  86.8  64.5   77.8     84.8
1989  52.8    95.2    77.8   67.4  127.7   70.8  86.5  65.8   82.3     86.6
1990  54.0    92.4    77.2   67.2  124.5   72.7  88.1  66.9   83.5     87.0
1991  55.4    88.8    76.9   66.0  119.3   74.3  87.9  66.6   82.9     85.8
1992  57.5    89.7    76.4   68.2  118.7   76.0  87.0  72.4   89.0     89.2
1993  58.9    91.1    78.4   70.9  120.3   77.8  89.9  72.9   89.7     90.4
1994  61.0    94.1    80.4   75.1  123.1   79.8  93.2  76.1   93.2     93.3
1995  63.8    95.7    81.9   79.0  123.9   82.6  95.8  80.2   97.8     96.5
1996  66.1    95.1    82.1   81.7  123.6   85.9  93.3  87.4   97.4     99.6
1997  69.7    97.7    84.3   87.7  125.8   89.8  91.4  94.4  101.5    104.0
1998  73.5    98.4    85.4   92.3  125.5   93.8  94.9 102.4  104.9    108.1
1999  77.1    99.0    86.4   96.1  124.7   97.1 117.0 108.7  105.9    111.2
2000  80.5    99.5    89.5   99.0  123.1   99.5 127.6 106.6  104.4    110.6
2001  81.9    93.8    88.6   94.2  115.0  100.5 139.4  99.8  102.6    106.3
2002  87.9    93.3    91.6   93.9  106.9  100.7 107.8 100.8   99.3    102.6
2003  93.3    94.5    94.9   94.9  101.6  100.4  96.8  99.2   98.5     99.9
2004  95.5    96.9    98.5   96.5  101.1   99.6  90.7  98.4   92.4     98.0
2005 100.0   100.0   100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0 100.0 100.0  100.0    100.0
2006 101.0   100.9   102.3  101.7  100.7  100.7  95.8  98.9   97.3     99.3
2007 104.9   101.7   103.2  103.8   99.0  102.1  96.4  98.8  105.7    100.6
2008 104.3    94.8   102.7   99.1   95.1  104.6  97.1  93.7   95.6     96.5
2009 104.3    82.5    99.8   86.3   82.7  104.7  73.7  81.5   86.8     86.5
2010 111.1    88.0   107.4   91.9   82.7  104.4  75.9  78.5   87.2     85.6

1. Output per combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, 
   and purchased business services.
2. Hours at work of all persons.
3. Combined units of hours, capital services, energy, materials, and 
   purchased business services, chained superlative index.

Source:  The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) develops productivity measures
         using output data published by the Bureau of the Census, U.S. 
         Department of Commerce, and modified by BLS. Compensation and hours 
         data are from the BLS. Capital measures are based on data supplied 
         by the BEA, U.S. Department of Commerce. See also Technical Notes in 
         this release.

Table 3. Multifactor productivity measures for manufacturing industries
in selected periods, 1987-2010

Compound annual growth rates 


                        1987-  1987-  1990-   1995-  2000-  2007-  2009- 
                        2010   1990   1995    2000   2007   2010   2010  

								
Manufacturing 	         1.5    0.3    1.2     1.8    2.0    1.3    7.5
							
Nondurable 
  manufacturing	         0.4   -0.5    0.7    -0.2    1.0    0.2    2.7
Food, beverage, 
  and tobacco products  -0.2   -1.6    1.4    -1.7    0.7   -0.8    0.3
Textile mills and
  textile product mills  0.9    1.1    0.7     1.5    1.6   -1.7   -4.0
Apparel, leather,
  and allied products    2.4    0.0    2.9     0.6    4.2    2.6    5.9
Paper products	         0.1   -0.2   -0.2     0.5    0.7   -1.2   -2.2
Printing and related
  support activities     0.4    1.0   -0.2    -0.5    1.3    0.0    1.1
Petroleum and coal 
  products	         0.9    0.8    0.8     1.0    0.4    2.3    6.6
Chemical products        0.1   -1.0   -0.7    -0.5    1.9   -0.9    1.9
Plastics and 
  rubber products        0.8    0.8    0.5     1.2    0.6    1.5    3.5
							
							
Durable manufacturing    2.3    0.9    1.5     3.3    2.8    2.6   12.7
Wood products 	         0.5    1.0   -1.3    -0.3    1.0    3.6    9.7
Nonmetallic 
  mineral products       0.0    0.2    0.8     0.1   -0.7   -0.1    4.7
Primary metals           0.3    1.0    0.0     0.3   -0.4    1.7   -1.7
Fabricated metal
  products 	         0.4   -0.1    1.0    -0.2    0.6    0.1    9.9
Machinery 	         0.3    1.0   -1.9    -1.1    1.6    2.9   14.8
Computer and 
  electronic products   10.4    5.5    9.3    14.4    9.9   11.7   24.3
Electrical equipment,
  appliances, and 
  components	        -1.2   -2.4   -2.4    -2.6    1.4   -1.6   -7.8
Transportation
  equipment 	         0.2   -1.6   -0.5     0.5    1.7   -0.9   12.6
Furniture and 
  related products       0.4   -0.7    0.6     0.6    1.1   -0.9   12.0
Miscellaneous                                            
  manufacturing          2.0    2.7   -0.1     2.4    2.0    4.1    8.7


Note: Multifactor productivity measures by industry do not sum up to aggregate 
      manufacturing measures because industry measures exclude transactions
      only within the specific industry while the aggregate manufacturing 
      measures also exclude transactions between all manufacturing industries.

Last Modified Date: June 26, 2012
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