Economic News Release

Employee Tenure News Release


Technical information:(202) 691-6378      USDL 08-1344
             http://www.bls.gov/cps/
                                          For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:        (202) 691-5902      Friday, September 26, 2008
                                   
                                   
                        EMPLOYEE TENURE IN 2008

   The median number of years that wage and salary workers had been 
with their current employer was 4.1 years in January 2008, little 
changed from 4.0 years in January 2006, the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today.

   Information on employee tenure has been obtained from supplemental
questions to the Current Population Survey (CPS) every 2 years since
1996.  The CPS is a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that
provides information on the labor force status, demographics, and
other characteristics of the civilian noninstitutional population age
16 and over.  The questions about employee tenure measure how long
workers had been with their current employer at the time of the sur-
vey.  A number of factors can affect the median tenure of workers,
including changes in the age profile among workers as well as changes
in the number of hires and separations.  (See the Technical Note.)

Demographic Characteristics

   In January 2008, median tenure (the point at which half of all
workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for men was 4.2
years, about unchanged from January 2006.  For women, median tenure 
in January 2008 was 3.9 years, unchanged from January 2006.  (See  
table 1.) 

   Older workers tend to have more years of tenure than their younger
counterparts.  For example, median tenure for employees age 55 to 64
was 9.9 years in January 2008, almost four times the tenure (2.7 years) 
for workers age 25 to 34.  (See table 1.)

   The percentage of all wage and salary workers age 16 and over with
10 or more years of tenure with their current employer was 27 percent
in January 2008.  Among men, 28 percent had at least 10 years of ten-
ure with their current employer in January 2008, higher than the 26
percent among women.  A larger percentage of older workers than younger 
workers had 10 or more years of tenure. More than half of all workers 
age 55 and over were employed for at least 10 years with their current 
employer in January 2008, compared with only 10 percent of those age 30 
to 34.  (See tables 2 and 3.)

   The proportion of Hispanic wage and salary workers (age 16 and 
over) with 10 or more years of tenure with their current employer was
19 percent in January 2008, compared with 28 percent of white, 24 per-
cent of black, and 21 percent of Asian workers.  (See table 3.)  The 
shorter tenure among Hispanics can be explained, in part, by their re-
lative youth.  Nearly 50 percent of Hispanic workers age 16 and over
were between the ages of 16 to 34.  In contrast, less than 40 percent
of whites, blacks, and Asians were between 16 and 34 years old.

                             - 2 -

   In January 2008, about 23 percent of all wage and salary workers
age 16 and over had 12 months or less of tenure with their current
employer.  These short-tenured workers include new entrants and
reentrants to the labor force, job losers who found new jobs during
the previous year, and workers who had voluntarily changed employers
during the previous year.  Younger workers are more likely than older 
workers to be short-tenured employees.  For example, among 20- to 24-
year-old workers, about half had a year or less of tenure with their 
current employer.  Among wage and salary workers age 55 to 64 and 
those age 65 and over, less than 10 percent had a year or less of ten-
ure.  (See table 3.)

Industry

   In January 2008, wage and salary workers in the public sector had
double the median tenure of private sector employees, 7.2 versus 3.6
years.  The longer tenure among workers in the public sector is ex-
plained, in part, by a higher share of workers age 35 and over among
government workers than in the private sector.  About 3 in 4 govern-
ment workers were age 35 and over, compared with about 3 out of 5 pri-
vate wage and salary workers.  Federal employees had a higher median 
tenure (9.9 years) than state (6.5 years) or local government (7.1 
years) employees.  (See table 5.)

   Within the private sector, workers in manufacturing had the highest
median tenure among the major industries (5.9 years).  In contrast,
workers in leisure and hospitality had the lowest median tenure (2.1
years).  These differences in tenure reflect many factors, one of
which is varying age distributions across industries; workers in manu-
facturing tend to be older on average than workers in leisure and hos-
pitality.  (See table 5.)

Occupation

   Among the major occupations, workers in management, professional,
and related occupations had the highest median tenure (5.1 years) in
January 2008.  Within this group, employees with jobs in architecture
and engineering occupations (6.4 years) and management occupations
(6.0 years) had the longest tenure.  Workers in service occupations,
who are generally younger than persons employed in management, profes-
sional, and related occupations, had the lowest median tenure (2.8 
years).  Among employees working in service jobs, food service workers 
had the shortest median tenure, at 2.0 years.  (See table 6.)





     ----------------------------------------------------------- 
    |                                                           |
    |      Imputed Data for Older Veterans and Young Workers    |
    |                                                           |
    |   Due to a programming error in the January 2008 survey   |
    | instrument, employee tenure information was not obtained  |
    | from respondents who were 16 years old and from those who |
    | were veterans age 65 and over.  Missing data for these    |
    | individuals were imputed using information collected from |
    | respondents who were 16 years old and veterans age 65 and |
    | over in the January 2006 supplement.  This imputation had |
    | minimal effect on the overall estimates because of the    |
    | similar employment characteristics of these two groups in |
    | January 2006 and January 2008.                            |
    |                                                           |
     ----------------------------------------------------------- 








                                - 3 -

Technical Note
  
  
   The data in this release were collected through a supplement to the 
January 2008 Current Population Survey (CPS).  The CPS, which is 
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that provides
information on the labor force status, demographics, and other charac-
teristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16 
and over.
  
   The January 2008 CPS supplement obtained information on worker dis-
placement and workers' tenure with their current employer.  The data on 
worker displacement appear in the BLS news release USDL 08-1183, "Worker 
Displacement, 2005-2007," issued on August 20, 2008.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired 
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200, TDD message re-
ferral phone number:  1-800-877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates
 
   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling 
error.  When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, 
there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" pop-
ulation values they represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, 
varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability 
is measured by the standard error of the estimate.  There is about a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sam-
ple will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" popu-
lation value because of sampling error.  BLS analyses are generally con-
ducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The CPS data also are af-
fected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling error can occur for many rea-
sons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, in-
ability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inabil-
ity or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and in-
formation on estimating standard errors, see the explanatory note for 
the household survey online at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Tenure questions and concepts

   In the January 2008 CPS supplement, questions on tenure were asked of 
all employed persons. The first question was: "How long has ... been 
working continuously for (fill in name of present employer)?"

                                _____ Days
                                _____ Weeks
                                _____ Months
                                _____ Years

For responses of "1 year" or "2 years," a follow-up question was asked:
"Could you please give the exact number of months?"

                                - 4 -

   The purpose of the follow-up question is to obtain more precise informa-
tion on workers who had been with their current employer for a relatively 
short time.  This follow-up question was included for the first time in 
the February 1996 CPS supplement on worker displacement and tenure.  CPS 
supplements that obtained information on tenure in January of 1983, 1987, 
and 1991 did not include the follow-up question.  In those surveys, re-
sponses of 1 year or more could be coded only as the nearest full year,
and responses of less than a year were coded as the nearest full month.

   Prior to January 1983, CPS supplements on tenure asked wage and salary 
workers, "When did ... start working at (his/her) present job?"  For 
wage and salary workers, the meaning of the term "job" is ambiguous.  For
example, a worker who had been employed at a particular company for 10 
years and had been promoted to a managerial position 1 year prior to the 
survey may have been counted as having 10 years or 1 year of tenure, de-
pending on whether the respondent interpreted the question to mean tenure 
with the current employer or tenure in the managerial position.  To rec-
tify this ambiguity, the wording of the question was changed in January 
1983 to specify the length of time a worker had been with his or her cur-
rent employer.  The change resulted in a break in historical comparability.

   Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time workers.  
All data exclude the incorporated and unincorporated self employed.  

Interpreting tenure data

   Data on tenure have been used as a gauge of employment security, with some 
observers regarding increases in tenure as a sign of improving security and 
decreasing tenure as a sign of deteriorating security.  However, there are 
limitations to using the data in this way.  For example, during recessions 
or other periods of declining job security, median tenure and the proportion 
of workers with long tenure could rise because less-senior workers are more 
likely to lose their jobs than are workers with longer tenure.  During periods 
of economic growth, median tenure and the proportion of workers with long 
tenure could fall because more job opportunities are available for new en-
trants to the workforce and experienced workers have more opportunities to 
change employers and take better jobs.  Tenure also could rise under im-
proving economic conditions, however, as fewer layoffs occur and good job
matches develop between workers and employers.  

   A changing age distribution among workers would also affect median tenure.  
Since older workers are more likely to have long tenure with their current 
employer than younger workers, aging baby boomers in the workforce would 
provide upward pressure on overall median tenure.







   Table 1.  Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by age
   and sex, selected years, 1996-2008
                                                                                                       
                                                                                                       
            Age and sex            February  February  February  January   January   January   January 
                                     1996      1998      2000      2002      2004      2006      2008  
                                                                                                       
                                                                                                       
               TOTAL                                                                                   
                                                                                                       
         16 years and over.......     3.8       3.6       3.5       3.7       4.0       4.0       4.1  
   16 to 17 years................      .7        .6        .6        .7        .7        .6        .7  
   18 to 19 years................      .7        .7        .7        .8        .8        .7        .8  
   20 to 24 years................     1.2       1.1       1.1       1.2       1.3       1.3       1.3  
   25 years and over.............     5.0       4.7       4.7       4.7       4.9       4.9       5.1  
     25 to 34 years..............     2.8       2.7       2.6       2.7       2.9       2.9       2.7  
     35 to 44 years..............     5.3       5.0       4.8       4.6       4.9       4.9       4.9  
     45 to 54 years..............     8.3       8.1       8.2       7.6       7.7       7.3       7.6  
     55 to 64 years..............    10.2      10.1      10.0       9.9       9.6       9.3       9.9  
     65 years and over...........     8.4       7.8       9.4       8.6       9.0       8.8      10.2  
                                                                                                       
                Men                                                                                    
                                                                                                       
         16 years and over.......     4.0       3.8       3.8       3.9       4.1       4.1       4.2  
   16 to 17 years................      .6        .6        .6        .8        .7        .7        .7  
   18 to 19 years................      .7        .7        .7        .8        .8        .7        .8  
   20 to 24 years................     1.2       1.2       1.2       1.4       1.3       1.4       1.4  
   25 years and over.............     5.3       4.9       4.9       4.9       5.1       5.0       5.2  
     25 to 34 years..............     3.0       2.8       2.7       2.8       3.0       2.9       2.8  
     35 to 44 years..............     6.1       5.5       5.3       5.0       5.2       5.1       5.2  
     45 to 54 years..............    10.1       9.4       9.5       9.1       9.6       8.1       8.2  
     55 to 64 years..............    10.5      11.2      10.2      10.2       9.8       9.5      10.1  
     65 years and over...........     8.3       7.1       9.0       8.1       8.2       8.3      10.4  
                                                                                                       
               Women                                                                                   
                                                                                                       
         16 years and over.......     3.5       3.4       3.3       3.4       3.8       3.9       3.9  
   16 to 17 years................      .7        .6        .6        .7        .6        .6        .6  
   18 to 19 years................      .7        .7        .7        .8        .8        .7        .8  
   20 to 24 years................     1.2       1.1       1.0       1.1       1.3       1.2       1.3  
   25 years and over.............     4.7       4.4       4.4       4.4       4.7       4.8       4.9  
     25 to 34 years..............     2.7       2.5       2.5       2.5       2.8       2.8       2.6  
     35 to 44 years..............     4.8       4.5       4.3       4.2       4.5       4.6       4.7  
     45 to 54 years..............     7.0       7.2       7.3       6.5       6.4       6.7       7.0  
     55 to 64 years..............    10.0       9.6       9.9       9.6       9.2       9.2       9.8  
     65 years and over...........     8.4       8.7       9.7       9.4       9.6       9.5       9.9  

      NOTE:  Data for 1996 and 1998 are based on population controls from the 1990 census.  Data
   beginning in 2000 reflect the introduction of Census 2000 population controls and are not strictly
   comparable with data for prior years.  In addition, data for 2004 forward reflect updated population
   controls introduced annually with the release of January data.







   Table 2.  Percent of employed wage and salary workers 25 years and over who had 10 years or more of
   tenure with their current employer by age and sex, selected years, 1996-2008
                                                                                                       
                                                                                                       
            Age and sex            February  February  February  January   January   January   January 
                                     1996      1998      2000      2002      2004      2006      2008  
                                                                                                       
                                                                                                       
               TOTAL                                                                                   
                                                                                                       
         25 years and over.......    30.5      30.7      31.5      30.8      30.6      30.0      31.5  
   25 to 29 years................     2.8       2.7       2.5       2.2       2.4       2.4       2.3  
   30 to 34 years................    14.7      14.7      13.9      11.7      10.9      10.6      10.1  
   35 to 39 years................    26.9      27.0      26.1      25.2      23.2      22.8      23.0  
   40 to 44 years................    36.1      35.6      35.8      33.9      32.4      31.8      32.9  
   45 to 49 years................    44.5      42.9      45.2      41.2      42.1      39.9      40.2  
   50 to 54 years................    50.4      48.8      48.7      49.4      48.5      46.6      47.7  
   55 to 59 years................    54.0      52.9      53.1      53.3      50.9      50.1      52.4  
   60 to 64 years................    51.5      54.4      53.0      50.5      49.7      48.4      53.6  
   65 years and over.............    47.4      45.0      49.8      48.0      48.7      48.5      56.3  
                                                                                                       
                Men                                                                                    
                                                                                                       
         25 years and over.......    33.1      32.7      33.4      32.6      32.4      31.1      32.9  
   25 to 29 years................     3.3       3.1       3.0       2.6       2.7       2.6       2.4  
   30 to 34 years................    15.6      15.3      15.1      13.0      11.9      11.6      11.3  
   35 to 39 years................    30.5      29.7      29.4      27.2      24.9      24.7      25.4  
   40 to 44 years................    41.7      39.1      40.2      37.4      36.2      34.8      35.8  
   45 to 49 years................    50.8      47.4      49.0      45.4      48.1      42.9      43.5  
   50 to 54 years................    54.9      52.8      51.6      54.0      53.0      49.7      50.4  
   55 to 59 years................    55.7      56.5      53.7      56.5      53.4      51.0      54.9  
   60 to 64 years................    50.4      55.7      52.4      48.4      48.5      48.1      52.4  
   65 years and over.............    47.6      42.3      48.6      46.4      46.8      47.2      58.9  
                                                                                                       
               Women                                                                                   
                                                                                                       
         25 years and over.......    27.6      28.4      29.5      28.8      28.6      28.8      30.0  
   25 to 29 years................     2.2       2.2       1.9       1.8       1.9       2.1       2.1  
   30 to 34 years................    13.6      14.0      12.5      10.2       9.8       9.4       8.7  
   35 to 39 years................    22.9      24.0      22.3      22.9      21.3      20.5      20.3  
   40 to 44 years................    30.4      31.8      31.2      30.2      28.5      28.4      29.9  
   45 to 49 years................    38.1      38.4      41.4      37.0      36.2      36.9      36.7  
   50 to 54 years................    45.8      44.6      45.8      44.8      44.1      43.6      45.0  
   55 to 59 years................    52.1      49.2      52.5      49.9      48.4      49.1      50.0  
   60 to 64 years................    52.7      53.0      53.6      52.6      51.0      48.7      54.8  
   65 years and over.............    47.2      47.7      51.0      49.7      50.7      49.9      53.8  

      NOTE:  Data for 1996 and 1998 are based on population controls from the 1990 census.  Data
   beginning in 2000 reflect the introduction of Census 2000 population controls and are not strictly
   comparable with data for prior years.  In addition, data for 2004 forward reflect updated population
   controls introduced annually with the release of January data.







   Table 3.  Distribution of employed wage and salary workers by tenure with current employer, age, sex, race, and
   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, January 2008
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                      Percent distribution by tenure with current employer         
     Age, sex, race, and         Number                                                                            
      Hispanic or Latino        employed                                                                           
           ethnicity         (in thousands)            12    13 to           3 to 4  5 to 9  10 to   15 to     20  
                                             Total   months    23   2 years  years   years     14      19    years 
                                                    or less  months                          years   years  or more
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
             TOTAL                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                   
         16 years and over..    129,276      100.0    22.9     7.4     5.6    16.9    20.2    10.6     6.2    10.3 
   16 to 19 years...........      5,200      100.0    73.8    11.5     7.5     7.0      .3     -       -       -   
   20 years and over........    124,076      100.0    20.8     7.2     5.5    17.3    21.0    11.0     6.4    10.7 
     20 to 24 years.........     13,139      100.0    49.9    13.2    10.2    20.4     6.4    (1)      -       -   
     25 to 34 years.........     29,097      100.0    28.2    10.4     8.5    23.4    23.5     5.4      .6    (1)  
     35 to 44 years.........     30,150      100.0    17.1     6.6     4.8    18.1    25.3    15.3     8.2     4.5 
     45 to 54 years.........     30,151      100.0    12.9     4.4     3.5    13.7    21.6    14.4     9.9    19.4 
     55 to 64 years.........     17,242      100.0     9.4     4.3     2.6    11.2    19.7    14.1    10.9    27.8 
     65 years and over......      4,297      100.0     8.9     2.5     2.8    10.6    18.9    16.6    10.4    29.2 
                                                                                                                   
              Men                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                   
         16 years and over..     66,660      100.0    22.4     6.9     5.6    16.9    19.9    10.7     6.1    11.5 
   16 to 19 years...........      2,423      100.0    72.5    11.8     8.4     7.0      .3     -       -       -   
   20 years and over........     64,236      100.0    20.5     6.8     5.5    17.3    20.6    11.1     6.3    11.9 
     20 to 24 years.........      6,856      100.0    49.6    12.2    10.2    21.3     6.6     -       -       -   
     25 to 34 years.........     15,709      100.0    27.4     9.7     8.3    23.3    24.6     5.8      .9    (1)  
     35 to 44 years.........     15,755      100.0    16.7     6.0     4.8    17.6    24.4    16.6     8.7     5.3 
     45 to 54 years.........     15,289      100.0    12.7     3.9     3.3    13.1    20.4    14.0    10.0    22.7 
     55 to 64 years.........      8,513      100.0     8.5     4.7     2.3    11.6    18.8    13.4     9.9    30.7 
     65 years and over......      2,115      100.0     8.5     2.7     2.0    10.5    17.6    15.8     9.1    33.9 
                                                                                                                   
             Women                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                   
         16 years and over..     62,616      100.0    23.5     7.8     5.7    16.9    20.4    10.5     6.2     9.0 
   16 to 19 years...........      2,776      100.0    74.9    11.2     6.8     6.9      .3     -       -       -   
   20 years and over........     59,840      100.0    21.1     7.7     5.6    17.3    21.4    11.0     6.5     9.4 
     20 to 24 years.........      6,283      100.0    50.2    14.2    10.1    19.3     6.1      .1     -       -   
     25 to 34 years.........     13,388      100.0    29.2    11.2     8.6    23.5    22.3     5.0      .3     -   
     35 to 44 years.........     14,395      100.0    17.5     7.4     4.8    18.7    26.3    13.9     7.6     3.8 
     45 to 54 years.........     14,862      100.0    13.2     5.1     3.8    14.4    22.9    15.0     9.8    16.0 
     55 to 64 years.........      8,729      100.0    10.3     3.9     2.8    10.8    20.5    14.9    11.8    25.1 
     65 years and over......      2,182      100.0     9.3     2.3     3.6    10.6    20.3    17.4    11.7    24.7 
                                                                                                                   
            White                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                   
       16 years and over....    105,246      100.0    22.6     7.3     5.4    16.4    20.2    10.8     6.4    10.8 
   Men......................     55,008      100.0    22.0     6.8     5.4    16.5    19.8    10.9     6.4    12.2 
   Women....................     50,238      100.0    23.2     7.9     5.5    16.3    20.6    10.7     6.4     9.3 
                                                                                                                   
   Black or African American                                                                                       
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
       16 years and over....     14,497      100.0    24.5     7.1     6.8    18.0    19.7    10.3     4.7     8.8 
   Men......................      6,704      100.0    25.4     7.2     6.7    17.0    19.5    10.6     4.0     9.6 
   Women....................      7,793      100.0    23.7     7.0     6.9    18.9    19.9    10.1     5.4     8.2 
                                                                                                                   
            Asian                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                   
       16 years and over....      6,283      100.0    21.5     7.6     5.4    21.8    22.4     9.6     5.5     6.2 
   Men......................      3,316      100.0    19.8     7.5     5.0    23.2    24.0     9.5     5.6     5.4 
   Women....................      2,967      100.0    23.4     7.7     5.8    20.3    20.5     9.7     5.3     7.2 
                                                                                                                   
      Hispanic or Latino                                                                                           
          ethnicity                                                                                                
                                                                                                                   
       16 years and over....     18,645      100.0    26.9     7.1     7.2    19.9    20.2     9.3     4.5     4.9 
   Men......................     10,886      100.0    25.9     6.3     7.6    20.5    20.1     9.2     4.8     5.6 
   Women....................      7,759      100.0    28.3     8.2     6.8    19.1    20.4     9.4     4.0     3.9 

       1 Less than 0.05 percent.
       NOTE:  Detail for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals
   because data are not presented for all races.  Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may
   be of any race.  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.  Detail
   may not sum to totals because of rounding.  Dash represents zero or rounds to zero.







   Table 4.  Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers 25 years
   and over by educational attainment, sex, and age, January 2008
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                                               25 years and over                        
                                                                                                        
     Educational attainment and sex                                                                     
                                          Total    25 to 34   35 to 44   45 to 54   55 to 64   65 years 
                                                     years      years      years      years    and over 
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
       Total..........................     5.1        2.7        4.9        7.6        9.9       10.2   
   Less than a high school diploma....     4.0        2.6        3.7        4.8        8.9        8.3   
   High school graduates, no college..     5.4        2.8        4.9        7.8       10.0       10.3   
   Some college, no degree............     4.9        2.7        4.6        7.6        9.2       10.2   
   Associate degree...................     5.2        2.9        5.0        7.8        9.8       10.3   
   College graduates..................     5.3        2.7        5.5        8.2       10.4       10.4   
     Bachelor's degree................     5.0        2.6        5.5        8.2       10.1       10.3   
     Master's degree..................     5.9        3.0        5.5        8.5       10.3       10.3   
     Doctoral or professional degree..     6.1        2.0        5.1        7.9       15.2       15.8   
                                                                                                        
       Men............................     5.2        2.8        5.2        8.2       10.1       10.4   
   Less than a high school diploma....     4.1        2.8        3.9        5.1        9.6        8.4   
   High school graduates, no college..     5.5        2.8        5.4        8.4       10.4       10.9   
   Some college, no degree............     5.0        2.9        4.7        8.9        9.3       11.6   
   Associate degree...................     5.6        3.1        6.1        9.3       10.1       10.0   
   College graduates..................     5.5        2.8        5.6        8.7       10.4       12.5   
     Bachelor's degree................     5.3        2.7        5.8        9.5       10.1       10.3   
     Master's degree..................     5.9        3.2        5.1        7.9        9.7       10.4   
     Doctoral or professional degree..     6.7        2.2        5.4        7.9       16.3       18.8   
                                                                                                        
       Women..........................     4.9        2.6        4.7        7.0        9.8        9.9   
   Less than a high school diploma....     3.8        2.2        3.5        4.3        7.7        8.3   
   High school graduates, no college..     5.3        2.7        4.3        7.1        9.7       10.0   
   Some college, no degree............     4.7        2.4        4.5        6.8        9.1        9.8   
   Associate degree...................     4.9        2.9        4.6        7.0        9.5       10.8   
   College graduates..................     5.0        2.6        5.4        7.8       10.3       10.1   
     Bachelor's degree................     4.8        2.5        5.2        7.4       10.2       10.2   
     Master's degree..................     6.0        2.8        6.2        9.4       11.3        9.9   
     Doctoral or professional degree..     4.6        1.9        4.4        7.7       10.3        7.2   

       NOTE:  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.







   Table 5.  Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by industry,
   selected years, 2000-08
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                           Industry                           February  January   January   January   January 
                                                                2000      2002      2004      2006      2008  
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
     Total, 16 years and over...............................     3.5       3.7       4.0       4.0       4.1  
                                                                                                              
   Private sector...........................................     3.2       3.3       3.5       3.6       3.6  
     Agriculture and related industries.....................     3.7       4.2       3.7       3.8       4.3  
     Nonagricultural industries.............................     3.2       3.3       3.5       3.6       3.6  
       Mining...............................................     4.8       4.5       5.2       3.8       4.1  
       Construction.........................................     2.7       3.0       3.0       3.0       3.5  
       Manufacturing........................................     4.9       5.4       5.8       5.5       5.9  
         Durable goods manufacturing........................     4.8       5.5       6.0       5.6       6.1  
           Nonmetallic mineral products.....................     5.5       5.3       4.8       5.0       4.8  
           Primary metals and fabricated metal products.....     5.0       6.3       6.4       6.2       5.2  
           Machinery manufacturing..........................     5.3       6.8       6.4       6.6       6.0  
           Computers and electronic products................     3.9       4.7       5.2       5.9       6.7  
           Electrical equipment and appliances..............     5.0       5.5       9.8       6.2       6.2  
           Transportation equipment.........................     6.4       7.0       7.7       7.2       7.8  
           Wood products....................................     3.7       4.3       5.0       4.7       6.2  
           Furniture and fixtures...........................     4.4       4.7       4.7       4.2       5.2  
           Miscellaneous manufacturing......................     3.7       4.5       4.6       3.9       4.7  
         Nondurable goods manufacturing.....................     5.0       5.3       5.5       5.4       5.4  
           Food manufacturing...............................     4.6       5.0       4.9       5.2       4.3  
           Beverage and tobacco products....................     5.5       4.6       8.0       5.4       6.9  
           Textiles, apparel, and leather...................     4.7       5.0       5.0       4.4       4.6  
           Paper and printing...............................     5.1       6.2       6.9       6.3       5.5  
           Petroleum and coal products......................     9.5       9.8      11.4       5.0       4.3  
           Chemicals........................................     6.0       5.7       5.3       6.1       7.6  
           Plastics and rubber products.....................     4.6       5.3       5.7       5.0       5.3  
       Wholesale and retail trade...........................     2.7       2.8       3.1       3.1       3.2  
         Wholesale trade....................................     3.9       3.9       4.3       4.6       5.0  
         Retail trade.......................................     2.5       2.6       2.8       2.8       2.9  
       Transportation and utilities.........................     4.7       4.9       5.3       4.9       5.1  
         Transportation and warehousing.....................     4.0       4.3       4.7       4.3       4.6  
         Utilities..........................................    11.5      13.4      13.3      10.4      10.1  
       Information (1)......................................     3.4       3.3       4.3       4.8       4.7  
         Publishing, except Internet........................     4.2       4.8       4.7       5.3       4.7  
         Motion picture and sound recording industries......     1.6       2.3       2.2       1.9       1.9  
         Broadcasting, except Internet......................     3.6       3.1       4.0       4.6       3.4  
         Telecommunications.................................     4.3       3.4       4.6       5.3       6.9  
       Financial activities.................................     3.5       3.6       3.9       4.0       4.5  
         Finance and insurance..............................     3.6       3.9       4.1       4.1       4.7  
           Finance..........................................     3.3       3.6       4.0       3.9       4.4  
           Insurance........................................     4.4       4.5       4.4       4.7       5.2  
         Real estate and rental and leasing.................     3.1       3.0       3.3       3.4       3.7  
           Real estate......................................     3.1       3.2       3.5       3.5       3.9  
           Rental and leasing services......................     3.0       2.2       2.9       3.1       3.0  
       Professional and business services...................     2.4       2.7       3.2       3.2       3.1  
         Professional and technical services................     2.6       3.1       3.6       3.8       3.3  
         Management, administrative, and waste services (1)      2.0       2.1       2.6       2.5       2.5  
           Administrative and support services..............     1.8       1.9       2.4       2.4       2.4  
           Waste management and remediation services........     3.6       4.3       3.4       4.1       4.1  
       Education and health services........................     3.4       3.5       3.6       4.0       4.1  
         Educational services...............................     3.2       3.6       3.8       4.0       4.3  
         Health care and social assistance..................     3.5       3.5       3.6       4.1       4.1  
           Hospitals........................................     5.1       4.9       4.7       5.2       5.4  
           Health services, except hospitals................     3.2       3.1       3.3       3.6       3.6  
           Social assistance................................     2.4       2.5       2.8       3.1       3.0  
       Leisure and hospitality..............................     1.7       1.8       2.0       1.9       2.1  
         Arts, entertainment, and recreation................     2.6       2.3       2.8       3.1       2.8  
         Accommodation and food services....................     1.5       1.6       1.9       1.6       1.9  
           Accommodation....................................     2.8       2.7       3.1       2.5       3.1  
           Food services and drinking places................     1.4       1.4       1.6       1.4       1.6  
       Other services.......................................     3.1       3.3       3.3       3.2       3.3  
         Other services, except private households..........     3.2       3.3       3.5       3.3       3.4  
           Repair and maintenance...........................     3.0       3.0       3.2       2.9       3.0  
           Personal and laundry services....................     2.7       2.8       3.4       2.8       3.2  
           Membership associations and organizations........     4.0       4.1       3.9       4.2       4.4  
         Other services, private households.................     3.0       2.7       2.3       2.8       2.8  
                                                                                                              
   Public sector............................................     7.1       6.7       6.9       6.9       7.2  
     Federal government.....................................    11.5      11.3      10.4       9.9       9.9  
     State government.......................................     5.5       5.4       6.4       6.3       6.5  
     Local government.......................................     6.7       6.2       6.4       6.6       7.1  

     1 Includes other industries, not shown separately.
     NOTE:  Data beginning in 2000 reflect the introduction of Census 2000 population controls.  Data for
   2004 forward reflect updated population controls introduced annually with the release of January data.







   Table 6.  Median years of tenure with current employer for employed wage and salary workers by occupation,
   selected years, 2000-08
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                          Occupation                          February  January   January   January   January 
                                                                2000      2002      2004      2006      2008  
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
       Total, 16 years and over.............................     3.5       3.7       4.0       4.0       4.1  
                                                                                                              
    Management, professional, and related occupations.......     4.6       4.6       5.0       5.2       5.1  
      Management, business, and financial operations                                                          
      occupations...........................................     4.9       5.2       5.5       5.5       5.4  
         Management occupations.............................     5.3       5.6       6.0       6.0       6.0  
         Business and financial operations occupations......     4.0       4.2       4.5       4.7       4.6  
      Professional and related occupations..................     4.4       4.2       4.7       5.0       4.9  
         Computer and mathematical occupations..............     3.1       3.2       4.8       4.8       4.5  
         Architecture and engineering occupations...........     4.8       5.2       5.8       6.5       6.4  
         Life, physical, and social science occupations.....     4.6       4.3       4.2       4.7       4.0  
         Community and social services occupations..........     4.6       4.4       4.7       4.7       4.8  
         Legal occupations..................................     3.9       4.5       4.1       5.0       4.3  
         Education, training, and library occupations.......     5.4       4.8       5.1       5.3       5.4  
         Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media                                                       
          occupations.......................................     3.2       3.0       3.6       3.6       3.4  
         Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations..     4.6       4.3       4.5       4.8       4.9  
                                                                                                              
    Service occupations.....................................     2.5       2.4       2.8       2.8       2.8  
      Healthcare support occupations........................     2.8       2.5       2.9       3.1       3.1  
      Protective service occupations........................     5.6       5.4       5.5       5.5       5.9  
      Food preparation and serving related occupations......     1.6       1.5       1.8       1.8       2.0  
      Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance                                                           
      occupations...........................................     3.4       3.0       3.3       3.7       3.6  
      Personal care and service occupations.................     2.3       2.3       2.7       2.4       2.6  
                                                                                                              
    Sales and office occupations............................     3.1       3.2       3.4       3.4       3.5  
      Sales and related occupations.........................     2.6       2.7       2.8       2.8       2.9  
      Office and administrative support occupations.........     3.4       3.6       4.0       4.1       4.2  
                                                                                                              
    Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                          
      occupations...........................................     3.6       3.7       3.7       3.5       4.0  
      Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations............     2.8       4.0       3.7       3.6       3.1  
      Construction and extraction occupations...............     3.1       3.2       3.2       3.0       3.5  
      Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations.....     4.7       4.6       4.7       4.6       5.0  
                                                                                                              
    Production, transportation, and material moving                                                           
      occupations...........................................     3.9       4.3       4.2       4.0       4.5  
      Production occupations................................     4.5       5.2       5.0       4.8       5.0  
      Transportation and material moving occupations........     3.2       3.2       3.4       3.3       3.8  

      NOTE:  Data beginning in 2000 reflect the introduction of Census 2000 population controls.  Data for
   2004 forward reflect updated population controls introduced annually with the release of January data.






Last Modified Date: September 26, 2008
Recommend this page using: