Economic News Release

Regional and State Unemployment (Annual) News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6392     USDL 09-0186
               http://www.bls.gov/lau/
                                           For release:  10:00 A.M. (EST)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902     Friday, February 27, 2009
                                   
                                   
         REGIONAL AND STATE UNEMPLOYMENT, 2008 ANNUAL AVERAGES

   Annual average unemployment rates rose in 2008 in all 4 regions and
in 46 states and the District of Columbia, declined in 1 state, and
were unchanged in 3 states, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S.
Department of Labor reported today.  Employment-population ratios
decreased in all 4 regions and in 45 states and the District of
Columbia, increased in 3 states, and were unchanged in 2 states.  The
U.S. jobless rate climbed by 1.2 percentage points over the year to
5.8 percent, while the national employment-population ratio fell by
0.8 point to 62.2 percent.  Most of the deterioration in the labor
market occurred late in the year.

Regional Unemployment

   All four regions posted statistically significant unemployment rate
increases from 2007:  the West (+1.5 percentage points), South (+1.2
points), and Midwest and Northeast (+1.0 point each).  In 2008, the West 
and Midwest registered jobless rates, 6.2 and 6.1 percent, respectively, 
that were significantly higher than the U.S. rate (5.8 percent), while
the Northeast and South both had rates that were significantly below it, 
5.4 and 5.5 percent, respectively.  (See table 1.)

   All nine geographic divisions reported statistically significant
over-the-year unemployment rate increases in 2008:  the Pacific (+1.6
percentage points), South Atlantic (+1.5 points), Mountain (+1.3
points), East South Central (+1.2 points), East North Central (+1.1
points), Middle Atlantic (+1.0 point), New England (+0.9 point), West
North Central (+0.6 point), and West South Central (+0.5 point).  The
Pacific registered the highest unemployment rate in 2008, 6.8 percent,
followed by the East North Central at 6.6 percent.  The divisions
with the lowest jobless rates in 2008 were the West South Central at
4.8 percent, and West North Central at 4.9 percent.  Five divisions
reported jobless rates that were significantly below the national rate
of 5.8 percent in 2008:  the Middle Atlantic, Mountain, New England,
West North Central, and West South Central.  Two divisions--the East
North Central and Pacific--recorded rates that were significantly
higher than the U.S. rate.

State Unemployment

   In 2008, 39 states and the District of Columbia posted statistically 
significant unemployment rate increases, while the remaining 11 states 
recorded unemployment rates that were not appreciably different from 
the previous year, even though some had changes that were at least as 
large numerically as the significant changes.  Rhode Island had the larg-
est jump in its jobless rate (+2.6 percentage points).  Florida and 
Nevada reported the next largest rate increases (+2.1 and +2.0 percent-
age points, respectively).  Twenty-one additional states and the 
District of Columbia recorded increases in their unemployment rates 
of at least 1.0 percentage point.  The remaining 15 states with signi-
ficant rate changes experienced increases ranging from +0.4 to +0.9 
percentage point.  (See table A.)


                               - 2 -


   Michigan reported the highest unemployment rate, 8.4 percent in
2008, followed by Rhode Island and California, 7.8 and 7.2 percent, 
respectively.  The District of Columbia recorded an unemployment 
rate of 7.0 percent in 2008.  South Dakota posted the lowest job-
less rate among the states, 3.0 percent, followed closely by Wyoming 
at 3.1 percent, and North Dakota at 3.2 percent.  Twenty-six states 
had unemployment rates that were significantly lower than the U.S. 
rate of 5.8 percent, and 14 states and the District of Columbia re-
corded rates significantly above it.  (See table B.)

Regional Employment-Population Ratios

   In 2008, all four regions registered statistically significant de-
clines in their employment-population ratios--the proportion of the
civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over with a job.
The Midwest experienced the largest over-the-year decrease in its em-
ployment-population ratio (-1.1 percentage points), followed by the
South (-0.9 point), West (-0.8 point), and Northeast (-0.4 point).
Despite the large decline in its employment-population ratio, the Mid-
west continued to report the highest proportion of employed persons, 
63.8 percent, while the South, at 61.1 percent, and Northeast, at 61.8 
percent, recorded the lowest proportions in 2008.  The West posted an 
employment-population ratio of 62.6 percent.  The Midwest and West 
both had ratios that were significantly higher than the national fig-
ure of 62.2 percent, and the South had an appreciably lower ratio.  
(See table 2.)

   Seven of the 9 divisions registered statistically significant de-
creases in their employment-population ratios in 2008.  The East
North Central and East South Central reported the greatest declines 
(-1.2 percentage points each), followed closely by the South Atlantic 
(-1.1 points).  Significant over-the-year decreases in employment-
population ratios also occurred in the Mountain and Pacific (-0.8 per-
centage point each) and New England and West North Central (-0.7 point 
each).  In 2008, the East South Central again recorded the lowest pro-
portion of employed persons (57.8 percent), with the Middle Atlantic 
(61.0 percent), West South Central (61.7 percent), and Pacific and South 
Atlantic (61.8 percent each) posting the next lowest ratios.  The West 
North Central again registered the highest employment-population ratio 
(67.1 percent), followed by the Mountain (64.6 percent), New England 
(64.1 percent), and East North Central (62.4 percent).  Five of the 9 
divisions reported statistically significant differences in their 
ratios from that of the U.S.--the Mountain, New England, and West North 
Central divisions recorded employment-population ratios that were mea-
surably higher, and the East South Central and Middle Atlantic divisions 
had ratios that were significantly lower.
   
State Employment-Population Ratios

   In 2008, 28 states registered statistically significant decreases
in the proportion of employed persons, while the remaining 22 states
and the District of Columbia did not have significant changes.  Rhode
Island experienced the largest over-the-year decline (-2.2 percentage
points), followed by Idaho (-2.0 points).  Fifteen other states re-
ported significant decreases in their employment-population ratios
from -1.0 to -1.9 percentage points, and the remaining 11 states had
significant declines from -0.4 to -0.9 point.  

   West Virginia and Mississippi again reported the lowest ratios 
among the states (53.2 and 55.9 percent, respectively).  Nine other 
states had employment-population ratios in 2008 that were below 60.0 
percent.  Three states in the West North Central division again re-
corded the highest ratios:  North Dakota (71.8 percent), Nebraska 
(71.0 percent), and South Dakota (70.6 percent).  Twenty states and 
the District of Columbia registered employment-population ratios that 
were significantly above the U.S. ratio of 62.2 percent, and 15 states 
had ratios that were appreciably below it.  The remaining 15 states 
recorded ratios that were not measurably different from that of the 
nation.  (See tables C and D.)


                               - 3 -


Table A.  States with statistically significant unemployment rate changes, 
2007-08 annual averages
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |          Rate          |               
                                |------------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |           |            |  rate change  
                                |    2007   |    2008    |               
--------------------------------|-----------|------------|---------------
                                |           |            |          
 Alabama .......................|    3.5    |    5.0     |      1.5 
 Arizona .......................|    3.8    |    5.5     |      1.7 
 California ....................|    5.4    |    7.2     |      1.8 
 Colorado ......................|    3.9    |    4.9     |      1.0 
 Connecticut ...................|    4.6    |    5.7     |      1.1 
 Delaware ......................|    3.4    |    4.8     |      1.4 
 District of Columbia ..........|    5.5    |    7.0     |      1.5 
 Florida .......................|    4.1    |    6.2     |      2.1 
 Georgia .......................|    4.6    |    6.2     |      1.6 
 Hawaii ........................|    2.6    |    3.9     |      1.3 
                                |           |            |          
 Idaho .........................|    3.0    |    4.9     |      1.9 
 Illinois ......................|    5.1    |    6.5     |      1.4 
 Indiana .......................|    4.6    |    5.9     |      1.3 
 Iowa ..........................|    3.7    |    4.1     |       .4 
 Kentucky ......................|    5.5    |    6.4     |       .9 
 Louisiana .....................|    3.8    |    4.6     |       .8 
 Maine .........................|    4.6    |    5.4     |       .8 
 Maryland ......................|    3.5    |    4.4     |       .9 
 Massachusetts .................|    4.5    |    5.3     |       .8 
 Michigan ......................|    7.1    |    8.4     |      1.3 
                                |           |            |          
 Minnesota .....................|    4.6    |    5.4     |       .8 
 Missouri ......................|    5.1    |    6.1     |      1.0 
 Montana .......................|    3.4    |    4.5     |      1.1 
 Nebraska ......................|    2.9    |    3.3     |       .4 
 Nevada	........................|    4.7    |    6.7     |      2.0 
 New Jersey ....................|    4.3    |    5.5     |      1.2 
 New Mexico ....................|    3.5    |    4.2     |       .7 
 New York ......................|    4.5    |    5.4     |       .9 
 North Carolina ................|    4.7    |    6.3     |      1.6 
 Ohio ..........................|    5.6    |    6.5     |       .9 
                                |           |            |          
 Oregon ........................|    5.1    |    6.4     |      1.3 
 Pennsylvania ..................|    4.4    |    5.4     |      1.0 
 Rhode Island ..................|    5.2    |    7.8     |      2.6 
 South Carolina ................|    5.6    |    6.9     |      1.3 
 Tennessee .....................|    4.8    |    6.4     |      1.6 
 Texas .........................|    4.4    |    4.9     |       .5 
 Utah ..........................|    2.7    |    3.4     |       .7 
 Vermont .......................|    4.0    |    4.8     |       .8 
 Virginia ......................|    3.0    |    4.0     |      1.0 
 Washington ....................|    4.5    |    5.3     |       .8
                                |           |            |          
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               - 4 -


Table B.  States with unemployment rates significantly different 
from that of the U.S., 2008 annual averages
----------------------------------------------------------------
              State              |            Rate         
----------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |                            
 United States ..................|            5.8
                                 |
 Alaska .........................|            6.7
 Arkansas .......................|            5.1
 California .....................|            7.2
 Colorado .......................|            4.9
 Delaware .......................|            4.8
 District of Columbia ...........|            7.0
 Florida ........................|            6.2
 Hawaii .........................|            3.9
 Idaho ..........................|            4.9
 Illinois .......................|            6.5
                                 |
 Iowa ...........................|            4.1
 Kansas .........................|            4.4
 Kentucky .......................|            6.4
 Louisiana ......................|            4.6
 Maryland .......................|            4.4
 Massachusetts ..................|            5.3
 Michigan .......................|            8.4
 Mississippi ....................|            6.9
 Montana ........................|            4.5
 Nebraska .......................|            3.3
                                 |
 Nevada .........................|            6.7
 New Hampshire ..................|            3.8
 New Mexico .....................|            4.2
 New York .......................|            5.4
 North Carolina .................|            6.3
 North Dakota ...................|            3.2
 Ohio ...........................|            6.5
 Oklahoma .......................|            3.8
 Oregon .........................|            6.4
 Pennsylvania ...................|            5.4
                                 |
 Rhode Island ...................|            7.8
 South Carolina .................|            6.9
 South Dakota ...................|            3.0
 Tennessee ......................|            6.4
 Texas ..........................|            4.9
 Utah ...........................|            3.4
 Vermont ........................|            4.8
 Virginia .......................|            4.0
 West Virginia ..................|            4.3
 Wisconsin ......................|            4.7
 Wyoming ........................|            3.1
                                 |
----------------------------------------------------------------


                               - 5 -


Table C.  States with statistically significant employment-population 
ratio changes, 2007-08 annual averages
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |         Ratio         |               
                                |-----------------------| Over-the-year 
             State              |           |           | ratio change
                                |    2007   |   2008    |               
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                |           |           |
Alabama ........................|    59.0   |   57.2    |     -1.8
California .....................|    62.1   |   61.1    |     -1.0
Colorado .......................|    69.8   |   68.7    |     -1.1
Delaware .......................|    63.9   |   62.4    |     -1.5
Florida ........................|    60.9   |   59.9    |     -1.0
Georgia ........................|    64.7   |   63.1    |     -1.6
Idaho ..........................|    65.5   |   63.5    |     -2.0
Illinois .......................|    64.7   |   63.4    |     -1.3
Indiana ........................|    63.6   |   62.4    |     -1.2
Kentucky .......................|    58.9   |   57.9    |     -1.0
                                |           |           | 
Maryland .......................|    66.6   |   65.8    |      -.8
Massachusetts ..................|    63.8   |   63.0    |      -.8
Michigan .......................|    59.9   |   58.1    |     -1.8
Minnesota ......................|    69.3   |   68.6    |      -.7
Missouri .......................|    63.6   |   62.2    |     -1.4
Montana ........................|    64.8   |   63.8    |     -1.0
New Hampshire ..................|    68.6   |   68.0    |      -.6
New Jersey .....................|    63.6   |   62.9    |      -.7
North Carolina .................|    62.4   |   60.7    |     -1.7
Ohio ...........................|    63.6   |   62.7    |      -.9
                                |           |           |
Oregon .........................|    62.3   |   61.5    |      -.8
Rhode Island ...................|    65.0   |   62.8    |     -2.2
South Carolina .................|    59.6   |   58.4    |     -1.2
Tennessee ......................|    60.4   |   59.2    |     -1.2
Texas ..........................|    62.9   |   62.5    |      -.4
Utah ...........................|    69.6   |   68.7    |      -.9
Virginia .......................|    67.3   |   66.8    |      -.5
Wisconsin ......................|    67.7   |   66.9    |      -.8
                                |           |           |             
------------------------------------------------------------------------


                               - 6 -


Table D.  States with employment-population ratios significantly 
different from that of the U.S., 2008 annual averages
----------------------------------------------------------------
              State              |            Ratio         
----------------------------------------------------------------
                                 |                
United States ...................|            62.2
                                 |                
Alabama .........................|            57.2
Alaska ..........................|            66.5
Arizona .........................|            60.7
Arkansas ........................|            59.7
California ......................|            61.1
Colorado ........................|            68.7
Connecticut .....................|            64.9
District of Columbia ............|            64.2
Florida .........................|            59.9
Illinois ........................|            63.4
                                 |
Iowa ............................|            69.1
Kansas ..........................|            67.6
Kentucky ........................|            57.9
Louisiana .......................|            59.4
Maryland ........................|            65.8
Michigan ........................|            58.1
Minnesota .......................|            68.6
Mississippi .....................|            55.9
Montana .........................|            63.8
Nebraska ........................|            71.0
                                 |
Nevada ..........................|            65.0
New Hampshire ...................|            68.0
New Mexico ......................|            61.0
New York ........................|            59.6
North Carolina ..................|            60.7
North Dakota ....................|            71.8
South Carolina ..................|            58.4
South Dakota ....................|            70.6
Tennessee .......................|            59.2
Utah ............................|            68.7
                                 |
Vermont .........................|            67.2
Virginia ........................|            66.8
Washington ......................|            64.7
West Virginia ...................|            53.2
Wisconsin .......................|            66.9
Wyoming .........................|            69.2
                                 |
---------------------------------------------------------------








                               - 7 -

Technical Note

   
   This release presents labor force and unemployment data for census
regions and divisions and states from the Local Area Unemployment
Statistics (LAUS) program.  The LAUS program is a federal-state co-
operative endeavor.
   
Concepts
   
   Definitions.  The labor force and unemployment data are based on the
same concepts and definitions as those used for the official national
estimates obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a sample
survey of households that is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Sta-
tistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau.  The LAUS program measures
employment and unemployment on a place-of-residence basis.  The universe
for each is the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and
over.  Employed persons are those who did any work at all for pay or
profit in the reference week (the week including the 12th of the month)
or worked 15 hours or more without pay in a family business or farm,
plus those not working who had a job from which they were temporarily
absent, whether or not paid, for such reasons as labor-management
dispute, illness, or vacation.  Unemployed persons are those who were
not employed during the reference week (based on the definition above),
had actively looked for a job sometime in the 4-week period ending with
the reference week, and were currently available for work; persons on
layoff expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as
unemployed.  The labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed per-
sons.  The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed as a percent
of the labor force.  The employment-population ratio is the proportion
of the civilian noninstitutional population aged 16 years and over that
is employed.
   
   Method of estimation.  Estimates for 48 of the 50 states, the
District of Columbia, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan
division, New York City, and the balances of California and New York
State are produced using estimating equations based on regression tech-
niques.  This method, which underwent substantial enhancement at the
beginning of 2005, utilizes data from several sources, including the
CPS, the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey of nonfarm payroll
employment, and state unemployment insurance (UI) programs.  Estimates
for the state of California are derived by summing the estimates for the
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale metropolitan division and the balance of
California.  Similarly, estimates for New York State are derived by sum- 
ming the estimates for New York City and the balance of New York State.  
Estimates for all nine census divisions are based on a similar regression 
approach that does not incorporate CES or UI data.  Estimates for census 
regions are obtained by summing the model-based estimates for the com-
ponent divisions and then calculating the unemployment rate.  Each month, 
census division estimates are controlled to national totals; state esti-
mates are then controlled to their respective division totals.  Estimates 
for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to 
the CPS.  A detailed description of the estimation procedures is available 
from BLS upon request.
   
                               - 8 -

   Annual revisions.  Labor force and unemployment data for prior years
reflect adjustments made at the end of each year.  The adjusted esti-
mates reflect updated population data from the U.S. Census Bureau,
any revisions in the other data sources, and model reestimation.  In
most years, historical data for the most recent 5 years (both sea-
sonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted) are revised near the be- 
ginning of each calendar year, prior to or coincident with the release
of January estimates.
   
Reliability of the estimates

   The estimates presented in this release are based on sample surveys,
administrative data, and modeling and, thus, are subject to sampling 
and other types of errors.  Sampling error is a measure of sampling
variability--that is, variation that occurs by chance because a sample
rather than the entire population is surveyed.  Survey data also are
subject to nonsampling errors, such as those which can be introduced
into the data collection and processing operations.  Estimates not
directly derived from sample surveys are subject to additional errors
resulting from the specific estimation processes used.  The sums of
individual items may not always equal the totals shown in the same
tables because of rounding.  Unemployment rates are computed from
unrounded data and thus may differ slightly from rates computed using
the rounded data displayed in the tables.
   
   Use of error measures.  In 2005, the LAUS program introduced several
improvements to its methodology.  Among these was the development of 
model-based error measures for the monthly estimates and the estimates 
of over-the-month changes.  Annual average error measures became avail-
able for the first time after 2006.  The introductory section of this 
release preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction 
of the movements in regional and state unemployment rates regardless 
of their statistical significance.  The remainder of the analysis in 
the release takes statistical significance into consideration.  Model-
based error measures are available online at http://www.bls.gov/lau/
lastderr.htm.  BLS uses a 90-percent confidence level in determining 
whether changes in LAUS unemployment rates are statistically significant.  
The average magnitude of the over-the-year change in an annual average 
state unemployment rate that is required in order to be statistically 
significant at the 90-percent confidence level is between 0.4 and 0.5 
percentage point.  More details can be found on the Web site.  Mea-
sures of nonsampling error are not available, but additional infor-
mation on the subject is provided in Employment and Earnings Online 
available on the BLS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ee/home.htm.

Additional information

   More complete information on the technical procedures used to develop
these estimates and additional data appear in Employment and Earnings
Online.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; TDD message re-
ferral phone:  1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age and over by region, division, and state,
2007-08 annual averages
 
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                     
                                    Population      Civilian labor       Employed         Unemployed     Unemployment                
                                                        force                                                rate      Error range of
  Region, division, and state                                                                                          rate, 2008 (1)
                                                                                                                                     
                                  2007     2008     2007     2008     2007     2008      2007     2008    2007   2008                
                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                     
     United States.............  231,867  233,788  153,124  154,287  146,047  145,362    7,078    8,924    4.6    5.8   5.7   -   5.9

Northeast......................   42,991   43,230   27,967   28,240   26,729   26,709    1,239    1,531    4.4    5.4   5.3   -   5.6
   New England.................   11,255   11,319    7,633    7,669    7,293    7,254      340      415    4.5    5.4   5.1   -   5.7
      Connecticut..............    2,713    2,728    1,850    1,876    1,766    1,769       85      107    4.6    5.7   5.3   -   6.1
      Maine....................    1,057    1,061      703      707      670      669       33       38    4.6    5.4   4.9   -   5.9
      Massachusetts............    5,112    5,148    3,416    3,424    3,263    3,244      153      180    4.5    5.3   4.8   -   5.8
      New Hampshire............    1,038    1,045      738      739      712      711       26       28    3.5    3.8   3.5   -   4.1
      Rhode Island.............      834      834      572      568      543      523       30       44    5.2    7.8   7.2   -   8.4
      Vermont..................      502      504      354      355      340      339       14       17    4.0    4.8   4.3   -   5.2

   Middle Atlantic.............   31,736   31,911   20,334   20,571   19,435   19,455      899    1,116    4.4    5.4   5.2   -   5.6
      New Jersey...............    6,719    6,756    4,462    4,497    4,272    4,251      191      246    4.3    5.5   5.0   -   5.9
      New York.................   15,259   15,351    9,575    9,680    9,141    9,153      434      527    4.5    5.4   5.2   -   5.7
      Pennsylvania.............    9,758    9,804    6,297    6,395    6,023    6,051      274      344    4.4    5.4   5.0   -   5.8

Midwest........................   51,027   51,330   34,881   34,847   33,092   32,735    1,789    2,112    5.1    6.1   5.9   -   6.2
   East North Central..........   35,657   35,833   24,005   23,919   22,678   22,343    1,327    1,576    5.5    6.6   6.4   -   6.8
      Illinois.................    9,806    9,885    6,690    6,697    6,349    6,264      341      434    5.1    6.5   6.0   -   6.9
      Indiana..................    4,834    4,873    3,221    3,230    3,074    3,040      147      191    4.6    5.9   5.3   -   6.5
      Michigan.................    7,785    7,783    5,024    4,936    4,667    4,519      357      416    7.1    8.4   7.9   -   9.0
      Ohio.....................    8,875    8,904    5,977    5,972    5,641    5,582      336      390    5.6    6.5   6.0   -   7.0
      Wisconsin................    4,357    4,389    3,094    3,084    2,948    2,938      146      146    4.7    4.7   4.3   -   5.1

   West North Central..........   15,370   15,497   10,876   10,928   10,414   10,393      463      536    4.3    4.9   4.7   -   5.1
      Iowa.....................    2,309    2,325    1,664    1,676    1,602    1,607       62       69    3.7    4.1   3.7   -   4.5
      Kansas...................    2,100    2,117    1,485    1,497    1,425    1,431       60       66    4.1    4.4   4.0   -   4.8
      Minnesota................    4,007    4,043    2,911    2,933    2,776    2,773      135      160    4.6    5.4   5.1   -   5.8
      Missouri.................    4,511    4,547    3,023    3,012    2,870    2,829      153      183    5.1    6.1   5.5   -   6.7
      Nebraska.................    1,344    1,355      985      996      956      962       29       33    2.9    3.3   3.0   -   3.7
      North Dakota.............      495      498      366      370      355      358       11       12    3.1    3.2   2.8   -   3.5
      South Dakota.............      604      611      442      445      429      431       13       14    2.9    3.0   2.7   -   3.3

South..........................   83,787   84,960   54,286   54,940   51,932   51,924    2,355    3,017    4.3    5.5   5.4   -   5.6
   South Atlantic..............   44,423   44,992   29,154   29,480   27,935   27,797    1,219    1,683    4.2    5.7   5.5   -   5.9
      Delaware.................      666      676      441      443      426      422       15       21    3.4    4.8   4.3   -   5.2
      District of Columbia.....      478      482      327      333      309      310       18       23    5.5    7.0   6.4   -   7.6
      Florida..................   14,318   14,454    9,088    9,231    8,717    8,660      372      572    4.1    6.2   5.9   -   6.5
      Georgia..................    7,076    7,204    4,798    4,848    4,579    4,546      219      302    4.6    6.2   5.8   -   6.7
      Maryland.................    4,331    4,357    2,988    2,998    2,882    2,867      105      131    3.5    4.4   4.0   -   4.7
      North Carolina...........    6,880    7,011    4,506    4,544    4,293    4,257      213      287    4.7    6.3   5.9   -   6.7
      South Carolina...........    3,367    3,431    2,125    2,153    2,006    2,004      119      149    5.6    6.9   6.3   -   7.6
      Virginia.................    5,862    5,927    4,068    4,125    3,945    3,960      122      165    3.0    4.0   3.6   -   4.4
      West Virginia............    1,445    1,450      813      806      778      772       35       34    4.3    4.3   3.6   -   4.9

   East South Central..........   13,745   13,891    8,532    8,561    8,115    8,035      417      526    4.9    6.1   5.8   -   6.5
      Alabama..................    3,558    3,591    2,176    2,162    2,100    2,054       76      109    3.5    5.0   4.2   -   5.9
      Kentucky.................    3,266    3,301    2,036    2,043    1,923    1,911      113      132    5.5    6.4   5.8   -   7.1
      Mississippi..............    2,175    2,190    1,307    1,314    1,225    1,224       82       91    6.3    6.9   6.1   -   7.7
      Tennessee................    4,746    4,808    3,013    3,041    2,868    2,846      146      195    4.8    6.4   5.8   -   7.0

   West South Central..........   25,619   26,077   16,600   16,899   15,881   16,092      719      807    4.3    4.8   4.5   -   5.0
      Arkansas.................    2,160    2,180    1,361    1,370    1,292    1,301       69       70    5.1    5.1   4.5   -   5.7
      Louisiana................    3,294    3,337    2,026    2,079    1,949    1,983       76       96    3.8    4.6   3.9   -   5.3
      Oklahoma.................    2,720    2,749    1,738    1,748    1,667    1,682       71       67    4.1    3.8   3.4   -   4.3
      Texas....................   17,445   17,812   11,475   11,702   10,972   11,126      503      575    4.4    4.9   4.6   -   5.2

West...........................   52,993   53,845   35,278   35,971   33,617   33,725    1,661    2,246    4.7    6.2   6.1   -   6.4
   Mountain....................   16,040   16,378   10,887   11,133   10,486   10,579      401      554    3.7    5.0   4.8   -   5.2
      Arizona..................    4,762    4,877    3,036    3,133    2,920    2,960      116      172    3.8    5.5   4.9   -   6.1
      Colorado.................    3,702    3,778    2,686    2,730    2,582    2,596      104      134    3.9    4.9   4.5   -   5.3
      Idaho....................    1,109    1,131      749      755      726      718       23       37    3.0    4.9   4.2   -   5.5
      Montana..................      748      758      502      506      485      483       17       23    3.4    4.5   3.9   -   5.1
      Nevada...................    1,932    1,971    1,323    1,373    1,260    1,282       62       91    4.7    6.7   6.1   -   7.2
      New Mexico...............    1,487    1,507      946      959      912      919       34       40    3.5    4.2   3.6   -   4.7
      Utah.....................    1,897    1,945    1,357    1,384    1,320    1,336       37       48    2.7    3.4   3.0   -   3.8
      Wyoming..................      403      410      288      293      280      284        8        9    2.9    3.1   2.7   -   3.5

   Pacific.....................   36,953   37,468   24,391   24,838   23,131   23,146    1,261    1,692    5.2    6.8   6.6   -   7.0
      Alaska...................      497      502      352      357      330      333       22       24    6.2    6.7   6.0   -   7.4
      California...............   27,541   27,910   18,078   18,392   17,109   17,060      969    1,332    5.4    7.2   7.0   -   7.5
      Hawaii...................      981      991      646      654      629      628       17       26    2.6    3.9   3.5   -   4.4
      Oregon...................    2,932    2,980    1,925    1,958    1,826    1,833       99      125    5.1    6.4   5.8   -   6.9
      Washington...............    5,002    5,086    3,391    3,477    3,237    3,291      154      186    4.5    5.3   4.9   -   5.8

Puerto Rico....................    3,023    3,050    1,394    1,366    1,241    1,209      152      158   10.9   11.5         NA     

   1 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE:  Data refer to place of residence.  Unemployment rates are in percent and are based on unrounded levels.  Data for sub-
national areas reflect revised population controls and model reestimation.  As a result, they will not add to U.S. totals.  Data for
Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to the Current Population Survey.







Table 2.  Employment-population ratios of persons 16 years of age and over by region, division,
and state, 2007-08 annual averages

(Percent)
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                   Employment-population                                        
                                         ratio (1)        Over-the-        Error range of       
  Region, division, and state                               year    employment-population ratio,
                                                           change             2008 (2)          
                                      2007       2008                                           
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
     United States.............       63.0       62.2       -0.8          62.0    -    62.4
                                                                                           
Northeast......................       62.2       61.8        -.4          61.3    -    62.2
   New England.................       64.8       64.1        -.7          63.4    -    64.8
      Connecticut..............       65.1       64.9        -.2          63.7    -    66.0
      Maine....................       63.4       63.0        -.4          61.8    -    64.2
      Massachusetts............       63.8       63.0        -.8          61.9    -    64.1
      New Hampshire............       68.6       68.0        -.6          67.0    -    69.0
      Rhode Island.............       65.0       62.8       -2.2          61.6    -    63.9
      Vermont..................       67.8       67.2        -.6          66.0    -    68.4
                                                                                           
   Middle Atlantic.............       61.2       61.0        -.2          60.4    -    61.5
      New Jersey...............       63.6       62.9        -.7          62.0    -    63.9
      New York.................       59.9       59.6        -.3          59.0    -    60.3
      Pennsylvania.............       61.7       61.7         .0          60.9    -    62.5
                                                                                           
Midwest........................       64.9       63.8       -1.1          63.4    -    64.2
   East North Central..........       63.6       62.4       -1.2          61.8    -    62.9
      Illinois.................       64.7       63.4       -1.3          62.4    -    64.3
      Indiana..................       63.6       62.4       -1.2          61.0    -    63.8
      Michigan.................       59.9       58.1       -1.8          57.1    -    59.0
      Ohio.....................       63.6       62.7        -.9          61.9    -    63.5
      Wisconsin................       67.7       66.9        -.8          65.6    -    68.3
                                                                                           
   West North Central..........       67.8       67.1        -.7          66.5    -    67.7
      Iowa.....................       69.4       69.1        -.3          68.0    -    70.2
      Kansas...................       67.9       67.6        -.3          66.5    -    68.7
      Minnesota................       69.3       68.6        -.7          67.4    -    69.8
      Missouri.................       63.6       62.2       -1.4          60.9    -    63.6
      Nebraska.................       71.1       71.0        -.1          69.9    -    72.1
      North Dakota.............       71.6       71.8         .2          70.2    -    73.5
      South Dakota.............       71.1       70.6        -.5          69.4    -    71.8
                                                                                           
South..........................       62.0       61.1        -.9          60.8    -    61.4
   South Atlantic..............       62.9       61.8       -1.1          61.3    -    62.2
      Delaware.................       63.9       62.4       -1.5          61.3    -    63.5
      District of Columbia.....       64.7       64.2        -.5          63.0    -    65.4
      Florida..................       60.9       59.9       -1.0          59.0    -    60.8
      Georgia..................       64.7       63.1       -1.6          62.1    -    64.1
      Maryland.................       66.6       65.8        -.8          64.9    -    66.7
      North Carolina...........       62.4       60.7       -1.7          59.7    -    61.7
      South Carolina...........       59.6       58.4       -1.2          57.4    -    59.4
      Virginia.................       67.3       66.8        -.5          65.9    -    67.7
      West Virginia............       53.8       53.2        -.6          51.6    -    54.9
                                                                                           
   East South Central..........       59.0       57.8       -1.2          57.0    -    58.7
      Alabama..................       59.0       57.2       -1.8          55.5    -    58.9
      Kentucky.................       58.9       57.9       -1.0          56.6    -    59.2
      Mississippi..............       56.3       55.9        -.4          54.3    -    57.4
      Tennessee................       60.4       59.2       -1.2          58.0    -    60.4
                                                                                           
   West South Central..........       62.0       61.7        -.3          61.1    -    62.3
      Arkansas.................       59.8       59.7        -.1          58.4    -    60.9
      Louisiana................       59.2       59.4         .2          57.8    -    61.0
      Oklahoma.................       61.3       61.2        -.1          59.9    -    62.5
      Texas....................       62.9       62.5        -.4          61.7    -    63.2
                                                                                           
West...........................       63.4       62.6        -.8          62.3    -    63.0
   Mountain....................       65.4       64.6        -.8          64.0    -    65.2
      Arizona..................       61.3       60.7        -.6          59.3    -    62.1
      Colorado.................       69.8       68.7       -1.1          67.2    -    70.2
      Idaho....................       65.5       63.5       -2.0          62.1    -    64.9
      Montana..................       64.8       63.8       -1.0          62.4    -    65.1
      Nevada...................       65.2       65.0        -.2          63.9    -    66.2
      New Mexico...............       61.3       61.0        -.3          60.0    -    62.0
      Utah.....................       69.6       68.7        -.9          67.2    -    70.2
      Wyoming..................       69.5       69.2        -.3          67.8    -    70.5
                                                                                           
   Pacific.....................       62.6       61.8        -.8          61.4    -    62.2
      Alaska...................       66.4       66.5         .1          64.7    -    68.2
      California...............       62.1       61.1       -1.0          60.7    -    61.6
      Hawaii...................       64.1       63.4        -.7          62.2    -    64.7
      Oregon...................       62.3       61.5        -.8          60.5    -    62.5
      Washington...............       64.7       64.7         .0          63.7    -    65.7
                                                                                           
Puerto Rico....................       41.1       39.6       -1.5                  NA       

   1 Employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years of age
and over.
   2 Error ranges are shown at the 90-percent confidence level and are based on unrounded
data.
   NA = Data not available.
   NOTE:  Data refer to place of residence.  Employment-population ratios are based on
unrounded levels.  Data for subnational areas reflect revised population controls and model
reestimation.  Data for Puerto Rico are derived from a monthly household survey similar to
the Current Population Survey.






Last Modified Date: February 27, 2009
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