Economic News Release

Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 27, 2012                    USDL-12-0094

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                               UNION MEMBERS -- 2011


In 2011, the union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who 
were members of a union--was 11.8 percent, essentially unchanged from 11.9 
percent in 2010, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The number 
of wage and salary workers belonging to unions, at 14.8 million, also showed 
little movement over the year. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union 
data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 percent and there were
17.7 million union workers.

The data on union membership were collected as part of the Current Population 
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that obtains 
information on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian 
noninstitutional population age 16 and over. For more information, see the 
Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2011 data:

   --Public-sector workers had a union membership rate (37.0 percent) more 
     than five times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.9
     percent). (See table 3.)
                                                                         
   --Workers in education, training, and library occupations had the
     highest unionization rate, at 36.8 percent, while the lowest rate
     occurred in sales and related occupations (3.0 percent). (See 
     table 3.)

   --Black workers were more likely to be union members than were white, 
     Asian, or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

   --Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership 
     rate (24.1 percent) and North Carolina again had the lowest rate 
     (2.9 percent). (See table 5.)

Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2011, 7.6 million employees in the public sector belonged to a
union, compared with 7.2 million union workers in the private sector.
The union membership rate for public-sector workers (37.0 percent) was
substantially higher than the rate for private-sector workers (6.9
percent). Within the public sector, local government workers had the
highest union membership rate, 43.2 percent. This group includes
workers in heavily unionized occupations, such as teachers, police
officers, and firefighters. Private-sector industries with high
unionization rates included transportation and utilities (21.1
percent) and construction (14.0 percent), while low unionization rates
occurred in agriculture and related industries (1.4 percent) and in
financial activities (1.6 percent). (See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, education, training, and library
occupations (36.8 percent) and protective service occupations (34.5
percent) had the highest unionization rates in 2011. Sales and related
occupations (3.0 percent) and farming, fishing, and forestry
occupations (3.4 percent) had the lowest unionization rates. (See
table 3.)

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

The union membership rate was higher for men (12.4 percent) than for
women (11.2 percent) in 2011. (See table 1.) The gap between their
rates has narrowed considerably since 1983, when the rate for men was
about 10 percentage points higher than the rate for women. Between
1983 and 2011, the union membership rate for men declined by almost
half (12.3 percentage points), while the rate for women declined by
3.4 percentage points.

In 2011, among major race and ethnicity groups, black workers were
more likely to be union members (13.5 percent) than workers who were
white (11.6 percent), Asian (10.1 percent), or Hispanic (9.7 percent).
Black men had the highest union membership rate (14.6 percent), while
Asian men had the lowest rate (9.1 percent).

By age, the union membership rate was highest among workers 55 to 64
years old (15.7 percent). The lowest union membership rate occurred
among those ages 16 to 24 (4.4 percent).

Full-time workers were about twice as likely as part-time workers to
be union members, 13.1 percent compared with 6.4 percent.

Union Representation

In 2011, 16.3 million wage and salary workers were represented by a
union. This group includes both union members (14.8 million) and
workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by
a union contract (1.5 million). (See table 1.) Government employees
comprised about half of the 1.5 million workers who were covered by a
union contract but were not members of a union. (See table 3.)

Earnings

In 2011, among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had
median usual weekly earnings of $938, while those who were not union
members had median weekly earnings of $729. In addition to coverage by
a collective bargaining agreement, earnings differences reflect a
variety of influences, including variations in the distributions of
union members and nonunion employees by occupation, industry, firm
size, or geographic region. (See table 2.)

Union Membership by State

In 2011, 29 states and the District of Columbia had union membership
rates below that of the U.S. average, 11.8 percent, while 21 states
had higher rates. All states in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific
divisions reported union membership rates above the national average,
while all states in the East South Central and West South Central
divisions had rates below it. Union membership rates declined over the
year in 29 states and the District of Columbia, rose in 19 states, and
were unchanged in 2 states. (See table 5.)

Seven states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2011,
with North Carolina having the lowest rate (2.9 percent). The next
lowest rates were recorded in South Carolina (3.4 percent), Georgia
(3.9 percent), Arkansas (4.2 percent), Louisiana (4.5 percent), and
Tennessee and Virginia (4.6 percent each). Three states had union
membership rates over 20.0 percent in 2011: New York (24.1 percent),
Alaska (22.1 percent), and Hawaii (21.5 percent).

State union membership levels depend on both the overall employment
levels and union membership rates. The largest numbers of union
members lived in California (2.4 million) and New York (1.9 million).
Over half of the 14.8 million union members in the U.S. lived in just
seven states (California, 2.4 million; New York, 1.9 million; Illinois, 
0.9 million; Pennsylvania, 0.8 million; Michigan 0.7 million; and New 
Jersey and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states accounted for 
only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.

Texas had about one-fourth as many union members as New York, despite
having 2.3 million more wage and salary employees. North Carolina and
Hawaii had comparable numbers of union members (105,000 and 113,000,
respectively), though North Carolina's wage and salary employment
level (3.6 million) was nearly seven times that of Hawaii (525,000).




Technical Note

  The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Sur-
vey (CPS), which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment,
and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Sta-
tistics by the U.S. Census Bureau from a scientifically selected national sam-
ple of about 60,000 eligible households. The union membership and earnings data 
are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage
and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

  The Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the population controls for the
CPS as part of its annual update of population estimates. The effect of the
revised population controls on the union affiliation data is unknown. However,
the effect of the new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the
December 2010 employment level by 347,000. The updated controls had little or
no effect on unemployment rates and other ratios. Estimated levels, such as
the number of union members for 2011, are not strictly comparable with estimated
levels for 2010. These adjustments to the levels, however, should have had only
negligible effects on union membership rates. Additional information is avail-
able on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

  Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling er-
ror. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a
chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values
they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon
the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confi-
dence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard
errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses
are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section
of this release preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction of
the movements in state union membership rates and levels regardless of their sta-
tistical significance.

  The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can oc-
cur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population,
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or un-
willingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

  For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on
estimating standard errors, see the Household Data section of the "Explanatory Notes
and Estimates of Error" available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Definitions

  The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

  Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee
association similar to a union.

  Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report
no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee associa-
tion contract.

  Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor repre-
sented by a union on their job.

  Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions
and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job
in the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much
they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to
identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice
monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time
period. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equi-
valent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks
for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than
half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

  Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribu-
tion into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having
earnings below the median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calcu-
lated weekly earnings value into $50-wide intervals which are centered around multi-
ples of $50. The actual value is estimated through the linear interpolation of the
interval in which the median lies.

  Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and
public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers,
both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

  Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole
or principal job.

  Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2010 2011
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

124,073 14,715 11.9 16,290 13.1 125,187 14,764 11.8 16,290 13.0

16 to 24 years

16,638 722 4.3 836 5.0 16,910 737 4.4 845 5.0

25 years and over

107,435 13,993 13.0 15,453 14.4 108,278 14,027 13.0 15,444 14.3

25 to 34 years

28,363 2,860 10.1 3,179 11.2 28,682 2,829 9.9 3,155 11.0

35 to 44 years

27,356 3,512 12.8 3,888 14.2 27,231 3,470 12.7 3,804 14.0

45 to 54 years

28,860 4,340 15.0 4,774 16.5 28,693 4,286 14.9 4,707 16.4

55 to 64 years

18,199 2,849 15.7 3,126 17.2 18,751 2,949 15.7 3,219 17.2

65 years and over

4,657 432 9.3 486 10.4 4,920 494 10.0 559 11.4

Men, 16 years and over

63,531 7,994 12.6 8,761 13.8 64,686 8,006 12.4 8,731 13.5

16 to 24 years

8,291 419 5.0 476 5.7 8,636 435 5.0 486 5.6

25 years and over

55,240 7,575 13.7 8,286 15.0 56,050 7,571 13.5 8,246 14.7

25 to 34 years

15,148 1,603 10.6 1,759 11.6 15,465 1,541 10.0 1,706 11.0

35 to 44 years

14,430 1,966 13.6 2,151 14.9 14,412 1,946 13.5 2,114 14.7

45 to 54 years

14,423 2,349 16.3 2,554 17.7 14,415 2,327 16.1 2,513 17.4

55 to 64 years

8,895 1,430 16.1 1,566 17.6 9,212 1,497 16.2 1,623 17.6

65 years and over

2,343 227 9.7 256 10.9 2,547 260 10.2 290 11.4

Women, 16 years and over

60,542 6,722 11.1 7,528 12.4 60,502 6,758 11.2 7,558 12.5

16 to 24 years

8,347 303 3.6 361 4.3 8,274 302 3.6 360 4.3

25 years and over

52,195 6,418 12.3 7,167 13.7 52,228 6,456 12.4 7,199 13.8

25 to 34 years

13,215 1,257 9.5 1,420 10.7 13,218 1,288 9.7 1,449 11.0

35 to 44 years

12,926 1,546 12.0 1,737 13.4 12,819 1,524 11.9 1,690 13.2

45 to 54 years

14,437 1,991 13.8 2,219 15.4 14,278 1,959 13.7 2,195 15.4

55 to 64 years

9,303 1,419 15.3 1,560 16.8 9,540 1,452 15.2 1,596 16.7

65 years and over

2,314 205 8.8 230 10.0 2,373 233 9.8 269 11.3

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

101,042 11,865 11.7 13,111 13.0 101,768 11,853 11.6 13,061 12.8

Men

52,565 6,588 12.5 7,208 13.7 53,418 6,568 12.3 7,156 13.4

Women

48,477 5,277 10.9 5,903 12.2 48,351 5,285 10.9 5,905 12.2

Black or African American, 16 years and over

14,195 1,896 13.4 2,115 14.9 14,249 1,927 13.5 2,140 15.0

Men

6,347 938 14.8 1,031 16.2 6,440 940 14.6 1,020 15.8

Women

7,848 958 12.2 1,085 13.8 7,808 987 12.6 1,119 14.3

Asian, 16 years and over

5,900 645 10.9 713 12.1 6,153 623 10.1 690 11.2

Men

3,112 292 9.4 325 10.4 3,269 296 9.1 331 10.1

Women

2,787 353 12.6 388 13.9 2,884 327 11.4 359 12.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

18,263 1,820 10.0 2,021 11.1 18,733 1,826 9.7 2,015 10.8

Men

10,646 1,090 10.2 1,196 11.2 10,980 1,078 9.8 1,186 10.8

Women

7,616 730 9.6 825 10.8 7,754 748 9.6 829 10.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

99,531 13,125 13.2 14,498 14.6 100,457 13,177 13.1 14,487 14.4

Part-time workers

24,351 1,560 6.4 1,760 7.2 24,502 1,557 6.4 1,769 7.2

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2010-2011 annual averages
Characteristic 2010 2011
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$747 $917 $911 $717 $756 $938 $934 $729

16 to 24 years

432 585 580 423 440 552 550 432

25 years and over

782 931 925 755 797 954 950 766

25 to 34 years

682 847 840 657 693 852 848 671

35 to 44 years

824 961 954 792 837 992 983 805

45 to 54 years

844 955 950 813 866 988 987 832

55 to 64 years

860 975 971 828 881 992 992 845

65 years and over

684 823 821 665 742 849 855 728

Men, 16 years and over

824 967 964 789 832 982 981 798

16 to 24 years

443 610 601 430 455 577 575 447

25 years and over

874 982 979 846 886 1,000 999 857

25 to 34 years

714 870 864 688 717 876 876 699

35 to 44 years

915 1,008 1,004 893 935 1,030 1,022 912

45 to 54 years

954 1,014 1,013 935 979 1,036 1,038 964

55 to 64 years

979 1,010 1,012 967 997 1,062 1,066 977

65 years and over

794 903 903 770 821 897 910 813

Women, 16 years and over

669 856 847 639 684 879 871 653

16 to 24 years

422 531 535 417 421 520 518 416

25 years and over

704 870 861 672 718 895 888 688

25 to 34 years

648 819 811 624 662 829 823 637

35 to 44 years

731 897 888 699 734 936 925 702

45 to 54 years

730 874 864 702 744 925 922 715

55 to 64 years

736 924 913 702 749 917 916 724

65 years and over

601 690 703 588 664 820 819 645

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

765 943 936 736 775 961 956 747

Men

850 988 985 817 856 1,004 1,001 821

Women

684 882 872 651 703 903 897 670

Black or African American, 16 years and over

611 772 766 589 615 771 768 595

Men

633 829 827 606 653 802 803 619

Women

592 729 720 574 595 744 741 577

Asian, 16 years and over

855 909 918 842 866 961 962 846

Men

936 924 941 936 970 964 983 969

Women

773 904 909 749 751 959 943 727

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

535 771 766 512 549 811 804 520

Men

560 804 800 525 571 859 856 538

Women

508 729 724 489 518 743 733 501

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2010 2011
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

44,871 5,867 13.1 6,674 14.9 45,520 5,896 13.0 6,693 14.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16,684 782 4.7 973 5.8 17,196 851 4.9 1,039 6.0

Management occupations

11,386 476 4.2 599 5.3 11,593 538 4.6 668 5.8

Business and financial operations occupations

5,299 306 5.8 373 7.0 5,603 313 5.6 371 6.6

Professional and related occupations

28,187 5,085 18.0 5,701 20.2 28,324 5,045 17.8 5,654 20.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

3,350 136 4.0 180 5.4 3,438 136 4.0 167 4.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,468 197 8.0 244 9.9 2,615 191 7.3 227 8.7

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,256 126 10.1 145 11.5 1,174 139 11.8 164 13.9

Community and social service occupations

2,260 362 16.0 390 17.3 2,268 374 16.5 418 18.4

Legal occupations

1,352 72 5.3 87 6.4 1,378 69 5.0 93 6.7

Education, training, and library occupations

8,415 3,123 37.1 3,441 40.9 8,343 3,067 36.8 3,381 40.5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,899 112 5.9 139 7.3 1,904 132 6.9 146 7.7

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

7,188 957 13.3 1,076 15.0 7,204 938 13.0 1,058 14.7

Service occupations

22,463 2,467 11.0 2,683 11.9 22,508 2,429 10.8 2,653 11.8

Healthcare support occupations

3,214 268 8.4 296 9.2 3,178 268 8.4 297 9.3

Protective service occupations

3,287 1,122 34.1 1,202 36.6 3,207 1,107 34.5 1,180 36.8

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7,555 297 3.9 328 4.3 7,677 305 4.0 351 4.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,549 469 10.3 518 11.4 4,603 489 10.6 532 11.6

Personal care and service occupations

3,858 311 8.0 338 8.8 3,843 260 6.8 294 7.6

Sales and office occupations

30,673 2,113 6.9 2,388 7.8 30,580 2,114 6.9 2,362 7.7

Sales and related occupations

13,033 418 3.2 496 3.8 13,189 401 3.0 455 3.4

Office and administrative support occupations

17,641 1,695 9.6 1,892 10.7 17,390 1,714 9.9 1,908 11.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,879 1,808 16.6 1,912 17.6 10,955 1,838 16.8 1,959 17.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

869 30 3.4 36 4.1 940 32 3.4 38 4.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5,579 1,050 18.8 1,100 19.7 5,575 1,064 19.1 1,120 20.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,431 728 16.4 776 17.5 4,440 742 16.7 801 18.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,186 2,460 16.2 2,633 17.3 15,625 2,487 15.9 2,622 16.8

Production occupations

7,540 1,144 15.2 1,210 16.1 7,739 1,104 14.3 1,159 15.0

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,647 1,316 17.2 1,423 18.6 7,886 1,383 17.5 1,463 18.6

INDUSTRY

Private sector

103,040 7,092 6.9 7,884 7.7 104,737 7,202 6.9 7,969 7.6

Agriculture and related industries

1,131 18 1.6 23 2.0 1,183 16 1.4 21 1.8

Nonagricultural industries

101,909 7,074 6.9 7,861 7.7 103,554 7,186 6.9 7,948 7.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

695 55 8.0 61 8.8 780 56 7.2 61 7.8

Construction

6,103 801 13.1 838 13.7 6,244 874 14.0 928 14.9

Manufacturing

13,252 1,418 10.7 1,538 11.6 13,599 1,424 10.5 1,521 11.2

Durable goods

8,268 835 10.1 909 11.0 8,530 871 10.2 924 10.8

Nondurable goods

4,984 584 11.7 629 12.6 5,070 553 10.9 596 11.8

Wholesale and retail trade

17,800 860 4.8 949 5.3 18,002 859 4.8 959 5.3

Wholesale trade

3,321 173 5.2 186 5.6 3,419 150 4.4 165 4.8

Retail trade

14,479 687 4.7 763 5.3 14,582 709 4.9 794 5.4

Transportation and utilities

5,195 1,134 21.8 1,203 23.2 5,239 1,108 21.1 1,159 22.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,286 877 20.5 928 21.6 4,355 887 20.4 932 21.4

Utilities

909 257 28.3 275 30.3 884 221 25.0 228 25.7

Information(3)

2,743 265 9.6 299 10.9 2,756 279 10.1 298 10.8

Publishing, except Internet

577 29 5.0 38 6.5 554 25 4.5 26 4.7

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

341 32 9.3 36 10.6 337 47 13.8 48 14.1

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

561 29 5.1 38 6.8 576 34 5.9 40 7.0

Telecommunications

1,054 167 15.8 177 16.8 1,064 166 15.6 175 16.4

Financial activities

8,072 160 2.0 206 2.5 8,086 132 1.6 165 2.0

Finance and insurance

6,108 79 1.3 110 1.8 6,111 64 1.1 86 1.4

Finance

3,985 44 1.1 65 1.6 3,932 37 1.0 53 1.3

Insurance

2,123 35 1.6 45 2.1 2,179 27 1.2 33 1.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,964 81 4.1 95 4.9 1,976 67 3.4 79 4.0

Professional and business services

11,738 315 2.7 388 3.3 12,171 250 2.1 322 2.6

Professional and technical services

6,980 98 1.4 134 1.9 7,244 90 1.2 131 1.8

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,757 217 4.6 254 5.3 4,927 160 3.3 191 3.9

Education and health services

19,804 1,608 8.1 1,858 9.4 19,855 1,715 8.6 1,982 10.0

Educational services

3,964 517 13.0 599 15.1 4,020 523 13.0 621 15.5

Health care and social assistance

15,840 1,091 6.9 1,259 7.9 15,835 1,192 7.5 1,361 8.6

Leisure and hospitality

11,111 301 2.7 337 3.0 11,355 305 2.7 344 3.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,111 113 5.3 126 5.9 2,107 111 5.3 121 5.7

Accommodation and food services

8,999 188 2.1 212 2.4 9,247 194 2.1 224 2.4

Accommodation

1,345 106 7.9 112 8.3 1,350 96 7.1 105 7.8

Food services and drinking places

7,654 82 1.1 100 1.3 7,898 98 1.2 119 1.5

Other services(3)

5,397 158 2.9 184 3.4 5,467 184 3.4 209 3.8

Other services, except private households

4,726 152 3.2 178 3.8 4,723 167 3.5 189 4.0

Public sector

21,033 7,623 36.2 8,406 40.0 20,450 7,562 37.0 8,321 40.7

Federal government

3,670 984 26.8 1,154 31.4 3,568 1,004 28.1 1,185 33.2

State government

6,328 1,969 31.1 2,191 34.6 6,261 1,973 31.5 2,189 35.0

Local government

11,035 4,670 42.3 5,061 45.9 10,621 4,586 43.2 4,947 46.6

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2010-2011 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2010 2011
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,063 $1,059 $1,055 $1,064 $1,082 $1,090 $1,082 $1,082

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,155 1,138 1,145 1,156 1,160 1,169 1,171 1,159

Management occupations

1,230 1,161 1,187 1,231 1,237 1,287 1,300 1,232

Business and financial operations occupations

1,036 1,082 1,048 1,035 1,038 999 999 1,042

Professional and related occupations

1,008 1,047 1,040 998 1,029 1,074 1,064 1,017

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,289 1,062 1,074 1,311 1,305 1,156 1,169 1,324

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,255 1,238 1,285 1,252 1,315 1,304 1,325 1,314

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,062 1,166 1,160 1,038 1,108 1,229 1,218 1,085

Community and social service occupations

802 980 955 759 813 993 1,000 771

Legal occupations

1,213 1,329 1,358 1,199 1,277 1,222 1,376 1,273

Education, training, and library occupations

913 1,023 1,008 811 919 1,038 1,020 814

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

920 999 1,015 915 929 1,179 1,152 910

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

986 1,095 1,098 967 995 1,132 1,125 975

Service occupations

479 723 707 447 486 742 732 455

Healthcare support occupations

471 514 503 467 487 519 518 484

Protective service occupations

747 995 980 629 757 1,008 1,004 627

Food preparation and serving related occupations

406 508 503 402 409 504 500 405

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

446 595 590 421 465 635 626 431

Personal care and service occupations

455 575 564 440 453 534 527 444

Sales and office occupations

631 752 745 621 638 775 771 624

Sales and related occupations

666 683 678 665 670 660 669 670

Office and administrative support occupations

619 762 754 607 623 803 791 608

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

719 1,013 1,006 664 732 1,016 1,008 676

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

416 - - 412 430 - - 426

Construction and extraction occupations

709 1,029 1,019 633 717 1,017 1,010 647

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

794 1,005 1,001 745 806 1,036 1,021 767

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

599 817 809 564 609 798 794 582

Production occupations

599 811 801 569 605 781 778 583

Transportation and material moving occupations

599 824 816 557 614 813 808 580

INDUSTRY

Private sector

717 864 855 703 729 878 875 716

Agriculture and related industries

465 - - 463 483 - - 481

Nonagricultural industries

721 865 856 707 732 879 875 721

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,032 1,076 1,053 1,026 1,064 1,030 1,005 1,069

Construction

735 1,051 1,046 692 746 1,059 1,037 698

Manufacturing

767 828 817 759 787 836 835 780

Durable goods

806 878 866 796 818 889 887 809

Nondurable goods

700 760 749 690 737 771 771 729

Wholesale and retail trade

612 669 657 610 613 622 622 612

Wholesale trade

777 770 774 777 759 798 773 758

Retail trade

575 613 608 572 578 591 592 577

Transportation and utilities

823 1,000 994 765 805 987 985 762

Transportation and warehousing

765 934 928 725 763 941 939 726

Utilities

1,102 1,199 1,193 1,014 1,081 1,132 1,132 1,027

Information(4)

912 1,018 998 895 940 1,122 1,117 916

Publishing, except Internet

876 - - 871 910 - - 902

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

917 - - 893 965 - - 926

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

821 - - 814 834 - - 834

Telecommunications

987 1,039 1,023 974 987 1,113 1,109 950

Financial activities

849 806 799 852 866 824 822 866

Finance and insurance

902 819 829 905 907 819 826 908

Finance

902 - 870 903 910 - 820 911

Insurance

902 - - 908 899 - - 900

Real estate and rental and leasing

702 786 713 701 736 836 815 734

Professional and business services

855 751 754 859 880 872 883 880

Professional and technical services

1,124 1,157 1,147 1,123 1,149 1,193 1,211 1,149

Management, administrative, and waste services

542 598 592 536 569 706 693 562

Education and health services

$731 $849 $846 $717 $736 $870 $878 $722

Educational services

852 900 875 846 858 938 942 833

Health care and social assistance

698 817 823 686 706 801 809 697

Leisure and hospitality

469 580 575 461 479 607 605 473

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

616 636 632 614 612 632 625 611

Accommodation and food services

430 530 524 424 447 594 594 441

Accommodation

508 547 553 502 515 598 596 508

Food services and drinking places

417 517 509 416 427 585 592 424

Other services(4)

615 866 862 609 626 917 901 619

Other services, except private households

636 880 874 627 654 960 919 643

Public sector

878 961 956 801 895 981 977 810

Federal government

1,012 977 987 1,040 1,063 1,038 1,043 1,092

State government

829 922 917 769 852 956 946 785

Local government

854 971 962 743 861 973 967 743

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
State 2010 2011
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,809 183 10.1 203 11.2 1,781 178 10.0 193 10.8

Alaska

295 68 22.9 73 24.8 306 68 22.1 73 23.7

Arizona

2,507 161 6.4 203 8.1 2,493 149 6.0 183 7.3

Arkansas

1,082 44 4.0 59 5.4 1,116 47 4.2 57 5.1

California

13,892 2,431 17.5 2,578 18.6 13,931 2,379 17.1 2,532 18.2

Colorado

2,130 140 6.6 171 8.0 2,186 179 8.2 203 9.3

Connecticut

1,549 258 16.7 270 17.4 1,542 259 16.8 272 17.7

Delaware

352 40 11.4 44 12.5 370 39 10.5 42 11.2

District of Columbia

287 26 9.0 30 10.5 281 23 8.3 28 9.9

Florida

7,033 392 5.6 488 6.9 7,283 460 6.3 557 7.6

Georgia

3,792 153 4.0 191 5.0 3,876 153 3.9 185 4.8

Hawaii

511 111 21.8 120 23.5 525 113 21.5 118 22.5

Idaho

584 42 7.1 50 8.6 594 31 5.1 36 6.1

Illinois

5,434 844 15.5 891 16.4 5,408 876 16.2 929 17.2

Indiana

2,554 279 10.9 313 12.2 2,681 302 11.3 333 12.4

Iowa

1,393 158 11.4 192 13.8 1,386 155 11.2 187 13.5

Kansas

1,222 84 6.8 111 9.1 1,268 97 7.6 128 10.1

Kentucky

1,642 147 8.9 166 10.1 1,678 150 8.9 173 10.3

Louisiana

1,742 76 4.3 96 5.5 1,717 77 4.5 91 5.3

Maine

543 63 11.6 71 13.0 554 63 11.3 74 13.4

Maryland

2,558 296 11.6 329 12.9 2,549 316 12.4 348 13.7

Massachusetts

2,866 415 14.5 446 15.6 2,882 422 14.6 445 15.4

Michigan

3,806 627 16.5 659 17.3 3,838 671 17.5 703 18.3

Minnesota

2,468 385 15.6 397 16.1 2,461 371 15.1 390 15.8

Mississippi

1,037 46 4.5 58 5.6 1,081 54 5.0 73 6.8

Missouri

2,469 244 9.9 274 11.1 2,531 275 10.9 316 12.5

Montana

364 46 12.7 52 14.4 377 49 13.0 55 14.6

Nebraska

813 75 9.3 96 11.8 828 65 7.9 83 10.0

Nevada

1,012 151 15.0 170 16.8 1,050 154 14.6 175 16.6

New Hampshire

622 63 10.2 73 11.7 617 68 11.1 77 12.5

New Jersey

3,734 637 17.1 660 17.7 3,816 615 16.1 641 16.8

New Mexico

750 55 7.3 72 9.7 726 49 6.8 65 9.0

New York

8,078 1,959 24.2 2,099 26.0 7,920 1,906 24.1 2,068 26.1

North Carolina

3,686 117 3.2 180 4.9 3,589 105 2.9 149 4.1

North Dakota

313 23 7.4 28 9.1 318 20 6.3 27 8.6

Ohio

4,787 655 13.7 702 14.7 4,813 647 13.4 706 14.7

Oklahoma

1,418 77 5.5 99 6.9 1,458 94 6.4 113 7.7

Oregon

1,515 245 16.2 268 17.7 1,574 270 17.1 286 18.1

Pennsylvania

5,224 770 14.7 831 15.9 5,348 779 14.6 846 15.8

Rhode Island

456 75 16.4 79 17.4 453 79 17.4 81 17.9

South Carolina

1,713 80 4.6 107 6.2 1,726 59 3.4 86 5.0

South Dakota

357 20 5.6 24 6.6 359 18 5.1 23 6.5

Tennessee

2,477 115 4.7 142 5.8 2,504 115 4.6 139 5.6

Texas

10,025 545 5.4 677 6.7 10,214 534 5.2 643 6.3

Utah

1,144 75 6.5 96 8.4 1,150 67 5.8 82 7.1

Vermont

289 34 11.8 40 13.6 290 35 12.0 39 13.5

Virginia

3,473 161 4.6 196 5.7 3,550 163 4.6 198 5.6

Washington

2,837 552 19.4 605 21.3 2,727 517 19.0 557 20.4

West Virginia

677 100 14.8 111 16.5 672 93 13.8 102 15.2

Wisconsin

2,508 355 14.2 380 15.1 2,538 339 13.3 358 14.1

Wyoming

246 18 7.4 21 8.4 250 18 7.2 21 8.4

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 27, 2012
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