Economic News Release

Employee Tenure News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, September 18, 2012                   USDL-12-1887

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                  EMPLOYEE TENURE IN 2012


The median number of years that wage and salary workers had been with their current
employer was 4.6 in January 2012, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
This measure, referred to as employee tenure, was higher than the median tenure
(4.4 years) in January 2010.

Information on employee tenure has been obtained from supplemental questions to the
Current Population Survey (CPS) every 2 years since 1996. These data are collected
as part of the Displaced Worker Supplement, which is sponsored by the Employment and
Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor. The CPS is a monthly survey
of about 60,000 households that provides information on the labor force status of the
civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and over. The questions about employee
tenure measure how long workers had been with their current employer at the time of
the survey. A number of factors can affect the median tenure of workers, including
changes in the age profile among workers, as well as changes in the number of hires
and separations. For further information about the CPS, see the Technical Note.

Demographic Characteristics

In January 2012, median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had
more tenure and half had less tenure) for men was 4.7 years, little changed from
January 2010. For women, median tenure in January 2012 was 4.6 years, up from 4.2
years in January 2010. Among men, 30 percent of wage and salary workers had 10 years 
or more of tenure with their current employer; among women, the figure was 28 percent.
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Median employee tenure varied by age. Older workers tend to have more years of tenure
than their younger counterparts. For example, the median tenure for employees age 65
and over was 10.3 years in January 2012, over three times the tenure for workers age
25 to 34 (3.2 years). More than half of all workers age 55 and over were employed for
at least 10 years with their current employer in January 2012, compared with 13 percent
of workers age 30 to 34. (See tables 1 and 2.)

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, 20 percent of Hispanics had been with their
current employer for 10 years or more in January 2012, compared with 31 percent of
whites, 26 percent of blacks, and 23 percent of Asians. (See table 3.) The shorter
tenure among Hispanics can be explained, in part, by their relative youth. Almost half
of Hispanic workers age 16 and over were age 16 to 34, compared with just over a third
of whites, blacks, and Asians.

Twenty-one percent of all wage and salary workers age 16 and over had a year or less
of tenure with their current employer in January 2012. This short-tenured group of
workers includes new entrants and reentrants to the labor force, job losers who found
new jobs during the previous year, and workers who had voluntarily changed employers
during the previous year. Younger workers are more likely than older workers to be
short-tenured employees. For example, among 16- to 19-year-old workers, 73 percent had
tenure of 12 months or less with their current employer in January 2012, compared with
9 percent of workers age 55 to 64. (See table 3.)

Industry

In January 2012, wage and salary workers in the public sector had almost double the
median tenure of private sector employees, 7.8 versus 4.2 years. (See table 5.) The
longer tenure among workers in the public sector is explained, in part, by the age
profile of government workers. About three in four government workers were age 35
and over, compared with about three in five private wage and salary workers.

Within the private sector, workers in manufacturing had the highest median tenure among
the major industries (6.0 years). In contrast, workers in leisure and hospitality had
the lowest median tenure (2.4 years). (See table 5.) These differences in tenure reflect
many factors, including the varying age distributions across industries. On average,
workers in manufacturing tend to be older than workers in leisure and hospitality.

Occupation

In January 2012, workers in management, professional, and related occupations had the
highest median tenure (5.5 years) among the major occupational groups. Within this group,
employees in architecture and engineering occupations and in management occupations had
the longest tenure--7.0 and 6.3 years, respectively. Workers in service occupations, who
are generally younger than persons employed in management, professional, and related
occupations, had the lowest median tenure (3.2 years). Among employees working in service
jobs, food service workers had the shortest median tenure, at 2.3 years. (See table 6.)




Technical Note
   
   The data in this release were collected through a supplement to the January 2012
Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census
Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000
eligible households that provides information on the labor force status, demographics,
and other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16
and over.

   The January 2012 CPS supplement obtained information on worker displacement and
workers' tenure with their current employer. The data on worker displacement are
online at www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#displaced.

   Revised population controls are introduced periodically in the CPS, which can
affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. Beginning in 2012, data
reflect the introduction of Census 2010 population controls and are not strictly
comparable with data for prior years. Additional information about population
control adjustments is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200, Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that
the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they represent.
The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample
selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on
a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population
value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Tenure concepts and questions

   Employee tenure is a measure of how long wage and salary workers had been with
their current employer at the time of the survey. Many of the estimates shown in
this report are medians; the median is the point at which half of all workers had
more tenure and half had less tenure. Data refer to the sole or principal job of
full- and part-time workers.

   Wage and salary workers receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in
kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public
sectors but excludes all self-employed persons, both those with incorporated 
businesses and those with unincorporated businesses.

   In the January 2012 CPS supplement, questions on tenure were asked of all employed
persons. The main question was: "How long has ... been working continuously for (fill
in name of present employer)?"
            
            _____ Days
            _____ Weeks
            _____ Months
            _____ Years
            
For responses of "1 year" or "2 years," a follow-up question was asked: "Could you
please give the exact number of months?"

   The purpose of the follow-up question is to obtain more precise information on
workers who had been with their current employer for a relatively short time. This
follow-up question was included for the first time in the February 1996 CPS supplement
on worker displacement and tenure. CPS supplements that obtained information on 
tenure in January of 1983, 1987, and 1991 did not include the follow-up question.
In those surveys, responses of 1 year or more could be coded only as the nearest
full year, and responses of less than a year were coded as the nearest full month.

   Prior to January 1983, CPS supplements on tenure asked wage and salary workers,
"When did ... start working at (his/her) present job?" For wage and salary workers,
the meaning of the term "job" is ambiguous. For example, a worker who had been
employed at a particular company for 10 years and had been promoted to a managerial
position 1 year prior to the survey may have been counted as having 10 years or
1 year of tenure, depending on whether the respondent interpreted the question to
mean tenure with the current employer or tenure in the managerial position. To
rectify this ambiguity, the wording of the question was changed in January 1983
to specify the length of time a worker had been with his or her current employer.
The change resulted in a break in historical comparability.

Interpreting tenure data

   Data on tenure have been used as a gauge of employment security, with some
observers regarding increases in tenure as a sign of improving security and
decreasing tenure as a sign of deteriorating security. However, there are
limitations to using the data in this way. For example, during recessions or
other periods of declining job security, median tenure and the proportion of
workers with long tenure could rise because less-senior workers are more likely
to lose their jobs than are workers with longer tenure. During periods of
economic growth, median tenure and the proportion of workers with long tenure
could fall because more job opportunities are available for new entrants to the
workforce and experienced workers have more opportunities to change employers
and take better jobs. Tenure also could rise under improving economic conditions,
however, as fewer layoffs occur and good job matches develop between workers and
employers.

   A changing age distribution among workers would also affect median tenure.
Since older workers are more likely to have long tenure with their current
employer than younger workers, aging baby boomers in the workforce would provide
upward pressure on overall median tenure.




Table 1. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary
workers by age and sex, selected years, 2002-2012
                                                                                     
         Age and sex             January  January  January  January  January  January
                                  2002     2004     2006     2008     2010     2012  
                                                                                     
                                                                                     
            TOTAL                                                                    
                                                                                     
      16 years and over.......     3.7      4.0      4.0      4.1      4.4      4.6  
16 to 17 years................      .7       .7       .6       .7       .7       .7  
18 to 19 years................      .8       .8       .7       .8      1.0       .8  
20 to 24 years................     1.2      1.3      1.3      1.3      1.5      1.3  
25 years and over.............     4.7      4.9      4.9      5.1      5.2      5.4  
  25 to 34 years..............     2.7      2.9      2.9      2.7      3.1      3.2  
  35 to 44 years..............     4.6      4.9      4.9      4.9      5.1      5.3  
  45 to 54 years..............     7.6      7.7      7.3      7.6      7.8      7.8  
  55 to 64 years..............     9.9      9.6      9.3      9.9     10.0     10.3  
  65 years and over...........     8.6      9.0      8.8     10.2      9.9     10.3  
                                                                                     
             Men                                                                     
                                                                                     
      16 years and over.......     3.9      4.1      4.1      4.2      4.6      4.7  
16 to 17 years................      .8       .7       .7       .7       .7       .6  
18 to 19 years................      .8       .8       .7       .8      1.0       .8  
20 to 24 years................     1.4      1.3      1.4      1.4      1.6      1.4  
25 years and over.............     4.9      5.1      5.0      5.2      5.3      5.5  
  25 to 34 years..............     2.8      3.0      2.9      2.8      3.2      3.2  
  35 to 44 years..............     5.0      5.2      5.1      5.2      5.3      5.4  
  45 to 54 years..............     9.1      9.6      8.1      8.2      8.5      8.5  
  55 to 64 years..............    10.2      9.8      9.5     10.1     10.4     10.7  
  65 years and over...........     8.1      8.2      8.3     10.4      9.7     10.2  
                                                                                     
            Women                                                                    
                                                                                     
      16 years and over.......     3.4      3.8      3.9      3.9      4.2      4.6  
16 to 17 years................      .7       .6       .6       .6       .7       .7  
18 to 19 years................      .8       .8       .7       .8      1.0       .8  
20 to 24 years................     1.1      1.3      1.2      1.3      1.5      1.3  
25 years and over.............     4.4      4.7      4.8      4.9      5.1      5.4  
  25 to 34 years..............     2.5      2.8      2.8      2.6      3.0      3.1  
  35 to 44 years..............     4.2      4.5      4.6      4.7      4.9      5.2  
  45 to 54 years..............     6.5      6.4      6.7      7.0      7.1      7.3  
  55 to 64 years..............     9.6      9.2      9.2      9.8      9.7     10.0  
  65 years and over...........     9.4      9.6      9.5      9.9     10.1     10.5  

   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of
January data.




Table 2. Percent of employed wage and salary workers 25 years and over who had 10 years or
more of tenure with their current employer by age and sex, selected years, 2002-2012
                                                                                            
         Age and sex               January   January   January   January   January   January
                                    2002      2004      2006      2008      2010      2012  
                                                                                            
                                                                                            
            TOTAL                                                                           
                                                                                            
      25 years and over.......      30.8      30.6      30.0      31.5      33.1      33.7  
25 to 29 years................       2.2       2.4       2.4       2.3       2.3       2.5  
30 to 34 years................      11.7      10.9      10.6      10.1      12.8      12.5  
35 to 39 years................      25.2      23.2      22.8      23.0      25.7      25.2  
40 to 44 years................      33.9      32.4      31.8      32.9      35.3      35.1  
45 to 49 years................      41.2      42.1      39.9      40.2      40.8      41.6  
50 to 54 years................      49.4      48.5      46.6      47.7      48.9      48.4  
55 to 59 years................      53.3      50.9      50.1      52.4      52.4      54.1  
60 to 64 years................      50.5      49.7      48.4      53.6      54.5      55.1  
65 years and over.............      48.0      48.7      48.5      56.3      53.1      55.5  
                                                                                            
             Men                                                                            
                                                                                            
      25 years and over.......      32.6      32.4      31.1      32.9      34.3      34.6  
25 to 29 years................       2.6       2.7       2.6       2.4       3.1       2.6  
30 to 34 years................      13.0      11.9      11.6      11.3      14.3      13.2  
35 to 39 years................      27.2      24.9      24.7      25.4      27.2      25.7  
40 to 44 years................      37.4      36.2      34.8      35.8      37.5      36.9  
45 to 49 years................      45.4      48.1      42.9      43.5      43.7      44.8  
50 to 54 years................      54.0      53.0      49.7      50.4      51.3      51.4  
55 to 59 years................      56.5      53.4      51.0      54.9      53.6      55.7  
60 to 64 years................      48.4      48.5      48.1      52.4      56.8      56.2  
65 years and over.............      46.4      46.8      47.2      58.9      51.9      55.5  
                                                                                            
            Women                                                                           
                                                                                            
      25 years and over.......      28.8      28.6      28.8      30.0      31.9      32.8  
25 to 29 years................       1.8       1.9       2.1       2.1       1.6       2.3  
30 to 34 years................      10.2       9.8       9.4       8.7      11.1      11.8  
35 to 39 years................      22.9      21.3      20.5      20.3      24.0      24.7  
40 to 44 years................      30.2      28.5      28.4      29.9      32.9      33.2  
45 to 49 years................      37.0      36.2      36.9      36.7      38.0      38.3  
50 to 54 years................      44.8      44.1      43.6      45.0      46.5      45.5  
55 to 59 years................      49.9      48.4      49.1      50.0      51.2      52.6  
60 to 64 years................      52.6      51.0      48.7      54.8      52.2      54.0  
65 years and over.............      49.7      50.7      49.9      53.8      54.3      55.6  

   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January
data.




Table 3. Distribution of employed wage and salary workers by tenure with current employer, age, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, January 2012
                                                                                                                
                                                   Percent distribution by tenure with current employer         
  Age, sex, race, and         Number                                                                            
   Hispanic or Latino        employed                                                                           
        ethnicity         (in thousands)            12    13 to           3 to 4  5 to 9  10 to   15 to     20  
                                          Total   months    23   2 years  years   years     14      19    years 
                                                 or less  months                          years   years  or more
                                                                                                                
          TOTAL                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
      16 years and over..    125,516      100.0    21.1     6.3     4.9    16.6    21.8    12.5     6.1    10.6 
16 to 19 years...........      3,925      100.0    72.9    11.9     6.9     7.8      .4      -       -       -  
20 years and over........    121,591      100.0    19.5     6.1     4.8    16.9    22.4    12.9     6.3    11.0 
  20 to 24 years.........     12,712      100.0    48.9    12.8    10.6    20.4     7.1      .2      -       -  
  25 to 34 years.........     28,381      100.0    25.5     8.4     6.9    24.5    27.2     6.8      .7      -  
  35 to 44 years.........     27,477      100.0    16.1     5.4     4.3    16.8    27.0    17.8     8.8     3.8 
  45 to 54 years.........     28,535      100.0    12.5     4.5     2.9    13.0    22.0    16.8     9.5    18.7 
  55 to 64 years.........     19,339      100.0     9.4     2.8     2.3    10.8    20.2    16.4     9.8    28.3 
  65 years and over......      5,148      100.0     7.8     2.0     2.1    11.8    20.7    16.6     9.2    29.7 
                                                                                                                
           Men                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
      16 years and over..     64,552      100.0    21.0     6.3     5.0    16.2    21.3    12.2     6.4    11.5 
16 to 19 years...........      1,839      100.0    71.2    13.3     7.8     7.4      .4      -       -       -  
20 years and over........     62,713      100.0    19.6     6.1     4.9    16.5    21.9    12.6     6.5    11.9 
  20 to 24 years.........      6,559      100.0    48.8    12.5    10.4    20.6     7.4      .2      -       -  
  25 to 34 years.........     15,104      100.0    24.7     8.5     7.3    23.8    27.8     7.0      .9      -  
  35 to 44 years.........     14,570      100.0    16.3     5.4     4.0    16.1    26.8    17.3     9.8     4.4 
  45 to 54 years.........     14,361      100.0    12.6     4.5     2.8    12.5    19.6    16.6    10.0    21.4 
  55 to 64 years.........      9,470      100.0    10.0     2.5     2.7    10.1    18.8    15.6     9.2    31.2 
  65 years and over......      2,648      100.0     7.8     1.3     1.9    11.8    21.7    16.9     8.9    29.7 
                                                                                                                
          Women                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                
      16 years and over..     60,964      100.0    21.3     6.3     4.8    17.1    22.2    12.7     5.9     9.7 
16 to 19 years...........      2,085      100.0    74.4    10.7     6.2     8.2      .5      -       -       -  
20 years and over........     58,879      100.0    19.4     6.2     4.7    17.4    23.0    13.2     6.1    10.1 
  20 to 24 years.........      6,153      100.0    49.0    13.1    10.7    20.3     6.7      .2      -       -  
  25 to 34 years.........     13,276      100.0    26.5     8.4     6.4    25.3    26.5     6.5      .5      -  
  35 to 44 years.........     12,907      100.0    15.9     5.4     4.6    17.5    27.4    18.4     7.7     3.1 
  45 to 54 years.........     14,174      100.0    12.4     4.5     3.1    13.6    24.4    17.0     9.0    16.0 
  55 to 64 years.........      9,868      100.0     8.8     3.2     1.9    11.6    21.4    17.2    10.5    25.5 
  65 years and over......      2,499      100.0     7.7     2.8     2.4    11.9    19.7    16.3     9.6    29.7 
                                                                                                                
         White                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....    100,679      100.0    20.7     6.4     4.8    16.1    21.7    12.6     6.6    11.3 
Men......................     52,641      100.0    20.5     6.5     4.7    15.7    21.1    12.4     6.8    12.3 
Women....................     48,039      100.0    20.9     6.3     4.8    16.4    22.2    12.9     6.3    10.2 
                                                                                                                
Black or African American                                                                                       
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....     14,204      100.0    22.2     5.6     5.2    18.5    22.1    12.4     4.5     9.5 
Men......................      6,526      100.0    22.9     5.1     5.5    18.9    21.9    10.8     4.8    10.0 
Women....................      7,678      100.0    21.6     6.0     5.0    18.2    22.2    13.8     4.2     9.1 
                                                                                                                
         Asian                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....      6,933      100.0    21.1     6.6     5.3    20.5    23.8    11.3     4.8     6.6 
Men......................      3,502      100.0    21.2     5.8     6.6    19.0    23.8    12.8     4.3     6.5 
Women....................      3,432      100.0    21.0     7.3     4.0    22.1    23.9     9.8     5.2     6.7 
                                                                                                                
   Hispanic or Latino                                                                                           
       ethnicity                                                                                                
                                                                                                                
    16 years and over....     19,763      100.0    23.6     5.9     6.6    20.1    23.7    10.9     4.2     5.1 
Men......................     11,262      100.0    24.5     6.0     6.8    20.8    22.4    10.0     4.3     5.2 
Women....................      8,501      100.0    22.3     5.6     6.4    19.2    25.4    12.0     4.2     4.9 

   NOTE: Detail for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals
because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be
of any race. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Dash represents zero or rounds to zero. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 4. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers 25 years
and over by educational attainment, sex, and age, January 2012
                                                                                                     
                                                            25 years and over                        
                                                                                                     
  Educational attainment and sex                                                                     
                                       Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                                  years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                     
                                                                                                     
    Total..........................     5.4        3.2        5.3        7.8       10.3       10.3   
Less than a high school diploma....     4.8        3.2        4.6        5.3        8.0        9.8   
High school graduates, no college..     5.8        3.3        5.0        8.5       10.3       10.2   
Some college, no degree............     5.2        3.1        5.1        7.4       10.3       10.2   
Associate degree...................     5.7        3.2        5.6        7.7       10.4       10.4   
College graduates..................     5.5        3.1        5.7        8.2       10.5       11.0   
  Bachelor's degree................     5.2        3.1        5.7        7.8       10.4       11.6   
  Master's degree..................     6.3        3.4        6.0        8.6       10.4       10.2   
  Doctoral or professional degree..     5.6        2.3        5.0        9.6       11.9       14.8   
                                                                                                     
    Men............................     5.5        3.2        5.4        8.5       10.7       10.2   
Less than a high school diploma....     4.7        3.4        4.8        5.4        8.2       10.5   
High school graduates, no college..     5.7        3.3        5.1        9.6       10.6        9.7   
Some college, no degree............     5.3        3.1        5.2        8.6       10.2        9.8   
Associate degree...................     6.2        3.4        6.3        8.4       11.2       10.0   
College graduates..................     5.7        3.1        5.7        8.6       11.3       11.3   
  Bachelor's degree................     5.5        3.2        5.9        8.3       11.3       10.4   
  Master's degree..................     6.4        3.3        5.8        8.9       10.5        9.9   
  Doctoral or professional degree..     5.9        2.3        4.8        9.7       13.4       15.3   
                                                                                                     
    Women..........................     5.4        3.1        5.2        7.3       10.0       10.5   
Less than a high school diploma....     4.8        2.9        4.2        5.2        7.8        7.8   
High school graduates, no college..     6.0        3.3        5.0        7.8       10.0       11.4   
Some college, no degree............     5.2        3.2        5.0        6.5       10.3       10.8   
Associate degree...................     5.3        3.1        5.1        7.2        9.8       11.3   
College graduates..................     5.3        3.1        5.7        7.9       10.2       10.7   
  Bachelor's degree................     5.0        3.0        5.6        7.4       10.1       12.3   
  Master's degree..................     6.3        3.4        6.2        8.4       10.4       10.3   
  Doctoral or professional degree..     5.2        2.4        5.4        9.4       10.3       10.0   

   NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 5. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by industry, selected years,
2002-2012
                                                                                                                       
                        Industry                             January   January   January   January   January   January 
                                                               2002      2004      2006      2008      2010      2012  
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
  Total, 16 years and over...............................       3.7       4.0       4.0       4.1       4.4       4.6  
                                                                                                                       
Private sector...........................................       3.3       3.5       3.6       3.6       4.0       4.2  
  Agriculture and related industries.....................       4.2       3.7       3.8       4.3       4.8       4.1  
  Nonagricultural industries.............................       3.3       3.5       3.6       3.6       4.0       4.2  
    Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction........       4.5       5.2       3.8       4.1       4.8       3.5  
    Construction.........................................       3.0       3.0       3.0       3.5       4.2       4.3  
    Manufacturing........................................       5.4       5.8       5.5       5.9       6.1       6.0  
      Durable goods manufacturing........................       5.5       6.0       5.6       6.1       6.6       6.1  
        Nonmetallic mineral products.....................       5.3       4.8       5.0       4.8       7.7       7.0  
        Primary metals and fabricated metal products.....       6.3       6.4       6.2       5.2       7.2       5.6  
        Machinery manufacturing..........................       6.8       6.4       6.6       6.0       8.3       5.4  
        Computers and electronic products................       4.7       5.2       5.9       6.7       5.9       7.7  
        Electrical equipment and appliances..............       5.5       9.8       6.2       6.2       5.0       5.9  
        Transportation equipment.........................       7.0       7.7       7.2       7.8       8.3       7.1  
        Wood products....................................       4.3       5.0       4.7       6.2       4.7       5.3  
        Furniture and fixtures...........................       4.7       4.7       4.2       5.2       5.0       6.5  
        Miscellaneous manufacturing......................       4.5       4.6       3.9       4.7       5.4       4.8  
      Nondurable goods manufacturing.....................       5.3       5.5       5.4       5.4       5.5       5.8  
        Food manufacturing...............................       5.0       4.9       5.2       4.3       4.7       4.9  
        Beverage and tobacco products....................       4.6       8.0       5.4       6.9       8.1       6.4  
        Textiles, apparel, and leather...................       5.0       5.0       4.4       4.6       4.7       4.3  
        Paper and printing...............................       6.2       6.9       6.3       5.5       6.8       9.7  
        Petroleum and coal products......................       9.8      11.4       5.0       4.3       5.1       6.4  
        Chemicals........................................       5.7       5.3       6.1       7.6       7.3       6.1  
        Plastics and rubber products.....................       5.3       5.7       5.0       5.3       7.4       6.1  
    Wholesale and retail trade...........................       2.8       3.1       3.1       3.2       3.6       3.7  
      Wholesale trade....................................       3.9       4.3       4.6       5.0       5.2       5.5  
      Retail trade.......................................       2.6       2.8       2.8       2.9       3.3       3.3  
    Transportation and utilities.........................       4.9       5.3       4.9       5.1       5.3       5.6  
      Transportation and warehousing.....................       4.3       4.7       4.3       4.6       5.0       5.3  
      Utilities..........................................      13.4      13.3      10.4      10.1       9.1       9.5  
    Information (1)......................................       3.3       4.3       4.8       4.7       5.0       5.4  
      Publishing, except Internet........................       4.8       4.7       5.3       4.7       5.6       6.6  
      Motion pictures and sound recording industries.....       2.3       2.2       1.9       1.9       3.8       2.6  
      Radio and television broadcasting and cable                                                                      
        subscriptions programming (2)....................       3.1       4.0       4.6       3.4       4.3       4.9  
      Telecommunications (2).............................       3.4       4.6       5.3       6.9       6.6       7.4  
    Financial activities.................................       3.6       3.9       4.0       4.5       4.6       4.9  
      Finance and insurance..............................       3.9       4.1       4.1       4.7       4.8       5.0  
        Finance..........................................       3.6       4.0       3.9       4.4       4.5       4.7  
        Insurance........................................       4.5       4.4       4.7       5.2       5.5       5.7  
      Real estate and rental and leasing.................       3.0       3.3       3.4       3.7       3.9       4.5  
        Real estate......................................       3.2       3.5       3.5       3.9       4.1       4.5  
        Rental and leasing services......................       2.2       2.9       3.1       3.0       3.3       4.2  
    Professional and business services...................       2.7       3.2       3.2       3.1       3.4       3.8  
      Professional and technical services................       3.1       3.6       3.8       3.3       4.0       4.4  
      Management, administrative, and waste services (1)        2.1       2.6       2.5       2.5       2.9       3.1  
        Administrative and support services..............       1.9       2.4       2.4       2.4       2.8       3.0  
        Waste management and remediation services........       4.3       3.4       4.1       4.1       2.9       4.4  
    Education and health services........................       3.5       3.6       4.0       4.1       4.1       4.4  
      Educational services...............................       3.6       3.8       4.0       4.3       4.4       4.3  
      Health care and social assistance..................       3.5       3.6       4.1       4.1       4.1       4.4  
        Hospitals........................................       4.9       4.7       5.2       5.4       5.3       6.0  
        Health services, except hospitals................       3.1       3.3       3.6       3.6       3.6       3.8  
        Social assistance................................       2.5       2.8       3.1       3.0       3.1       3.1  
    Leisure and hospitality..............................       1.8       2.0       1.9       2.1       2.5       2.4  
      Arts, entertainment, and recreation................       2.3       2.8       3.1       2.8       3.3       3.1  
      Accommodation and food services....................       1.6       1.9       1.6       1.9       2.3       2.3  
        Accommodation....................................       2.7       3.1       2.5       3.1       3.3       3.8  
        Food services and drinking places................       1.4       1.6       1.4       1.6       2.2       2.1  
    Other services.......................................       3.3       3.3       3.2       3.3       4.0       3.8  
      Other services, except private households..........       3.3       3.5       3.3       3.4       4.1       3.8  
        Repair and maintenance...........................       3.0       3.2       2.9       3.0       4.0       3.7  
        Personal and laundry services....................       2.8       3.4       2.8       3.2       3.5       3.5  
        Membership associations and organizations........       4.1       3.9       4.2       4.4       4.5       4.3  
      Other services, private households.................       2.7       2.3       2.8       2.8       3.4       3.3  
                                                                                                                       
Public sector............................................       6.7       6.9       6.9       7.2       7.2       7.8  
  Federal government.....................................      11.3      10.4       9.9       9.9       7.9       9.5  
  State government.......................................       5.4       6.4       6.3       6.5       6.4       6.4  
  Local government.......................................       6.2       6.4       6.6       7.1       7.5       8.1  

   1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.
   2 Data for these industries are not directly comparable over time due to industry classification changes in 2003
and 2009. NOTE: Beginning with data for January 2009, industries reflect the introduction of the 2007 census industry
classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2007
North American Industry Classification System. No historical data have been revised.




Table 6. Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by occupation, selected
years, 2002-2012
                                                                                                                       
                       Occupation                            January   January   January   January   January   January 
                                                               2002      2004      2006      2008      2010      2012  
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
    Total, 16 years and over.............................       3.7       4.0       4.0       4.1       4.4       4.6  
                                                                                                                       
 Management, professional, and related occupations.......       4.6       5.0       5.2       5.1       5.2       5.5  
   Management, business, and financial operations                                                                      
     occupations.........................................       5.2       5.5       5.5       5.4       5.4       5.9  
      Management occupations.............................       5.6       6.0       6.0       6.0       6.1       6.3  
      Business and financial operations occupations......       4.2       4.5       4.7       4.6       4.6       5.2  
   Professional and related occupations..................       4.2       4.7       5.0       4.9       5.0       5.4  
      Computer and mathematical occupations..............       3.2       4.8       4.8       4.5       4.8       4.8  
      Architecture and engineering occupations...........       5.2       5.8       6.5       6.4       5.7       7.0  
      Life, physical, and social science occupations.....       4.3       4.2       4.7       4.0       4.6       5.3  
      Community and social services occupations..........       4.4       4.7       4.7       4.8       4.6       5.0  
      Legal occupations..................................       4.5       4.1       5.0       4.3       4.6       5.4  
      Education, training, and library occupations.......       4.8       5.1       5.3       5.4       5.6       5.9  
      Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media                                                                   
        occupations......................................       3.0       3.6       3.6       3.4       3.9       4.2  
      Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations..       4.3       4.5       4.8       4.9       4.8       5.2  
                                                                                                                       
 Service occupations.....................................       2.4       2.8       2.8       2.8       3.1       3.2  
   Healthcare support occupations........................       2.5       2.9       3.1       3.1       3.3       3.3  
   Protective service occupations........................       5.4       5.5       5.5       5.9       5.0       6.4  
   Food preparation and serving related occupations......       1.5       1.8       1.8       2.0       2.3       2.3  
   Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance                                                                       
     occupations.........................................       3.0       3.3       3.7       3.6       4.1       4.0  
   Personal care and service occupations.................       2.3       2.7       2.4       2.6       2.9       3.0  
                                                                                                                       
 Sales and office occupations............................       3.2       3.4       3.4       3.5       4.1       4.2  
   Sales and related occupations.........................       2.7       2.8       2.8       2.9       3.4       3.4  
   Office and administrative support occupations.........       3.6       4.0       4.1       4.2       4.7       4.8  
                                                                                                                       
 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                                      
   occupations...........................................       3.7       3.7       3.5       4.0       4.7       4.7  
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations............       4.0       3.7       3.6       3.1       4.2       3.9  
   Construction and extraction occupations...............       3.2       3.2       3.0       3.5       4.1       4.3  
   Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations.....       4.6       4.7       4.6       5.0       5.7       5.3  
                                                                                                                       
 Production, transportation, and material moving                                                                       
   occupations...........................................       4.3       4.2       4.0       4.5       4.6       4.8  
   Production occupations................................       5.2       5.0       4.8       5.0       5.3       5.3  
   Transportation and material moving occupations........       3.2       3.4       3.3       3.8       4.0       4.3  

   NOTE: Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classi-
fication system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the
2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 and later years
are not strictly comparable with earlier years. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of
January data.




Last Modified Date: September 18, 2012
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