Economic News Release

Union Membership (Annual) News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 21, 2011                    USDL-11-0063

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                 UNION MEMBERS -- 2010


In 2010, the union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were
members of a union--was 11.9 percent, down from 12.3 percent a year earlier, the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers be-
longing to unions declined by 612,000 to 14.7 million. In 1983, the first year for
which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 per-
cent, and there were 17.7 million union workers.

The data on union membership were collected as part of the Current Population Sur-
vey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that obtains informa-
tion on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over. For more information see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2010 data:

   --The union membership rate for public sector workers (36.2  percent) was
     substantially higher than the rate for private sector workers (6.9 percent).
     (See table 3.)

   --Workers in education, training, and library occupations had the highest
     unionization rate at 37.1 percent. (See table 3.)

   --Black workers were more likely to be union members than were white, Asian,
     or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

   --Among states, New York had the highest union membership rate (24.2 percent)
     and North Carolina had the lowest rate (3.2 percent). (See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2010, 7.6 million public sector employees belonged to a union, compared with 7.1
million union workers in the private sector. The union membership rate for public
sector workers (36.2 percent) was substantially higher than the rate for private
sector workers (6.9 percent). Within the public sector, local government workers
had the highest union membership rate, 42.3 percent. This group includes workers in
heavily unionized occupations, such as teachers, police officers, and fire fighters.
Private sector industries with high unionization rates included transportation and
utilities (21.8 percent), telecommunications (15.8 percent), and construction (13.1
percent). In 2010, low unionization rates occurred in agriculture and related indus-
tries (1.6 percent) and in financial activities (2.0 percent). (See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, education, training, and library occupations (37.1 per-
cent) and protective service occupations (34.1 percent) had the highest unionization
rates in 2010.  Sales and related occupations (3.2 percent) and farming, fishing, and
forestry occupations (3.4 percent) had the lowest unionization rates. (See table 3.)

Demographic Characteristics of Union Members

The union membership rate was higher for men (12.6 percent) than for women (11.1 per-
cent) in 2010. (See table 1.) The gap between their rates has narrowed considerably
since 1983, when the rate for men was about 10 percentage points higher than the rate
for women. Between 1983 and 2010, the union membership rate for men declined by almost
half (12.1 percentage points), while the rate for women declined by 3.5 percentage
points.

In 2010, among major race and ethnicity groups, black workers were more likely to be
union members (13.4 percent) than workers who were white (11.7 percent), Asian (10.9
percent), or Hispanic (10.0 percent). Black men had the highest union membership rate
(14.8 percent), while Asian men had the lowest rate (9.4 percent).

By age, the union membership rate was highest among 55- to 64-year-old workers (15.7
percent). The lowest union membership rate occurred among those ages 16 to 24 (4.3
percent).

Union Representation

In 2010, 16.3 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This group
includes both union members (14.7 million) and workers who report no union affiliation
but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.6 million). (See table 1.) Govern-
ment employees (783,000) comprised about half of the 1.6 million workers who were
covered by a union contract but were not members of a union. (See table 3.)

Earnings

In 2010, among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual
weekly earnings of $917, while those who were not represented by unions had median
weekly earnings of $717. (See table 2.) In addition to coverage by a collective bar-
gaining agreement, the difference reflects a variety of influences including varia-
tions in the distributions of union members and nonunion employees by occupation, in-
dustry, firm size, or geographic region.

Union Membership by State

In 2010, 31 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below that
of the U.S. average, 11.9 percent, while 19 states had higher rates. All states in
the Middle Atlantic and Pacific divisions reported union membership rates above the
national average, and all states in the East South Central and West South Central divi-
sions had rates below it. Union membership rates declined over the year in 33 states
and the District of Columbia and rose in 17 states. (See table 5.)

Eight states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2010, with North Carolina
having the lowest rate (3.2 percent). The next lowest rates were recorded in Arkansas
and Georgia (4.0 percent each), Louisiana (4.3 percent), Mississippi (4.5 percent),
South Carolina and Virginia (4.6 percent each), and Tennessee (4.7 percent). Six states
had union membership rates over 17.0 percent in 2010: New York (24.2 percent), Alaska
(22.9 percent), Hawaii (21.8 percent), Washington (19.4 percent), California (17.5 per-
cent) and New Jersey (17.1 percent).

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and union member-
ship rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.4 million) and
New York (2.0 million). About half of the 14.7 million union members in the U.S. lived
in just six states (California, 2.4 million; New York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.8 mil-
lion; Pennsylvania, 0.8 million; Ohio, 0.7 million; and New Jersey, 0.6 million), though
these states accounted for only one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.

Texas had about one-fourth as many union members as New York, despite having 1.9 million
more wage and salary employees. Similarly, North Carolina and Hawaii had comparable num-
bers of union members (117,000 and 111,000, respectively), though North Carolina's wage
and salary employment level (3.7 million) was about seven times that of Hawaii (511,000).





Technical Note

  The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Sur-
vey (CPS), which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment,
and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Sta-
tistics by the U.S. Census Bureau from a scientifically selected national sam-
ple of about 60,000 households. The union membership and earnings data are
tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage
and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

  The Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the population controls for the
CPS as part of its annual update of population estimates. The effect of the
revised population controls on the union affiliation data is unknown. However,
the effect of the new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the
December 2009 employment level by 243,000. The updated controls had little or
no effect on unemployment rates and other ratios. Estimated levels, such as
the number of union members for 2010, are not strictly comparable with estimated
levels for 2009. These adjustments to the levels, however, should have had only
negligible effects on union membership rates. Additional information is avail-
able on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

  Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling er-
ror. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a
chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values
they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon
the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confi-
dence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard
errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses
are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section
of this release preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction of
the movements in state union membership rates and levels regardless of their sta-
tistical significance.

  The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can oc-
cur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population,
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or un-
willingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

  For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on
estimating standard errors, see the Household Data section of the "Explanatory Notes
and Estimates of Error" available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Definitions

  The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

  Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee
association similar to a union.

  Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report
no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee associa-
tion contract.

  Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor repre-
sented by a union on their job.

  Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions
and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job
in the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much
they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to
identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice
monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time
period. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equi-
valent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks
for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than
half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

  Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribu-
tion into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having
earnings below the median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calcu-
lated weekly earnings value into $50-wide intervals which are centered around multi-
ples of $50. The actual value is estimated through the linear interpolation of the
interval in which the median lies.

  Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and
public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers,
both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

  Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole
or principal job.

  Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2009 2010
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

124,490 15,327 12.3 16,904 13.6 124,073 14,715 11.9 16,290 13.1

16 to 24 years

17,173 813 4.7 941 5.5 16,638 722 4.3 836 5.0

25 years and over

107,317 14,514 13.5 15,962 14.9 107,435 13,993 13.0 15,453 14.4

25 to 34 years

28,067 2,942 10.5 3,262 11.6 28,363 2,860 10.1 3,179 11.2

35 to 44 years

28,066 3,669 13.1 4,035 14.4 27,356 3,512 12.8 3,888 14.2

45 to 54 years

29,054 4,551 15.7 4,994 17.2 28,860 4,340 15.0 4,774 16.5

55 to 64 years

17,599 2,926 16.6 3,186 18.1 18,199 2,849 15.7 3,126 17.2

65 years and over

4,530 425 9.4 485 10.7 4,657 432 9.3 486 10.4

Men, 16 years and over

63,539 8,441 13.3 9,176 14.4 63,531 7,994 12.6 8,761 13.8

16 to 24 years

8,555 493 5.8 560 6.5 8,291 419 5.0 476 5.7

25 years and over

54,984 7,947 14.5 8,616 15.7 55,240 7,575 13.7 8,286 15.0

25 to 34 years

14,952 1,633 10.9 1,786 11.9 15,148 1,603 10.6 1,759 11.6

35 to 44 years

14,679 2,077 14.1 2,250 15.3 14,430 1,966 13.6 2,151 14.9

45 to 54 years

14,421 2,492 17.3 2,693 18.7 14,423 2,349 16.3 2,554 17.7

55 to 64 years

8,647 1,536 17.8 1,654 19.1 8,895 1,430 16.1 1,566 17.6

65 years and over

2,285 211 9.2 233 10.2 2,343 227 9.7 256 10.9

Women, 16 years and over

60,951 6,887 11.3 7,727 12.7 60,542 6,722 11.1 7,528 12.4

16 to 24 years

8,619 320 3.7 381 4.4 8,347 303 3.6 361 4.3

25 years and over

52,333 6,567 12.5 7,346 14.0 52,195 6,418 12.3 7,167 13.7

25 to 34 years

13,116 1,309 10.0 1,476 11.3 13,215 1,257 9.5 1,420 10.7

35 to 44 years

13,387 1,593 11.9 1,785 13.3 12,926 1,546 12.0 1,737 13.4

45 to 54 years

14,633 2,060 14.1 2,302 15.7 14,437 1,991 13.8 2,219 15.4

55 to 64 years

8,952 1,390 15.5 1,532 17.1 9,303 1,419 15.3 1,560 16.8

65 years and over

2,245 215 9.6 252 11.2 2,314 205 8.8 230 10.0

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

101,581 12,330 12.1 13,595 13.4 101,042 11,865 11.7 13,111 13.0

Men

52,691 6,918 13.1 7,512 14.3 52,565 6,588 12.5 7,208 13.7

Women

48,889 5,412 11.1 6,083 12.4 48,477 5,277 10.9 5,903 12.2

Black or African American, 16 years and over

14,127 1,966 13.9 2,172 15.4 14,195 1,896 13.4 2,115 14.9

Men

6,257 964 15.4 1,046 16.7 6,347 938 14.8 1,031 16.2

Women

7,870 1,002 12.7 1,126 14.3 7,848 958 12.2 1,085 13.8

Asian, 16 years and over

5,847 664 11.4 730 12.5 5,900 645 10.9 713 12.1

Men

3,075 332 10.8 370 12.0 3,112 292 9.4 325 10.4

Women

2,772 333 12.0 361 13.0 2,787 353 12.6 388 13.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

18,034 1,841 10.2 2,036 11.3 18,263 1,820 10.0 2,021 11.1

Men

10,518 1,108 10.5 1,199 11.4 10,646 1,090 10.2 1,196 11.2

Women

7,515 733 9.7 836 11.1 7,616 730 9.6 825 10.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

99,820 13,602 13.6 14,960 15.0 99,531 13,125 13.2 14,498 14.6

Part-time workers

24,431 1,698 7.0 1,913 7.8 24,351 1,560 6.4 1,760 7.2

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics
Characteristic 2009 2010
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$739 $908 $901 $710 $747 $917 $911 $717

16 to 24 years

442 598 586 433 432 585 580 423

25 years and over

774 922 916 749 782 931 925 755

25 to 34 years

678 834 827 653 682 847 840 657

35 to 44 years

817 941 936 789 824 961 954 792

45 to 54 years

838 959 952 807 844 955 950 813

55 to 64 years

841 958 957 800 860 975 971 828

65 years and over

684 837 831 662 684 823 821 665

Men, 16 years and over

819 957 953 786 824 967 964 789

16 to 24 years

458 614 605 447 443 610 601 430

25 years and over

873 972 969 846 874 982 979 846

25 to 34 years

715 868 862 692 714 870 864 688

35 to 44 years

916 995 992 899 915 1,008 1,004 893

45 to 54 years

967 1,012 1,009 952 954 1,014 1,013 935

55 to 64 years

965 988 990 956 979 1,010 1,012 967

65 years and over

791 871 883 771 794 903 903 770

Women, 16 years and over

657 840 833 628 669 856 847 639

16 to 24 years

424 568 548 420 422 531 535 417

25 years and over

687 851 845 659 704 870 861 672

25 to 34 years

634 800 791 614 648 819 811 624

35 to 44 years

709 859 857 683 731 897 888 699

45 to 54 years

712 870 860 680 730 874 864 702

55 to 64 years

727 909 905 688 736 924 913 702

65 years and over

602 727 728 585 601 690 703 588

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

757 934 926 728 765 943 936 736

Men

845 981 976 811 850 988 985 817

Women

669 859 852 639 684 882 872 651

Black or African American, 16 years and over

601 749 745 581 611 772 766 589

Men

621 780 781 599 633 829 827 606

Women

582 717 710 560 592 729 720 574

Asian, 16 years and over

880 907 919 870 855 909 918 842

Men

952 888 906 959 936 924 941 936

Women

779 936 938 756 773 904 909 749

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

541 774 763 516 535 771 766 512

Men

569 824 813 535 560 804 800 525

Women

509 683 674 493 508 729 724 489

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2009 2010
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

44,845 6,027 13.4 6,821 15.2 44,871 5,867 13.1 6,674 14.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16,978 822 4.8 997 5.9 16,684 782 4.7 973 5.8

Management occupations

11,548 473 4.1 585 5.1 11,386 476 4.2 599 5.3

Business and financial operations occupations

5,430 348 6.4 412 7.6 5,299 306 5.8 373 7.0

Professional and related occupations

27,867 5,206 18.7 5,824 20.9 28,187 5,085 18.0 5,701 20.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

3,306 175 5.3 207 6.3 3,350 136 4.0 180 5.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,512 194 7.7 228 9.1 2,468 197 8.0 244 9.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,220 122 10.0 141 11.6 1,256 126 10.1 145 11.5

Community and social services occupations

2,269 366 16.1 396 17.5 2,260 362 16.0 390 17.3

Legal occupations

1,335 79 5.9 97 7.3 1,352 72 5.3 87 6.4

Education, training, and library occupations

8,318 3,172 38.1 3,503 42.1 8,415 3,123 37.1 3,441 40.9

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,840 136 7.4 157 8.5 1,899 112 5.9 139 7.3

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

7,067 962 13.6 1,096 15.5 7,188 957 13.3 1,076 15.0

Service occupations

22,364 2,588 11.6 2,830 12.7 22,463 2,467 11.0 2,683 11.9

Healthcare support occupations

3,159 317 10.0 353 11.2 3,214 268 8.4 296 9.2

Protective service occupations

3,120 1,111 35.6 1,180 37.8 3,287 1,122 34.1 1,202 36.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7,621 334 4.4 389 5.1 7,555 297 3.9 328 4.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,592 521 11.3 570 12.4 4,549 469 10.3 518 11.4

Personal care and service occupations

3,873 306 7.9 338 8.7 3,858 311 8.0 338 8.8

Sales and office occupations

30,998 2,231 7.2 2,499 8.1 30,673 2,113 6.9 2,388 7.8

Sales and related occupations

13,331 411 3.1 480 3.6 13,033 418 3.2 496 3.8

Office and administrative support occupations

17,667 1,820 10.3 2,019 11.4 17,641 1,695 9.6 1,892 10.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,231 1,989 17.7 2,088 18.6 10,879 1,808 16.6 1,912 17.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

880 24 2.8 26 2.9 869 30 3.4 36 4.1

Construction and extraction occupations

5,820 1,220 21.0 1,269 21.8 5,579 1,050 18.8 1,100 19.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,531 744 16.4 793 17.5 4,431 728 16.4 776 17.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,052 2,492 16.6 2,666 17.7 15,186 2,460 16.2 2,633 17.3

Production occupations

7,309 1,082 14.8 1,164 15.9 7,540 1,144 15.2 1,210 16.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,742 1,410 18.2 1,502 19.4 7,647 1,316 17.2 1,423 18.6

INDUSTRY

Private sector

103,357 7,431 7.2 8,226 8.0 103,040 7,092 6.9 7,884 7.7

Agriculture and related industries

1,045 12 1.1 14 1.4 1,131 18 1.6 23 2.0

Nonagricultural industries

102,312 7,419 7.3 8,212 8.0 101,909 7,074 6.9 7,861 7.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

662 57 8.6 63 9.5 695 55 8.0 61 8.8

Construction

6,613 958 14.5 993 15.0 6,103 801 13.1 838 13.7

Manufacturing

13,454 1,470 10.9 1,595 11.9 13,252 1,418 10.7 1,538 11.6

Durable goods

8,438 907 10.8 985 11.7 8,268 835 10.1 909 11.0

Nondurable goods

5,016 562 11.2 610 12.2 4,984 584 11.7 629 12.6

Wholesale and retail trade

17,851 937 5.3 1,032 5.8 17,800 860 4.8 949 5.3

Wholesale trade

3,386 167 4.9 185 5.5 3,321 173 5.2 186 5.6

Retail trade

14,465 770 5.3 847 5.9 14,479 687 4.7 763 5.3

Transportation and utilities

5,162 1,144 22.2 1,210 23.4 5,195 1,134 21.8 1,203 23.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,256 908 21.3 960 22.6 4,286 877 20.5 928 21.6

Utilities

906 237 26.1 249 27.5 909 257 28.3 275 30.3

Information(3)

2,790 280 10.0 312 11.2 2,743 265 9.6 299 10.9

Publishing, except Internet

633 34 5.3 41 6.5 577 29 5.0 38 6.5

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

331 42 12.8 43 13.0 341 32 9.3 36 10.6

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

534 25 4.7 30 5.5 561 29 5.1 38 6.8

Telecommunications

1,088 174 16.0 192 17.7 1,054 167 15.8 177 16.8

Financial activities

8,236 150 1.8 193 2.3 8,072 160 2.0 206 2.5

Finance and insurance

6,199 88 1.4 120 1.9 6,108 79 1.3 110 1.8

Finance

4,043 56 1.4 73 1.8 3,985 44 1.1 65 1.6

Insurance

2,155 32 1.5 48 2.2 2,123 35 1.6 45 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,037 61 3.0 73 3.6 1,964 81 4.1 95 4.9

Professional and business services

11,325 256 2.3 314 2.8 11,738 315 2.7 388 3.3

Professional and technical services

6,915 78 1.1 107 1.5 6,980 98 1.4 134 1.9

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,410 178 4.0 207 4.7 4,757 217 4.6 254 5.3

Education and health services

19,269 1,655 8.6 1,912 9.9 19,804 1,608 8.1 1,858 9.4

Educational services

3,816 494 12.9 580 15.2 3,964 517 13.0 599 15.1

Health care and social assistance

15,454 1,161 7.5 1,332 8.6 15,840 1,091 6.9 1,259 7.9

Leisure and hospitality

11,352 349 3.1 407 3.6 11,111 301 2.7 337 3.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,143 138 6.4 152 7.1 2,111 113 5.3 126 5.9

Accommodation and food services

9,209 211 2.3 255 2.8 8,999 188 2.1 212 2.4

Accommodation

1,390 108 7.8 115 8.3 1,345 106 7.9 112 8.3

Food services and drinking places

7,819 103 1.3 140 1.8 7,654 82 1.1 100 1.3

Other services(3)

5,598 164 2.9 182 3.2 5,397 158 2.9 184 3.4

Other services, except private households

4,775 147 3.1 163 3.4 4,726 152 3.2 178 3.8

Public sector

21,133 7,896 37.4 8,677 41.1 21,033 7,623 36.2 8,406 40.0

Federal government

3,594 1,005 28.0 1,192 33.2 3,670 984 26.8 1,154 31.4

State government

6,294 2,025 32.2 2,222 35.3 6,328 1,969 31.1 2,191 34.6

Local government

11,244 4,867 43.3 5,263 46.8 11,035 4,670 42.3 5,061 45.9

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry
Occupation and industry 2009 2010
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,044 $1,047 $1,040 $1,045 $1,063 $1,059 $1,055 $1,064

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,138 1,116 1,123 1,139 1,155 1,138 1,145 1,156

Management occupations

1,208 1,192 1,208 1,208 1,230 1,161 1,187 1,231

Business and financial operations occupations

996 1,002 1,009 995 1,036 1,082 1,048 1,035

Professional and related occupations

994 1,036 1,026 983 1,008 1,047 1,040 998

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,253 1,078 1,107 1,263 1,289 1,062 1,074 1,311

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,266 1,230 1,210 1,271 1,255 1,238 1,285 1,252

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,059 1,099 1,135 1,040 1,062 1,166 1,160 1,038

Community and social services occupations

783 957 948 746 802 980 955 759

Legal occupations

1,200 1,266 1,258 1,191 1,213 1,329 1,358 1,199

Education, training, and library occupations

887 1,010 996 782 913 1,023 1,008 811

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

888 1,105 1,059 877 920 999 1,015 915

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

970 1,089 1,070 952 986 1,095 1,098 967

Service occupations

470 702 682 435 479 723 707 447

Healthcare support occupations

472 518 518 464 471 514 503 467

Protective service occupations

747 992 980 611 747 995 980 629

Food preparation and serving related occupations

398 463 456 395 406 508 503 402

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

444 597 588 418 446 595 590 421

Personal care and service occupations

440 576 567 429 455 575 564 440

Sales and office occupations

624 768 761 613 631 752 745 621

Sales and related occupations

665 678 673 665 666 683 678 665

Office and administrative support occupations

612 782 773 595 619 762 754 607

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

719 1,009 1,003 657 719 1,013 1,006 664

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

416 - - 411 416 - - 412

Construction and extraction occupations

718 1,023 1,011 643 709 1,029 1,019 633

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

781 999 999 733 794 1,005 1,001 745

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

605 786 780 578 599 817 809 564

Production occupations

610 783 778 587 599 811 801 569

Transportation and material moving occupations

599 789 782 563 599 824 816 557

INDUSTRY

Private sector

711 856 845 697 717 864 855 703

Agriculture and related industries

462 - - 457 465 - - 463

Nonagricultural industries

715 857 846 701 721 865 856 707

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,050 1,013 1,015 1,058 1,032 1,076 1,053 1,026

Construction

744 1,072 1,052 698 735 1,051 1,046 692

Manufacturing

767 800 799 762 767 828 817 759

Durable goods

806 836 832 801 806 878 866 796

Nondurable goods

706 735 741 698 700 760 749 690

Wholesale and retail trade

611 648 641 609 612 669 657 610

Wholesale trade

760 761 767 760 777 770 774 777

Retail trade

577 612 607 575 575 613 608 572

Transportation and utilities

798 975 964 748 823 1,000 994 765

Transportation and warehousing

749 923 911 707 765 934 928 725

Utilities

1,043 1,120 1,104 1,008 1,102 1,199 1,193 1,014

Information(4)

905 1,105 1,083 883 912 1,018 998 895

Publishing, except Internet

847 - - 843 876 - - 871

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

1,047 - - 924 917 - - 893

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

827 - - 828 821 - - 814

Telecommunications

964 1,095 1,079 924 987 1,039 1,023 974

Financial activities

839 843 831 839 849 806 799 852

Finance and insurance

881 845 837 882 902 819 829 905

Finance

889 842 817 892 902 - 870 903

Insurance

868 - - 868 902 - - 908

Real estate and rental and leasing

726 842 822 718 702 786 713 701

Professional and business services

864 761 748 868 855 751 754 859

Professional and technical services

1,094 1,081 1,096 1,094 1,124 1,157 1,147 1,123

Management, administrative, and waste services

560 658 640 553 542 598 592 536

Education and health services

$715 $839 $838 $698 $731 $849 $846 $717

Educational services

819 886 879 795 852 900 875 846

Health care and social assistance

685 801 802 673 698 817 823 686

Leisure and hospitality

464 583 576 458 469 580 575 461

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

601 673 671 593 616 636 632 614

Accommodation and food services

423 526 505 421 430 530 524 424

Accommodation

505 582 582 496 508 547 553 502

Food services and drinking places

412 424 423 412 417 517 509 416

Other services(4)

605 886 862 599 615 866 862 609

Other services, except private households

627 893 868 620 636 880 874 627

Public sector

865 947 943 782 878 961 956 801

Federal government

1,002 981 989 1,019 1,012 977 987 1,040

State government

829 906 899 767 829 922 917 769

Local government

834 956 948 720 854 971 962 743

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state
[Numbers in thousands]
State 2009 2010
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,763 191 10.9 212 12.0 1,809 183 10.1 203 11.2

Alaska

293 65 22.3 69 23.6 295 68 22.9 73 24.8

Arizona

2,471 162 6.5 194 7.9 2,507 161 6.4 203 8.1

Arkansas

1,103 47 4.2 55 5.0 1,082 44 4.0 59 5.4

California

14,297 2,453 17.2 2,622 18.3 13,892 2,431 17.5 2,578 18.6

Colorado

2,175 153 7.0 181 8.3 2,130 140 6.6 171 8.0

Connecticut

1,538 265 17.3 282 18.4 1,549 258 16.7 270 17.4

Delaware

367 44 11.9 47 12.8 352 40 11.4 44 12.5

District of Columbia

276 29 10.4 35 12.5 287 26 9.0 30 10.5

Florida

7,097 411 5.8 489 6.9 7,033 392 5.6 488 6.9

Georgia

3,869 177 4.6 226 5.9 3,792 153 4.0 191 5.0

Hawaii

526 123 23.5 128 24.3 511 111 21.8 120 23.5

Idaho

577 36 6.3 46 7.9 584 42 7.1 50 8.6

Illinois

5,435 951 17.5 997 18.3 5,434 844 15.5 891 16.4

Indiana

2,612 277 10.6 319 12.2 2,554 279 10.9 313 12.2

Iowa

1,398 156 11.1 185 13.3 1,393 158 11.4 192 13.8

Kansas

1,249 77 6.2 104 8.4 1,222 84 6.8 111 9.1

Kentucky

1,657 142 8.6 173 10.5 1,642 147 8.9 166 10.1

Louisiana

1,704 99 5.8 110 6.5 1,742 76 4.3 96 5.5

Maine

543 63 11.7 74 13.7 543 63 11.6 71 13.0

Maryland

2,555 323 12.6 366 14.3 2,558 296 11.6 329 12.9

Massachusetts

2,864 476 16.6 516 18.0 2,866 415 14.5 446 15.6

Michigan

3,785 710 18.8 752 19.9 3,806 627 16.5 659 17.3

Minnesota

2,400 362 15.1 377 15.7 2,468 385 15.6 397 16.1

Mississippi

1,029 49 4.8 66 6.4 1,037 46 4.5 58 5.6

Missouri

2,481 234 9.4 264 10.6 2,469 244 9.9 274 11.1

Montana

374 52 13.9 68 18.1 364 46 12.7 52 14.4

Nebraska

823 76 9.2 94 11.4 813 75 9.3 96 11.8

Nevada

1,097 173 15.7 188 17.2 1,012 151 15.0 170 16.8

New Hampshire

616 67 10.8 76 12.3 622 63 10.2 73 11.7

New Jersey

3,734 721 19.3 742 19.9 3,734 637 17.1 660 17.7

New Mexico

759 51 6.7 77 10.2 750 55 7.3 72 9.7

New York

8,021 2,019 25.2 2,182 27.2 8,078 1,959 24.2 2,099 26.0

North Carolina

3,707 115 3.1 162 4.4 3,686 117 3.2 180 4.9

North Dakota

301 21 6.8 30 9.8 313 23 7.4 28 9.1

Ohio

4,827 685 14.2 742 15.4 4,787 655 13.7 702 14.7

Oklahoma

1,456 83 5.7 107 7.3 1,418 77 5.5 99 6.9

Oregon

1,471 250 17.0 272 18.5 1,515 245 16.2 268 17.7

Pennsylvania

5,220 782 15.0 844 16.2 5,224 770 14.7 831 15.9

Rhode Island

444 80 17.9 83 18.7 456 75 16.4 79 17.4

South Carolina

1,672 75 4.5 91 5.4 1,713 80 4.6 107 6.2

South Dakota

357 20 5.5 24 6.6 357 20 5.6 24 6.6

Tennessee

2,387 121 5.1 156 6.6 2,477 115 4.7 142 5.8

Texas

9,920 508 5.1 615 6.2 10,025 545 5.4 677 6.7

Utah

1,136 79 6.9 90 8.0 1,144 75 6.5 96 8.4

Vermont

285 35 12.3 40 14.1 289 34 11.8 40 13.6

Virginia

3,503 166 4.7 191 5.4 3,473 161 4.6 196 5.7

Washington

2,847 574 20.2 612 21.5 2,837 552 19.4 605 21.3

West Virginia

699 97 13.9 108 15.4 677 100 14.8 111 16.5

Wisconsin

2,528 385 15.2 400 15.8 2,508 355 14.2 380 15.1

Wyoming

239 18 7.7 20 8.3 246 18 7.4 21 8.4

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 21, 2011
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