Economic News Release

Union Membership News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday. January 23, 2013                     USDL-13-0105

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                 UNION MEMBERS -- 2012


In 2012, the union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were
members of a union--was 11.3 percent, down from 11.8 percent in 2011, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers belonging
to unions, at 14.4 million, also declined over the year. In 1983, the first year for
which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent,
and there were 17.7 million union workers.

The data on union membership were collected as part of the Current Population Survey
(CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that obtains information on
employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
ages 16 and over. For more information, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2012 data:

   --Public-sector workers had a union membership rate (35.9 percent) more than
     five times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.6 percent). (See
     table 3.)

   --Workers in education, training, and library occupations and in protective
     service occupations had the highest unionization rates, at 35.4 and 34.8
     percent, respectively. (See table 3.)

   --Black workers were more likely to be union members than were white, Asian, or
     Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

   --Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership rate
     (23.2 percent), and North Carolina again had the lowest rate (2.9 percent).
     (See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2012, 7.3 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared
with 7.0 million union workers in the private sector. The union membership rate for
public-sector workers (35.9 percent) was substantially higher than the rate for
private-sector workers (6.6 percent). Within the public sector, local government
workers had the highest union membership rate, 41.7 percent. This group includes
workers in heavily unionized occupations, such as teachers, police officers, and
firefighters. Private-sector industries with high unionization rates included
transportation and utilities (20.6 percent) and construction (13.2 percent).  Low
unionization rates occurred in agriculture and related industries (1.4 percent) and
in financial activities (1.9 percent). (See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, education, training, and library occupations (35.4 percent)
and protective service occupations (34.8 percent) had the highest unionization rates
in 2012. Sales and related occupations (2.9 percent) and farming, fishing, and forestry
occupations (3.4 percent) had the lowest unionization rates. (See table 3.)

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

The union membership rate was higher for men (12.0 percent) than for women (10.5 percent)
in 2012. (See table 1.) The gap between their rates has narrowed considerably since 1983,
when the rate for men was 24.7 percent and the rate for women was 14.6 percent.

In 2012, among major race and ethnicity groups, black workers had a higher union
membership rate (13.4 percent) than workers who were white (11.1 percent), Asian (9.6
percent), or Hispanic (9.8 percent). Black men had the highest union membership rate
(14.8 percent), while Asian men had the lowest rate (8.9 percent).

By age, the union membership rate was highest among workers ages 55 to 64 (14.9 percent).
The lowest union membership rate occurred among those ages 16 to 24 (4.2 percent).

Full-time workers were about twice as likely as part-time workers to be union members,
12.5 percent compared with 6.0 percent.

Union Representation

In 2012, 15.9 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This group
includes both union members (14.4 million) and workers who report no union affiliation
but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.6 million). (See table 1.) Private-
sector employees comprised about half (814,000) of the 1.6 million workers who were
covered by a union contract but were not members of a union. (See table 3.)

Earnings

In 2012, among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual weekly
earnings of $943, while those who were not union members had median weekly earnings
of $742. In addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, this earnings
difference reflects a variety of influences, including variations in the distributions
of union members and nonunion employees by occupation, industry, firm size, or geographic
region. (See table 2.)

Union Membership by State

In 2012, 31 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below that
of the U.S. average, 11.3 percent, while 19 states had higher rates. All states in the
Middle Atlantic and Pacific divisions reported union membership rates above the national
average, and all states in the East South Central and West South Central divisions had
rates below it. Union membership rates declined over the year in 34 states, rose in 14
states and the District of Columbia, and remained unchanged in 2 states. (See table 5.)

Eight states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2012. North Carolina had
the lowest rate (2.9 percent), followed by Arkansas (3.2 percent) and South Carolina
(3.3 percent). Three states had union membership rates over 20.0 percent in 2012:
New York (23.2 percent), Alaska (22.4 percent), and Hawaii (21.6 percent).

About half of the 14.4 million union members in the U.S. lived in just seven states
(California, 2.5 million; New York, 1.8 million; Illinois, 0.8 million; Pennsylvania,
0.7 million; and Michigan, New Jersey, and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states
accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.

State union membership levels depend on both the state wage and salary employment level
and the union membership rate. Texas, with a union membership rate of 5.7 percent, had
about one-third as many union members as New York, despite having 2.7 million more
wage and salary employees. Conversely, North Carolina and Hawaii had comparable numbers
of union members (112,000 and 116,000, respectively), though North Carolina's wage and
salary employment level (3.8 million) was more than seven times that of Hawaii (537,000).




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible house-
holds. The union membership and earnings data  are tabulated from one-quarter of the
CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers
are excluded.

   The Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the population controls for the CPS as
part of its annual update of population estimates. The effect of the revised population
controls on the union affiliation data is unknown. However, the effect of the new con-
trols on the monthly CPS estimates was to increase the December 2011 employment level
by 216,000. The updated controls had little or no effect on unemployment rates and
other ratios. Estimated levels, such as the number of union members for 2012, are not
strictly comparable with estimated levels for 2011. These adjustments to the levels,
however, should have had only negligible effects on union membership rates. Additional
information is available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the 
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they represent. The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon the particular sample selected,
and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about
a  90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will
differ by no more than 1.6  standard errors from the "true" population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence. The state section of this release preserves the long-time practice of
highlighting the direction of the movements in state  union membership rates and
levels regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on
estimating standard errors, see the Household Data section of the "Explanatory Notes and
Estimates of Error" available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association
similar to a union.

   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no
union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association
contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented
by a union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in
the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they
usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the
easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly,
annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings
reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term
"usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of
usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half of the weeks
worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution
into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings
below the median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly
earnings value into $50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The
actual value is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the
median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and
public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers,
both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole
or principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2011 2012
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

125,187 14,764 11.8 16,290 13.0 127,577 14,366 11.3 15,922 12.5

16 to 24 years

16,910 737 4.4 845 5.0 17,417 731 4.2 869 5.0

25 years and over

108,278 14,027 13.0 15,444 14.3 110,160 13,635 12.4 15,053 13.7

25 to 34 years

28,682 2,829 9.9 3,155 11.0 28,875 2,755 9.5 3,083 10.7

35 to 44 years

27,231 3,470 12.7 3,804 14.0 27,442 3,424 12.5 3,746 13.6

45 to 54 years

28,693 4,286 14.9 4,707 16.4 28,765 4,032 14.0 4,437 15.4

55 to 64 years

18,751 2,949 15.7 3,219 17.2 19,694 2,932 14.9 3,233 16.4

65 years and over

4,920 494 10.0 559 11.4 5,385 491 9.1 554 10.3

Men, 16 years and over

64,686 8,006 12.4 8,731 13.5 65,898 7,895 12.0 8,611 13.1

16 to 24 years

8,636 435 5.0 486 5.6 8,830 448 5.1 521 5.9

25 years and over

56,050 7,571 13.5 8,246 14.7 57,067 7,448 13.1 8,090 14.2

25 to 34 years

15,465 1,541 10.0 1,706 11.0 15,465 1,546 10.0 1,688 10.9

35 to 44 years

14,412 1,946 13.5 2,114 14.7 14,481 1,919 13.3 2,085 14.4

45 to 54 years

14,415 2,327 16.1 2,513 17.4 14,601 2,214 15.2 2,385 16.3

55 to 64 years

9,212 1,497 16.2 1,623 17.6 9,728 1,521 15.6 1,655 17.0

65 years and over

2,547 260 10.2 290 11.4 2,792 248 8.9 277 9.9

Women, 16 years and over

60,502 6,758 11.2 7,558 12.5 61,679 6,470 10.5 7,311 11.9

16 to 24 years

8,274 302 3.6 360 4.3 8,586 283 3.3 347 4.0

25 years and over

52,228 6,456 12.4 7,199 13.8 53,093 6,187 11.7 6,964 13.1

25 to 34 years

13,218 1,288 9.7 1,449 11.0 13,410 1,209 9.0 1,396 10.4

35 to 44 years

12,819 1,524 11.9 1,690 13.2 12,961 1,505 11.6 1,661 12.8

45 to 54 years

14,278 1,959 13.7 2,195 15.4 14,164 1,819 12.8 2,052 14.5

55 to 64 years

9,540 1,452 15.2 1,596 16.7 9,966 1,411 14.2 1,579 15.8

65 years and over

2,373 233 9.8 269 11.3 2,593 244 9.4 277 10.7

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

101,768 11,853 11.6 13,061 12.8 101,851 11,306 11.1 12,517 12.3

Men

53,418 6,568 12.3 7,156 13.4 53,542 6,359 11.9 6,933 12.9

Women

48,351 5,285 10.9 5,905 12.2 48,309 4,947 10.2 5,584 11.6

Black or African American, 16 years and over

14,249 1,927 13.5 2,140 15.0 14,975 2,009 13.4 2,220 14.8

Men

6,440 940 14.6 1,020 15.8 6,753 999 14.8 1,078 16.0

Women

7,808 987 12.6 1,119 14.3 8,222 1,009 12.3 1,142 13.9

Asian, 16 years and over

6,153 623 10.1 690 11.2 6,953 668 9.6 758 10.9

Men

3,269 296 9.1 331 10.1 3,650 323 8.9 369 10.1

Women

2,884 327 11.4 359 12.4 3,303 345 10.4 388 11.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

18,733 1,826 9.7 2,015 10.8 20,144 1,982 9.8 2,197 10.9

Men

10,980 1,078 9.8 1,186 10.8 11,415 1,148 10.1 1,266 11.1

Women

7,754 748 9.6 829 10.7 8,730 834 9.6 931 10.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

100,457 13,177 13.1 14,487 14.4 102,749 12,847 12.5 14,173 13.8

Part-time workers

24,502 1,557 6.4 1,769 7.2 24,614 1,483 6.0 1,710 6.9

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2011-2012 annual averages
Characteristic 2011 2012
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$756 $938 $934 $729 $768 $943 $933 $742

16 to 24 years

440 552 550 432 444 545 551 434

25 years and over

797 954 950 766 815 960 950 786

25 to 34 years

693 852 848 671 707 871 863 686

35 to 44 years

837 992 983 805 858 983 974 831

45 to 54 years

866 988 987 832 878 997 985 850

55 to 64 years

881 992 992 845 897 1,005 997 870

65 years and over

742 849 855 728 757 839 832 748

Men, 16 years and over

832 982 981 798 854 997 990 821

16 to 24 years

455 577 575 447 468 572 576 459

25 years and over

886 1,000 999 857 910 1,015 1,010 887

25 to 34 years

717 876 876 699 738 910 903 718

35 to 44 years

935 1,030 1,022 912 957 1,035 1,029 941

45 to 54 years

979 1,036 1,038 964 994 1,061 1,055 979

55 to 64 years

997 1,062 1,066 977 1,005 1,049 1,044 994

65 years and over

821 897 910 813 860 911 926 849

Women, 16 years and over

684 879 871 653 691 877 865 663

16 to 24 years

421 520 518 416 416 510 513 412

25 years and over

718 895 888 688 727 891 880 701

25 to 34 years

662 829 823 637 666 817 809 647

35 to 44 years

734 936 925 702 747 915 906 722

45 to 54 years

744 925 922 715 746 913 900 719

55 to 64 years

749 917 916 724 766 938 918 743

65 years and over

664 820 819 645 667 766 735 653

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

775 961 956 747 792 973 960 762

Men

856 1,004 1,001 821 879 1,025 1,017 845

Women

703 903 897 670 710 902 890 681

Black or African American, 16 years and over

615 771 768 595 621 784 774 599

Men

653 802 803 619 665 819 811 624

Women

595 744 741 577 599 755 747 582

Asian, 16 years and over

866 961 962 846 920 977 986 907

Men

970 964 983 969 1,055 1,010 1,022 1,062

Women

751 959 943 727 770 946 951 747

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

549 811 804 520 568 840 823 530

Men

571 859 856 538 592 881 868 563

Women

518 743 733 501 521 767 750 503

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2011 2012
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

45,520 5,896 13.0 6,693 14.7 46,897 5,751 12.3 6,514 13.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17,196 851 4.9 1,039 6.0 18,153 844 4.6 1,009 5.6

Management occupations

11,593 538 4.6 668 5.8 12,259 500 4.1 610 5.0

Business and financial operations occupations

5,603 313 5.6 371 6.6 5,894 344 5.8 399 6.8

Professional and related occupations

28,324 5,045 17.8 5,654 20.0 28,743 4,907 17.1 5,505 19.2

Computer and mathematical occupations

3,438 136 4.0 167 4.9 3,578 134 3.7 173 4.8

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,615 191 7.3 227 8.7 2,701 206 7.6 240 8.9

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,174 139 11.8 164 13.9 1,219 132 10.8 150 12.3

Community and social service occupations

2,268 374 16.5 418 18.4 2,239 361 16.1 406 18.1

Legal occupations

1,378 69 5.0 93 6.7 1,428 70 4.9 87 6.1

Education, training, and library occupations

8,343 3,067 36.8 3,381 40.5 8,325 2,944 35.4 3,267 39.2

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,904 132 6.9 146 7.7 1,943 144 7.4 159 8.2

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

7,204 938 13.0 1,058 14.7 7,309 916 12.5 1,023 14.0

Service occupations

22,508 2,429 10.8 2,653 11.8 23,095 2,406 10.4 2,630 11.4

Healthcare support occupations

3,178 268 8.4 297 9.3 3,340 277 8.3 321 9.6

Protective service occupations

3,207 1,107 34.5 1,180 36.8 3,078 1,071 34.8 1,122 36.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7,677 305 4.0 351 4.6 7,966 298 3.7 358 4.5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,603 489 10.6 532 11.6 4,729 498 10.5 540 11.4

Personal care and service occupations

3,843 260 6.8 294 7.6 3,983 263 6.6 289 7.3

Sales and office occupations

30,580 2,114 6.9 2,362 7.7 30,685 2,070 6.7 2,357 7.7

Sales and related occupations

13,189 401 3.0 455 3.4 13,366 389 2.9 465 3.5

Office and administrative support occupations

17,390 1,714 9.9 1,908 11.0 17,319 1,681 9.7 1,892 10.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,955 1,838 16.8 1,959 17.9 10,863 1,775 16.3 1,876 17.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

940 32 3.4 38 4.0 949 32 3.4 38 4.1

Construction and extraction occupations

5,575 1,064 19.1 1,120 20.1 5,567 1,054 18.9 1,108 19.9

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,440 742 16.7 801 18.0 4,347 689 15.8 729 16.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,625 2,487 15.9 2,622 16.8 16,038 2,365 14.7 2,546 15.9

Production occupations

7,739 1,104 14.3 1,159 15.0 8,116 1,002 12.3 1,084 13.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,886 1,383 17.5 1,463 18.6 7,922 1,363 17.2 1,462 18.5

INDUSTRY

Private sector

104,737 7,202 6.9 7,969 7.6 107,191 7,037 6.6 7,851 7.3

Agriculture and related industries

1,183 16 1.4 21 1.8 1,172 16 1.4 21 1.8

Nonagricultural industries

103,554 7,186 6.9 7,948 7.7 106,019 7,021 6.6 7,830 7.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

780 56 7.2 61 7.8 923 66 7.2 72 7.7

Construction

6,244 874 14.0 928 14.9 6,205 820 13.2 850 13.7

Manufacturing

13,599 1,424 10.5 1,521 11.2 13,941 1,338 9.6 1,468 10.5

Durable goods

8,530 871 10.2 924 10.8 8,787 830 9.4 906 10.3

Nondurable goods

5,070 553 10.9 596 11.8 5,154 507 9.8 563 10.9

Wholesale and retail trade

18,002 859 4.8 959 5.3 18,174 854 4.7 960 5.3

Wholesale trade

3,419 150 4.4 165 4.8 3,341 169 5.1 186 5.6

Retail trade

14,582 709 4.9 794 5.4 14,833 686 4.6 774 5.2

Transportation and utilities

5,239 1,108 21.1 1,159 22.1 5,359 1,105 20.6 1,174 21.9

Transportation and warehousing

4,355 887 20.4 932 21.4 4,520 898 19.9 948 21.0

Utilities

884 221 25.0 228 25.7 839 207 24.7 226 26.9

Information(3)

2,756 279 10.1 298 10.8 2,575 251 9.7 273 10.6

Publishing, except Internet

554 25 4.5 26 4.7 548 20 3.7 24 4.3

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

337 47 13.8 48 14.1 293 33 11.4 36 12.2

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

576 34 5.9 40 7.0 546 37 6.7 42 7.6

Telecommunications

1,064 166 15.6 175 16.4 956 149 15.6 160 16.8

Financial activities

8,086 132 1.6 165 2.0 8,196 156 1.9 203 2.5

Finance and insurance

6,111 64 1.1 86 1.4 6,195 73 1.2 102 1.7

Finance

3,932 37 1.0 53 1.3 4,054 45 1.1 62 1.5

Insurance

2,179 27 1.2 33 1.5 2,141 28 1.3 40 1.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,976 67 3.4 79 4.0 2,001 83 4.1 101 5.0

Professional and business services

12,171 250 2.1 322 2.6 12,726 310 2.4 388 3.0

Professional and technical services

7,244 90 1.2 131 1.8 7,630 93 1.2 140 1.8

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,927 160 3.3 191 3.9 5,096 217 4.3 248 4.9

Education and health services

19,855 1,715 8.6 1,982 10.0 20,394 1,658 8.1 1,891 9.3

Educational services

4,020 523 13.0 621 15.5 4,190 520 12.4 592 14.1

Health care and social assistance

15,835 1,192 7.5 1,361 8.6 16,204 1,138 7.0 1,299 8.0

Leisure and hospitality

11,355 305 2.7 344 3.0 11,775 321 2.7 377 3.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,107 111 5.3 121 5.7 2,127 136 6.4 148 7.0

Accommodation and food services

9,247 194 2.1 224 2.4 9,648 185 1.9 229 2.4

Accommodation

1,350 96 7.1 105 7.8 1,354 89 6.5 101 7.5

Food services and drinking places

7,898 98 1.2 119 1.5 8,295 97 1.2 128 1.5

Other services(3)

5,467 184 3.4 209 3.8 5,750 143 2.5 174 3.0

Other services, except private households

4,723 167 3.5 189 4.0 5,028 133 2.6 163 3.2

Public sector

20,450 7,562 37.0 8,321 40.7 20,385 7,328 35.9 8,072 39.6

Federal government

3,568 1,004 28.1 1,185 33.2 3,552 956 26.9 1,114 31.4

State government

6,261 1,973 31.5 2,189 35.0 6,279 1,968 31.3 2,190 34.9

Local government

10,621 4,586 43.2 4,947 46.6 10,554 4,404 41.7 4,768 45.2

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2011-2012 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2011 2012
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,082 $1,090 $1,082 $1,082 $1,108 $1,108 $1,092 $1,111

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,160 1,169 1,171 1,159 1,171 1,159 1,161 1,172

Management occupations

1,237 1,287 1,300 1,232 1,248 1,261 1,274 1,247

Business and financial operations occupations

1,038 999 999 1,042 1,058 1,060 1,024 1,060

Professional and related occupations

1,029 1,074 1,064 1,017 1,053 1,098 1,077 1,046

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,305 1,156 1,169 1,324 1,349 1,157 1,158 1,359

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,315 1,304 1,325 1,314 1,337 1,368 1,350 1,335

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,108 1,229 1,218 1,085 1,134 1,209 1,177 1,127

Community and social service occupations

813 993 1,000 771 838 1,007 1,003 783

Legal occupations

1,277 1,222 1,376 1,273 1,328 1,174 1,173 1,342

Education, training, and library occupations

919 1,038 1,020 814 915 1,050 1,028 814

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

929 1,179 1,152 910 969 1,107 1,097 957

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

995 1,132 1,125 975 1,028 1,151 1,142 1,010

Service occupations

486 742 732 455 485 754 735 458

Healthcare support occupations

487 519 518 484 482 527 522 477

Protective service occupations

757 1,008 1,004 627 791 1,071 1,056 649

Food preparation and serving related occupations

409 504 500 405 410 509 505 405

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

465 635 626 431 465 621 614 440

Personal care and service occupations

453 534 527 444 468 524 515 462

Sales and office occupations

638 775 771 624 655 789 776 642

Sales and related occupations

670 660 669 670 689 689 668 691

Office and administrative support occupations

623 803 791 608 643 808 796 624

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

732 1,016 1,008 676 740 1,026 1,018 688

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

430 - - 426 435 - - 430

Construction and extraction occupations

717 1,017 1,010 647 740 1,040 1,026 682

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

806 1,036 1,021 767 808 1,032 1,021 768

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

609 798 794 582 624 823 811 597

Production occupations

605 781 778 583 627 816 807 605

Transportation and material moving occupations

614 813 808 580 621 833 816 586

INDUSTRY

Private sector

729 878 875 716 742 887 877 731

Agriculture and related industries

483 - - 481 470 - - 469

Nonagricultural industries

732 879 875 721 746 888 878 735

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,064 1,030 1,005 1,069 1,112 1,119 1,112 1,113

Construction

746 1,059 1,037 698 768 1,086 1,069 722

Manufacturing

787 836 835 780 797 872 863 786

Durable goods

818 889 887 809 827 891 884 819

Nondurable goods

737 771 771 729 737 827 817 722

Wholesale and retail trade

613 622 622 612 630 650 637 629

Wholesale trade

759 798 773 758 821 821 801 823

Retail trade

578 591 592 577 592 609 598 592

Transportation and utilities

805 987 985 762 828 998 989 789

Transportation and warehousing

763 941 939 726 778 948 934 746

Utilities

1,081 1,132 1,132 1,027 1,132 1,216 1,204 1,086

Information(4)

940 1,122 1,117 916 978 1,103 1,087 966

Publishing, except Internet

910 - - 902 934 - - 921

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

965 - - 926 854 - - 798

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

834 - - 834 890 - - 903

Telecommunications

987 1,113 1,109 950 1,064 1,162 1,163 1,039

Financial activities

866 824 822 866 889 795 779 893

Finance and insurance

907 819 826 908 941 852 831 944

Finance

910 - 820 911 952 - 762 955

Insurance

899 - - 900 922 - - 924

Real estate and rental and leasing

736 836 815 734 731 773 759 727

Professional and business services

880 872 883 880 910 826 843 912

Professional and technical services

1,149 1,193 1,211 1,149 1,165 1,183 1,133 1,165

Management, administrative, and waste services

569 706 693 562 582 699 708 577

Education and health services

$736 $870 $878 $722 $748 $879 $876 $736

Educational services

858 938 942 833 864 918 922 844

Health care and social assistance

706 801 809 697 720 835 824 711

Leisure and hospitality

479 607 605 473 481 611 604 475

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

612 632 625 611 641 675 668 640

Accommodation and food services

447 594 594 441 445 596 588 438

Accommodation

515 598 596 508 542 613 609 527

Food services and drinking places

427 585 592 424 421 536 534 419

Other services(4)

626 917 901 619 622 807 763 618

Other services, except private households

654 960 919 643 649 828 774 645

Public sector

895 981 977 810 898 990 980 829

Federal government

1,063 1,038 1,043 1,092 1,072 1,035 1,045 1,113

State government

852 956 946 785 854 948 933 794

Local government

861 973 967 743 866 989 975 756

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2011-2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
State 2011 2012
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,781 178 10.0 193 10.8 1,807 166 9.2 190 10.5

Alaska

306 68 22.1 73 23.7 298 67 22.4 71 23.9

Arizona

2,493 149 6.0 183 7.3 2,434 125 5.1 159 6.5

Arkansas

1,116 47 4.2 57 5.1 1,157 37 3.2 43 3.7

California

13,931 2,379 17.1 2,532 18.2 14,483 2,489 17.2 2,666 18.4

Colorado

2,186 179 8.2 203 9.3 2,165 169 7.8 190 8.8

Connecticut

1,542 259 16.8 272 17.7 1,541 216 14.0 232 15.1

Delaware

370 39 10.5 42 11.2 377 39 10.4 44 11.8

District of Columbia

281 23 8.3 28 9.9 309 27 8.6 32 10.3

Florida

7,283 460 6.3 557 7.6 7,602 440 5.8 555 7.3

Georgia

3,876 153 3.9 185 4.8 3,914 171 4.4 210 5.4

Hawaii

525 113 21.5 118 22.5 537 116 21.6 124 23.2

Idaho

594 31 5.1 36 6.1 613 29 4.8 36 5.8

Illinois

5,408 876 16.2 929 17.2 5,486 801 14.6 852 15.5

Indiana

2,681 302 11.3 333 12.4 2,702 246 9.1 269 10.0

Iowa

1,386 155 11.2 187 13.5 1,390 145 10.4 172 12.4

Kansas

1,268 97 7.6 128 10.1 1,248 85 6.8 105 8.4

Kentucky

1,678 150 8.9 173 10.3 1,742 174 10.0 198 11.4

Louisiana

1,717 77 4.5 91 5.3 1,733 107 6.2 130 7.5

Maine

554 63 11.3 74 13.4 559 64 11.5 78 13.9

Maryland

2,549 316 12.4 348 13.7 2,636 280 10.6 325 12.3

Massachusetts

2,882 422 14.6 445 15.4 2,896 417 14.4 470 16.2

Michigan

3,838 671 17.5 703 18.3 3,785 629 16.6 648 17.1

Minnesota

2,461 371 15.1 390 15.8 2,465 351 14.2 368 14.9

Mississippi

1,081 54 5.0 73 6.8 1,113 48 4.3 64 5.7

Missouri

2,531 275 10.9 316 12.5 2,507 224 8.9 253 10.1

Montana

377 49 13.0 55 14.6 392 54 13.9 65 16.5

Nebraska

828 65 7.9 83 10.0 864 52 6.0 70 8.1

Nevada

1,050 154 14.6 175 16.6 1,101 162 14.7 181 16.4

New Hampshire

617 68 11.1 77 12.5 621 65 10.5 74 12.0

New Jersey

3,816 615 16.1 641 16.8 3,796 611 16.1 636 16.8

New Mexico

726 49 6.8 65 9.0 780 50 6.5 68 8.7

New York

7,920 1,906 24.1 2,068 26.1 7,936 1,841 23.2 1,975 24.9

North Carolina

3,589 105 2.9 149 4.1 3,805 112 2.9 162 4.3

North Dakota

318 20 6.3 27 8.6 329 20 6.1 27 8.2

Ohio

4,813 647 13.4 706 14.7 4,800 604 12.6 665 13.9

Oklahoma

1,458 94 6.4 113 7.7 1,531 115 7.5 140 9.1

Oregon

1,574 270 17.1 286 18.1 1,526 240 15.7 250 16.4

Pennsylvania

5,348 779 14.6 846 15.8 5,452 734 13.5 787 14.4

Rhode Island

453 79 17.4 81 17.9 455 81 17.8 84 18.4

South Carolina

1,726 59 3.4 86 5.0 1,773 58 3.3 82 4.6

South Dakota

359 18 5.1 23 6.5 351 20 5.6 24 6.7

Tennessee

2,504 115 4.6 139 5.6 2,586 124 4.8 152 5.9

Texas

10,214 534 5.2 643 6.3 10,590 599 5.7 721 6.8

Utah

1,150 67 5.8 82 7.1 1,179 61 5.2 77 6.6

Vermont

290 35 12.0 39 13.5 288 31 10.7 38 13.1

Virginia

3,550 163 4.6 198 5.6 3,592 159 4.4 197 5.5

Washington

2,727 517 19.0 557 20.4 2,776 513 18.5 541 19.5

West Virginia

672 93 13.8 102 15.2 697 84 12.1 91 13.1

Wisconsin

2,538 339 13.3 358 14.1 2,605 293 11.2 312 12.0

Wyoming

250 18 7.2 21 8.4 252 17 6.7 20 8.1

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 23, 2013
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