Economic News Release

Employment Situation of Veterans News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6378     USDL 09-0271
               http://www.bls.gov/cps/
                                           For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902     Friday, March 20, 2009
                                   
                                   
                EMPLOYMENT SITUATION OF VETERANS:  2008


   The unemployment rate for all veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces was 4.6 
percent in 2008, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of 
Labor reported today.  The jobless rate for those who have served in the 
U.S. Armed Forces since September 2001 was 7.3 percent.
   
   This information was obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), 
a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that provides official 
statistics on employment and unemployment in the United States.  Data 
about veteran status and period of service are collected monthly in the 
CPS; these data are the source of the 2008 annual averages presented in 
this release.  For more information, see the box note on page 3 and the 
technical note, which provides definitions of terms used in the text and 
tables below.
   
The Veteran Population
   
   In the CPS, veterans are defined as men and women who have previously 
served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and who were civilians at 
the time they were surveyed.  In 2008, 22.4 million men and women in the 
civilian noninstitutional population ages 18 and over were veterans.  The 
veteran population differs from the nonveteran population in several ways.  
Veterans are more likely than nonveterans to be men, white, and older.  
In part, this reflects the characteristics of veterans who served during 
World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam era.  Veterans who served 
during these wars account for over one-half (11.9 million) of the total 
veteran population.  (Period-of-service designations identify when the 
veteran served rather than where; thus, wartime veterans did not neces-
sarily serve in a war zone.)
   
   A total of 4.6 million veterans served during Gulf War era I (August 
1990 to August 2001) or Gulf War era II (September 2001 to the present).  
Another 6.0 million served outside the designated wartime periods.  (See 
table 1.)  Because age and other demographic differences can affect em-
ployment and unemployment status, the groups of veterans listed above 
are examined separately in the next sections.

Gulf War-era II Veterans

   About 1.7 million veterans have served in the U.S. Armed Forces since 
September 2001.  As is true for all period-of-service categories, men ac-
counted for the great majority (82 percent) of Gulf War-era II veterans.  
However, the proportion of veterans who were women was much higher among 
this group of veterans (18 percent) than among those who served prior to 
either Gulf War era (4 percent).  About 17 percent of the era's veterans 
were black and 10 percent were Hispanic.  Nearly two-thirds were under 
the age of 35.  (See tables 1 and 2.)


                               - 2 -

   
   A large majority (85.0 percent) of Gulf War-era II veterans partici-
pated in the labor force in 2008, and their unemployment rate was 7.3 
percent.  As with nonveterans, the jobless rates for veterans vary con-
siderably with age.  Veterans between the ages of 18 and 24 had an unem-
ployment rate of 14.1 percent, nearly double the rate of those ages 25 
to 34 (7.3 percent), and almost three times the rate for 35 to 44 year 
olds (4.9 percent).  In general, Gulf War-era II veterans' jobless rates 
were little different from the rates of nonveterans in the same age group.
   
   About 30 percent of employed male veterans of Gulf War era II worked 
in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with about 
34 percent of male nonveterans.  Sales and office occupations; natural 
resources, construction, and maintenance occupations; and production, 
transportation, and material moving occupations each accounted for about 
18 percent of employed male veterans and nonveterans.  (See table 3.)
   
   Among female veterans of Gulf War era II, 43 percent were employed
in management, professional, and related occupations, and 32 percent 
held sales and office jobs.  These proportions were virtually the same 
as those for female nonveterans.
   
   Gulf War-era II veterans were more likely than nonveterans to work
in the public sector.  Among veterans of the era, 23 percent of men and 
30 percent of women were government employees in 2008.  For nonveterans
these proportions were 11 and 18 percent, respectively.  (See table 4.)

Gulf War-era I Veterans

   For the 2.9 million veterans who served during Gulf War era I (August 
1990 to August 2001), the proportion that were men (85 percent) was simi-
lar to that of Gulf War-era II veterans.  Blacks and Hispanics accounted 
for 16 and 9 percent, respectively, of Gulf War-era I veterans, also 
very similar to the proportions for Gulf War-era II veterans.  About 7 
in 10 Gulf War-era I veterans were 35 years and over in 2008, compared 
with approximately one-third of those from Gulf War era II.
   
   About 88 percent of Gulf War-era I veterans were in the labor force
in 2008, about the same as the rate for Gulf War-era II veterans.  The
unemployment rate for Gulf War-era I veterans (4.0 percent) was lower
than the rate for Gulf War-era II veterans (7.3 percent).  Since unem-
ployment rates are higher on average for younger workers, this dif-
ference probably reflects the older age distribution of veterans who 
served in Gulf War era I.  Labor force participation rates and unem-
ployment rates of Gulf War-era I veterans were generally similar to 
those of nonveterans of the same age group and sex.
   
   One-half of the female veterans of the era were in management, pro-
fessional, and related occupations, compared with 40 percent of female 
nonveterans.  The occupational profiles for male veterans of the era 
and for male nonveterans were little different.  As was the case with 
Gulf War-era II veterans, both male and female Gulf War-era I veterans 
were much more likely than nonveterans to work in the public sector.

Veterans of World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam Era
   
   In 2008, there were about 11.9 million veterans who had served during 
World War II, the Korean War, or the Vietnam era.  The great majority 
(95 percent) of these veterans were at least 55 years old, and more than 
one-half were at least 65 years old.  About 97 percent of veterans from 
these wartime periods were men.
   
   Reflecting the fact that many were of retirement age, only about 40
percent of male veterans from these earlier wartime periods were in the 
labor force in 2008.  The labor force participation rates for these vet-
erans declined with age; for ages 45 to 54 it was 78.9 percent, for 
those ages 55 to 64 it was 64.8 percent, and for those ages 65 and over 
(more than half of the total) it was 16.3 percent.  The unemployment 
rates for these veterans were similar across the age groups--between 4 
and 5 percent.


                                - 3 -

   
Veterans of Other Service Periods
   
   Six million veterans served on active duty during "other service
periods," mainly between the Korean War and the Vietnam era, and be-
tween the Vietnam era and Gulf War era I.  Because these veterans
served between the major wartime periods, which span several decades,
this group has a diverse age profile.  About 38 percent of these vet-
erans were at least 65 years old in 2008.  Another 38 percent were
ages 45 to 54, and 17 percent were ages 35 to 44.  About 90 percent
were men, 12 percent were black, and 5 percent were Hispanic.
   
   In general, male veterans of other service periods had labor force
participation rates and unemployment rates that were little different
from those of male nonveterans of similar ages.  As was true for war-
time veterans, male and female veterans of other service periods were
more likely to work for the public sector compared with nonveterans.  
In addition, women who served during other service periods were more
likely to work in management and professional jobs and less likely to 
hold service jobs compared with their peers who never served.





  ------------------------------------------------------------------
 |                                                                  |
 |             Changes in the News Release on Veterans              |
 |                                                                  |
 |    From 1986 to 2008, BLS issued news releases every other year  |
 | that focused on the results from the Current Population Survey   |
 | (CPS) biennial veterans supplements.  Data on veterans also are  |
 | collected as part of the basic monthly CPS.  This is the first   |
 | news release that presents only annual average estimates for     |
 | veterans compiled from the basic CPS.                            |
 |                                                                  |
 |    At this time, BLS plans to issue annual news releases on vet- |
 | erans.  In odd-numbered years, the release will include only the |
 | annual average data for the previous year.  In even-numbered     |
 | years, that is, the years following the biennial veterans sup-   |
 | plements, the news release will include both annual average and  |
 | supplement data.                                                 |
 |                                                                  |
  ------------------------------------------------------------------







                               - 4 -

Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Popu-
lation Survey (CPS), which provides detailed information on the labor 
force, employment, and unemployment.  The survey is conducted monthly 
for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census Bureau using a 
scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 households.  
Questions were asked of persons 17 years of age and older regarding 
their prior service in the U.S. Armed Forces.  Data are tabulated for 
persons 18 years of age and older.
   
   The data in this release are annual averages for 2008, compiled from
the results of the monthly survey, which collects information on the
labor force status of the population as well as a number of demographic
characteristics including veteran status.  In addition, a veterans sup-
plement to the CPS obtains information on presence and degree of service-
connected disability, membership in the Reserve or National Guard, and 
other topics related to prior service in the Armed Forces.  The most re-
cent such supplement was conducted in August 2007; a news release issued 
in April 2008 (http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/vet.pdf) presented 
highlights of this survey along with the annual averages for 2007.  The 
next veterans supplement is scheduled to be conducted in August 2009, 
and the results will be issued in spring 2010 along with the 2009 annual 
averages.  This release presents annual averages only.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; TDD message re-
ferral phone number:  1-800-877-8339.

Definitions
   
  The definitions underlying the data in this release are as follows:
  
  Veterans are men and women who previously served on active duty in
the U.S. Armed Forces.  Members of the Reserve and National Guard are
counted as veterans if they had ever been called to active duty.  Per-
sons who are on active duty at the time of the survey are outside the
scope of the survey and thus not counted as veterans in the CPS.  Per-
sons who reside in institutions, such as nursing homes and prisons, are 
also outside the scope of the CPS and are not surveyed.
   
   Nonveterans are men and women who never served on active duty in the
U.S. Armed Forces.
   
   World War II, Korean War, Vietnam-era, and Gulf War-era veterans are
men and women who served in the Armed Forces during these periods, re-
gardless of where they served.  Veterans who served in more than one
wartime period are classified in the most recent one.
   
   Veterans of other service periods are men and women who served in the
Armed Forces at any time other than World War II, the Korean War, the
Vietnam era, or the Gulf War era.  Although U.S. Armed Forces were en-
gaged in several armed conflicts during other service periods, these
conflicts were more limited in scope and included a smaller proportion
of the Armed Forces than the selected wartime periods.  Veterans who
served during one of the selected wartime periods and during another
period are classified in the wartime period.
   
   Veteran status is obtained from responses to two questions.  The
first is, "Did you ever serve on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?"
If yes, the person is asked, "Are you still in the Armed Forces?"  An-
swers of yes to the first question and no to the second question qualify 
the person as a veteran.
   
   Period of service is obtained from answers to the question asked of
veterans, "When did you serve on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces?"
The following service periods are identified:
  
  Gulf War era II  --   September 2001-present
  Gulf War era I   --   August 1990-August 2001
  Vietnam era      --   August 1964-April 1975
  Korean War       --   July 1950-January 1955
  World War II     --   December 1941-December 1946
  Other service periods  --   All other time periods

Period-of-service definitions are modified occasionally to reflect
changes in law, regulations, and program needs of the survey sponsors.


                               - 5 -

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and non-
sampling error.  When a sample, rather than the entire population, is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates will differ from
the "true" population values they represent.  The exact difference, or
sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and
this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate.  
There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an esti-
mate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors 
from the "true" population value because of sampling error.  BLS analyses 
are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

  The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling er-
ror can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment 
of the population, the inability to obtain information for all respondents 
in the sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide 
correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of 
the data.

  For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and in-
formation on estimating standard errors, see the explanatory note for
the household survey online at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.







       Table 1.  Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, sex, race, and Hispanic
       or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages

       (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                                                                              Civilian labor force                             
                                                                                                                               
                                                 Civilian                                                                      
          Veteran status, period of service,    noninsti-                           Employed           Unemployed       Not in 
          sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino      tutional            Percent                                            labor  
                      ethnicity                 population              of                                              force  
                                                            Total   population           Percent             Percent           
                                                                                Total       of      Total       of             
                                                                                        population            labor            
                                                                                                              force            
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                        TOTAL                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................  224,655   151,735     67.5    143,373     63.8     8,361       5.5     72,920 
         Veterans..............................   22,429    12,368     55.1     11,795     52.6       573       4.6     10,061 
           Gulf War era, total.................    4,592     3,989     86.9      3,782     82.4       207       5.2        604 
             Gulf War era I....................    2,939     2,583     87.9      2,479     84.4       103       4.0        356 
             Gulf War era II...................    1,653     1,406     85.0      1,303     78.8       103       7.3        247 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..   11,855     4,690     39.6      4,492     37.9       198       4.2      7,165 
           Other service periods...............    5,983     3,690     61.7      3,522     58.9       168       4.6      2,293 
         Nonveterans...........................  202,226   139,366     68.9    131,578     65.1     7,788       5.6     62,859 
                                                                                                                               
                         Men                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................  108,488    81,282     74.9     76,560     70.6     4,722       5.8     27,206 
         Veterans..............................   20,712    11,253     54.3     10,739     51.8       515       4.6      9,458 
           Gulf War era, total.................    3,848     3,425     89.0      3,256     84.6       169       4.9        423 
             Gulf War era I....................    2,488     2,231     89.7      2,147     86.3        84       3.8        257 
             Gulf War era II...................    1,359     1,193     87.8      1,109     81.6        84       7.1        166 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..   11,455     4,542     39.7      4,349     38.0       193       4.3      6,913 
           Other service periods...............    5,409     3,287     60.8      3,134     57.9       153       4.6      2,123 
         Nonveterans...........................   87,776    70,028     79.8     65,821     75.0     4,207       6.0     17,748 
                                                                                                                               
                        Women                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................  116,167    70,453     60.6     66,813     57.5     3,639       5.2     45,715 
         Veterans..............................    1,718     1,115     64.9      1,057     61.5        58       5.2        603 
           Gulf War era, total.................      745       564     75.7        526     70.6        38       6.8        181 
             Gulf War era I....................      451       351     77.9        332     73.7        19       5.5         99 
             Gulf War era II...................      294       212     72.3        194     65.9        19       8.9         81 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..      399       148     37.0        143     35.8         5       3.2        252 
           Other service periods...............      574       403     70.3        388     67.6        16       3.8        170 
         Nonveterans...........................  114,450    69,338     60.6     65,757     57.5     3,581       5.2     45,112 
                                                                                                                               
                        White                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................  182,578   123,509     67.6    117,422     64.3     6,087       4.9     59,069 
         Veterans..............................   19,256    10,355     53.8      9,920     51.5       435       4.2      8,900 
           Gulf War era, total.................    3,566     3,101     87.0      2,961     83.0       141       4.5        465 
             Gulf War era I....................    2,298     2,023     88.0      1,958     85.2        65       3.2        275 
             Gulf War era II...................    1,268     1,078     85.0      1,003     79.1        76       7.0        190 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..   10,655     4,232     39.7      4,064     38.1       168       4.0      6,423 
           Other service periods...............    5,034     3,022     60.0      2,895     57.5       127       4.2      2,013 
         Nonveterans...........................  163,322   113,153     69.3    107,502     65.8     5,651       5.0     50,169 
                                                                                                                               
              Black or African American                                                                                        
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................   26,421    17,505     66.3     15,814     59.9     1,690       9.7      8,917 
         Veterans..............................    2,383     1,515     63.6      1,408     59.1       108       7.1        868 
           Gulf War era, total.................      758       650     85.8        602     79.4        49       7.5        108 
             Gulf War era I....................      482       422     87.5        394     81.7        28       6.6         60 
             Gulf War era II...................      276       228     82.7        208     75.3        20       9.0         48 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..      892       334     37.4        310     34.7        24       7.3        558 
           Other service periods...............      733       531     72.4        496     67.7        35       6.6        202 
         Nonveterans...........................   24,038    15,989     66.5     14,407     59.9     1,583       9.9      8,049 
                                                                                                                               
                        Asian                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................   10,363     7,101     68.5      6,828     65.9       274       3.9      3,261 
         Veterans..............................      254       154     60.5        149     58.6         5       3.1        100 
           Gulf War era, total.................       89        77     85.7         74     83.1         2       3.1         13 
             Gulf War era I....................       58        46     79.7         45     76.9         2       3.5         12 
             Gulf War era II...................       31        30     (1)          29     (1)          1      (1)           1 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..       98        34     34.7         32     32.6         2      (1)          64 
           Other service periods...............       67        43     64.5         43     63.9       -         -           24 
         Nonveterans...........................   10,109     6,948     68.7      6,678     66.1       269       3.9      3,161 
                                                                                                                               
             Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                                      
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................   30,444    21,600     71.0     20,033     65.8     1,567       7.3      8,844 
         Veterans..............................    1,177       808     68.7        767     65.2        41       5.1        369 
           Gulf War era, total.................      429       374     87.1        352     81.9        22       5.9         55 
             Gulf War era I....................      268       240     89.6        226     84.3        14       5.9         28 
             Gulf War era II...................      161       133     82.9        125     77.9         8       6.0         28 
           WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era..      440       213     48.5        202     45.9        12       5.5        226 
           Other service periods...............      309       221     71.7        214     69.3         7       3.4         87 
         Nonveterans...........................   29,266    20,792     71.0     19,266     65.8     1,526       7.3      8,475 

          1 Ratios are not shown where the denominator is less than 35,000.  Small estimated levels are based on a small number
       of survey responses and, thus, are subject to relatively large standard errors.
          NOTE:  Veterans are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II, the Korean War, the
       Vietnam era, the Gulf War era, and all other service periods.  Nonveterans are men and women who never served in the
       U.S. Armed Forces.  Other service periods include the periods between World War II and the Korean War, between the
       Korean War and the Vietnam era, and between the Vietnam era and the Gulf War era.  More detailed information appears in
       the Technical Note of this release.  Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian)
       do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.  Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or
       Latino may be of any race.  Dash represents or rounds to zero.







       Table 2.  Employment status of persons 18 years and over by veteran status, age, period of service, and sex, 
       2008 annual averages

       (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                                                                              Civilian labor force                             
                                                                                                                               
                                                 Civilian                                                                      
                                                noninsti-                           Employed           Unemployed       Not in 
            Veteran status, age, period of       tutional            Percent                                            labor  
                   service, and sex             population              of                                              force  
                                                            Total   population           Percent             Percent           
                                                                                Total       of      Total       of             
                                                                                        population            labor            
                                                                                                              force            
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                        TOTAL                                                                                                  
                       VETERANS                                                                                                
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................   22,429    12,368     55.1     11,795     52.6       573       4.6     10,061 
         18 to 24 years........................      317       255     80.6        219     69.2        36      14.1         61 
         25 to 34 years........................    1,582     1,378     87.1      1,294     81.8        84       6.1        204 
         35 to 44 years........................    2,617     2,391     91.4      2,289     87.5       102       4.3        225 
         45 to 54 years........................    3,661     3,092     84.5      2,951     80.6       141       4.6        569 
         55 to 64 years........................    5,623     3,665     65.2      3,520     62.6       145       4.0      1,958 
         65 years and over.....................    8,630     1,587     18.4      1,522     17.6        65       4.1      7,043 
                                                                                                                               
                 Gulf War era, total                                                                                           
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    4,592     3,989     86.9      3,782     82.4       207       5.2        604 
         18 to 24 years........................      317       255     80.6        219     69.2        36      14.1         61 
         25 to 34 years........................    1,582     1,378     87.1      1,294     81.8        84       6.1        204 
         35 to 44 years........................    1,590     1,456     91.5      1,394     87.6        62       4.3        134 
         45 to 54 years........................      747       653     87.4        634     84.9        19       2.9         94 
         55 to 64 years........................      303       228     75.1        222     73.3         5       2.4         76 
         65 years and over.....................       52        19     35.8         18     35.0       -         -           34 
                                                                                                                               
                    Gulf War era I                                                                                             
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    2,939     2,583     87.9      2,479     84.4       103       4.0        356 
         18 to 24 years........................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
         25 to 34 years........................      837       744     88.9        706     84.3        38       5.1         93 
         35 to 44 years........................    1,286     1,181     91.8      1,132     88.0        49       4.1        106 
         45 to 54 years........................      537       467     86.9        454     84.6        13       2.7         70 
         55 to 64 years........................      237       177     74.8        173     73.2         4       2.1         60 
         65 years and over.....................       43        15     34.7         14     33.7       -         -           28 
                                                                                                                               
                   Gulf War era II                                                                                             
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    1,653     1,406     85.0      1,303     78.8       103       7.3        247 
         18 to 24 years........................      317       255     80.6        219     69.2        36      14.1         61 
         25 to 34 years........................      745       634     85.1        588     78.9        46       7.3        111 
         35 to 44 years........................      304       275     90.5        262     86.1        13       4.9         29 
         45 to 54 years........................      211       186     88.5        180     85.6         6       3.3         24 
         55 to 64 years........................       67        51     76.2         49     73.7         2       3.3         16 
         65 years and over.....................       10         4     (1)           4     (1)        -         -            6 
                                                                                                                               
        WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era (2)                                                                                 
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 45 years and over................   11,855     4,690     39.6      4,492     37.9       198       4.2      7,165 
         45 to 54 years........................      628       494     78.7        469     74.7        25       5.1        134 
         55 to 64 years........................    4,934     3,188     64.6      3,056     61.9       132       4.1      1,746 
         65 years and over.....................    6,293     1,008     16.0        968     15.4        40       4.0      5,285 
                                                                                                                               
                Other service periods                                                                                          
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 25 years and over................    5,983     3,690     61.7      3,522     58.9       168       4.6      2,293 
         25 to 34 years........................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
         35 to 44 years........................    1,026       935     91.1        895     87.2        40       4.3         91 
         45 to 54 years........................    2,286     1,945     85.1      1,848     80.9        97       5.0        341 
         55 to 64 years........................      386       249     64.6        242     62.7         7       3.0        137 
         65 years and over.....................    2,284       560     24.5        536     23.5        24       4.3      1,724 
                                                                                                                               
                     NONVETERANS                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................  202,226   139,366     68.9    131,578     65.1     7,788       5.6     62,859 
         18 to 24 years........................   28,034    19,225     68.6     16,994     60.6     2,231      11.6      8,810 
         25 to 34 years........................   38,411    31,954     83.2     30,089     78.3     1,865       5.8      6,457 
         35 to 44 years........................   39,083    32,670     83.6     31,168     79.7     1,502       4.6      6,413 
         45 to 54 years........................   40,300    32,912     81.7     31,578     78.4     1,334       4.1      7,388 
         55 to 64 years........................   27,868    17,951     64.4     17,292     62.1       658       3.7      9,917 
         65 years and over.....................   28,530     4,654     16.3      4,457     15.6       197       4.2     23,875 
                                                                                                                               
                         MEN                                                                                                   
                       VETERANS                                                                                                
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................   20,712    11,253     54.3     10,739     51.8       515       4.6      9,458 
         18 to 24 years........................      249       211     84.7        181     72.9        29      13.9         38 
         25 to 34 years........................    1,276     1,153     90.4      1,086     85.1        67       5.8        123 
         35 to 44 years........................    2,242     2,086     93.0      1,996     89.0        90       4.3        157 
         45 to 54 years........................    3,207     2,736     85.3      2,612     81.4       124       4.5        471 
         55 to 64 years........................    5,377     3,515     65.4      3,374     62.7       141       4.0      1,862 
         65 years and over.....................    8,361     1,553     18.6      1,491     17.8        63       4.0      6,807 
                                                                                                                               
                 Gulf War era, total                                                                                           
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    3,848     3,425     89.0      3,256     84.6       169       4.9        423 
         18 to 24 years........................      249       211     84.7        181     72.9        29      13.9         38 
         25 to 34 years........................    1,276     1,153     90.4      1,086     85.1        67       5.8        123 
         35 to 44 years........................    1,354     1,262     93.2      1,210     89.3        53       4.2         92 
         45 to 54 years........................      647       574     88.8        561     86.6        14       2.4         73 
         55 to 64 years........................      274       208     75.8        203     73.8         5       2.6         66 
         65 years and over.....................       47        17     35.3         16     34.4       -         -           31 
                                                                                                                               
                    Gulf War era I                                                                                             
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    2,488     2,231     89.7      2,147     86.3        84       3.8        257 
         18 to 24 years........................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
         25 to 34 years........................      677       622     91.8        591     87.2        31       5.0         55 
         35 to 44 years........................    1,098     1,029     93.7        990     90.1        40       3.9         69 
         45 to 54 years........................      459       405     88.3        396     86.3         9       2.2         54 
         55 to 64 years........................      215       161     75.1        158     73.3         4       2.3         54 
         65 years and over.....................       38        13     34.9         13     33.7       -         -           25 
                                                                                                                               
                   Gulf War era II                                                                                             
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    1,359     1,193     87.8      1,109     81.6        84       7.1        166 
         18 to 24 years........................      249       211     84.7        181     72.9        29      13.9         38 
         25 to 34 years........................      598       531     88.7        495     82.7        36       6.8         68 
         35 to 44 years........................      255       233     91.1        220     86.1        13       5.5         23 
         45 to 54 years........................      188       169     90.0        164     87.5         5       2.8         19 
         55 to 64 years........................       59        47     78.6         45     75.8         2       3.6         13 
         65 years and over.....................        9         3     (1)           3     (1)        -         -            6 
                                                                                                                               
        WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era (2)                                                                                 
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 45 years and over................   11,455     4,542     39.7      4,349     38.0       193       4.3      6,913 
         45 to 54 years........................      588       464     78.9        440     74.9        23       5.0        124 
         55 to 64 years........................    4,762     3,085     64.8      2,955     62.1       130       4.2      1,677 
         65 years and over.....................    6,105       993     16.3        953     15.6        40       4.0      5,112 
                                                                                                                               
                Other service periods                                                                                          
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 25 years and over................    5,409     3,287     60.8      3,134     57.9       153       4.6      2,123 
         25 to 34 years........................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
         35 to 44 years........................      889       824     92.7        786     88.5        37       4.5         65 
         45 to 54 years........................    1,972     1,698     86.1      1,611     81.7        87       5.1        274 
         55 to 64 years........................      340       222     65.2        216     63.4         6       2.7        118 
         65 years and over.....................    2,208       543     24.6        521     23.6        22       4.1      1,665 
                                                                                                                               
                     NONVETERANS                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................   87,776    70,028     79.8     65,821     75.0     4,207       6.0     17,748 
         18 to 24 years........................   14,035    10,089     71.9      8,773     62.5     1,316      13.0      3,946 
         25 to 34 years........................   18,723    17,149     91.6     16,098     86.0     1,052       6.1      1,574 
         35 to 44 years........................   18,325    16,886     92.1     16,101     87.9       785       4.6      1,439 
         45 to 54 years........................   18,307    16,193     88.5     15,512     84.7       681       4.2      2,113 
         55 to 64 years........................   10,747     7,830     72.9      7,545     70.2       285       3.6      2,917 
         65 years and over.....................    7,639     1,880     24.6      1,792     23.5        89       4.7      5,759 
                                                                                                                               
                        WOMEN                                                                                                  
                       VETERANS                                                                                                
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................    1,718     1,115     64.9      1,057     61.5        58       5.2        603 
         18 to 24 years........................       68        44     65.6         38     55.7         7      15.1         23 
         25 to 34 years........................      306       225     73.5        208     68.0        17       7.5         81 
         35 to 44 years........................      374       306     81.6        293     78.3        12       4.0         69 
         45 to 54 years........................      454       356     78.4        340     74.8        17       4.7         98 
         55 to 64 years........................      246       150     60.9        146     59.3         4       2.5         96 
         65 years and over.....................      269        33     12.5         32     11.8         2      (1)         235 
                                                                                                                               
                 Gulf War era, total                                                                                           
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................      745       564     75.7        526     70.6        38       6.8        181 
         18 to 24 years........................       68        44     65.6         38     55.7         7      15.1         23 
         25 to 34 years........................      306       225     73.5        208     68.0        17       7.5         81 
         35 to 44 years........................      236       194     82.0        184     77.9        10       4.9         43 
         45 to 54 years........................      100        79     78.5         74     73.6         5       6.2         22 
         55 to 64 years........................       29        20     (1)          20     (1)        -         -            9 
         65 years and over.....................        5         2     (1)           2     (1)        -         -            3 
                                                                                                                               
                    Gulf War era I                                                                                             
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................      451       351     77.9        332     73.7        19       5.5         99 
         18 to 24 years........................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
         25 to 34 years........................      159       122     76.3        115     72.1         7       5.6         38 
         35 to 44 years........................      188       151     80.6        142     75.8         9       6.0         36 
         45 to 54 years........................       78        61     79.1         58     74.7         3       5.6         16 
         55 to 64 years........................       22        16     (1)          16     (1)        -         -            6 
         65 years and over.....................        4         2     (1)           2     (1)        -         -            3 
                                                                                                                               
                   Gulf War era II                                                                                             
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................      294       212     72.3        194     65.9        19       8.9         81 
         18 to 24 years........................       68        44     65.6         38     55.7         7      15.1         23 
         25 to 34 years........................      147       104     70.5         93     63.6        10       9.8         43 
         35 to 44 years........................       49        42     87.2         42     86.2         1       1.2          6 
         45 to 54 years........................       23        17     (1)          16     (1)          1      (1)           5 
         55 to 64 years........................        7         4     (1)           4     (1)        -         -            3 
         65 years and over.....................        1         1     (1)           1     (1)        -         -         -    
                                                                                                                               
        WW II, Korean War, and Vietnam era (2)                                                                                 
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 45 years and over................      399       148     37.0        143     35.8         5       3.2        252 
         45 to 54 years........................       40        30     75.9         29     71.2         2      (1)          10 
         55 to 64 years........................      172       103     59.9        100     58.4         2       2.4         69 
         65 years and over.....................      188        15      7.8         14      7.6       -        (1)         173 
                                                                                                                               
                Other service periods                                                                                          
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 25 years and over................      574       403     70.3        388     67.6        16       3.8        170 
         25 to 34 years........................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
         35 to 44 years........................      138       112     81.1        109     79.1         3       2.5         26 
         45 to 54 years........................      314       247     78.8        237     75.6        10       4.0         67 
         55 to 64 years........................       46        27     60.2         26     57.3         1      (1)          18 
         65 years and over.....................       76        17     22.1         15     20.1         2      (1)          59 
                                                                                                                               
                     NONVETERANS                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
       Total, 18 years and over................  114,450    69,338     60.6     65,757     57.5     3,581       5.2     45,112 
         18 to 24 years........................   13,999     9,136     65.3      8,220     58.7       915      10.0      4,863 
         25 to 34 years........................   19,688    14,805     75.2     13,992     71.1       813       5.5      4,883 
         35 to 44 years........................   20,758    15,784     76.0     15,067     72.6       717       4.5      4,974 
         45 to 54 years........................   21,994    16,719     76.0     16,066     73.0       653       3.9      5,274 
         55 to 64 years........................   17,121    10,120     59.1      9,747     56.9       373       3.7      7,001 
         65 years and over.....................   20,891     2,774     13.3      2,665     12.8       109       3.9     18,117 

          1 Ratios are not shown where the denominator is less than 35,000.  Small estimated levels are based on a small number
       of survey responses and, thus, are subject to relatively large standard errors.
          2 Because of the aging of the population, there are no longer any veterans of these eras under 45 years of age.
          NOTE:  Veterans are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II, the Korean War, the
       Vietnam era, the Gulf War era, and all other service periods.  Nonveterans are men and women who never served in the
       U.S. Armed Forces.  Other service periods include the periods between World War II and the Korean War, between the
       Korean War and the Vietnam era, and between the Vietnam era and the Gulf War era.  More detailed information appears in
       the Technical Note of this release.  Dash represents or rounds to zero.
       
       
       
       
       


       Table 3.  Employed persons 18 years and over by occupation, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 2008 annual averages

       (Percent distribution)
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                       Gulf War era           WW II,                     
                                                                                                              Korean    Other      Non-  
                                Occupation                           Veterans                                War, and  service   veterans
                                                                                Total    Gulf War  Gulf War  Vietnam   periods           
                                                                                          era I     era II     era                       
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                  TOTAL                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                         
         Total, 18 years and over (in thousands)...................   11,795     3,782     2,479     1,303     4,492     3,522   131,578 
         Percent...................................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
       Management, professional, and related occupations...........     36.0      34.9      36.8      31.4      38.6      34.0      36.8 
        Management, business, and financial operations occupations      17.5      15.0      15.7      13.7      20.8      16.2      15.2 
        Professional and related occupations.......................     18.5      19.9      21.1      17.7      17.8      17.8      21.6 
       Service occupations.........................................     12.4      15.1      14.3      16.6       9.8      12.9      16.7 
       Sales and office occupations................................     18.0      18.0      17.0      20.0      18.3      17.7      24.9 
        Sales and related occupations..............................      9.7       8.2       7.8       8.9      11.2       9.4      11.1 
        Office and administrative support occupations..............      8.3       9.8       9.2      11.1       7.1       8.3      13.7 
       Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations     15.6      15.9      15.7      16.1      14.6      16.5       9.8 
        Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.................       .4        .3        .2        .5        .6        .4        .7 
        Construction and extraction occupations....................      7.4       6.8       6.7       7.0       7.4       8.1       5.9 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations..........      7.7       8.8       8.8       8.7       6.5       8.0       3.2 
       Production, transportation, and material moving occupations      17.9      16.1      16.2      15.9      18.6      18.9      11.8 
        Production occupations.....................................      7.4       6.5       6.9       5.9       7.5       8.1       6.1 
        Transportation and material moving occupations.............     10.5       9.6       9.3      10.0      11.1      10.8       5.7 
                                                                                                                                         
                                   MEN                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                         
         Total, 18 years and over (in thousands)...................   10,739     3,256     2,147     1,109     4,349     3,134    65,821 
         Percent...................................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
       Management, professional, and related occupations...........     35.0      32.9      34.7      29.5      38.3      32.6      33.6 
        Management, business, and financial operations occupations      17.7      14.8      15.4      13.7      21.0      16.1      16.3 
        Professional and related occupations.......................     17.3      18.1      19.3      15.8      17.2      16.5      17.3 
       Service occupations.........................................     12.2      15.0      14.3      16.3       9.8      12.7      13.3 
       Sales and office occupations................................     16.8      16.0      15.1      17.8      17.8      16.0      16.8 
        Sales and related occupations..............................      9.7       8.1       7.9       8.3      11.2       9.1      10.7 
        Office and administrative support occupations..............      7.1       8.0       7.2       9.5       6.6       6.9       6.1 
       Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations     17.0      18.3      18.1      18.6      15.0      18.3      18.6 
        Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.................       .5        .3        .2        .6        .7        .4       1.0 
        Construction and extraction occupations....................      8.1       7.9       7.8       8.2       7.7       9.0      11.4 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations..........      8.4      10.1      10.2       9.8       6.7       8.9       6.2 
       Production, transportation, and material moving occupations      19.0      17.8      17.8      17.8      19.1      20.3      17.7 
        Production occupations.....................................      7.7       7.0       7.4       6.3       7.7       8.6       8.3 
        Transportation and material moving occupations.............     11.3      10.7      10.4      11.4      11.4      11.7       9.4 
                                                                                                                                         
                                  WOMEN                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                         
         Total, 18 years and over (in thousands)...................    1,057       526       332       194       143       388    65,757 
         Percent...................................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
       Management, professional, and related occupations...........     46.5      47.4      50.3      42.5      48.4      44.5      40.0 
        Management, business, and financial operations occupations      15.8      16.1      17.5      13.7      12.8      16.4      14.1 
        Professional and related occupations.......................     30.7      31.3      32.8      28.7      35.7      28.1      25.9 
       Service occupations.........................................     14.6      16.0      14.6      18.3      10.5      14.3      20.2 
       Sales and office occupations................................     31.0      30.2      29.0      32.2      33.5      31.1      33.0 
        Sales and related occupations..............................     10.3       8.9       6.8      12.4      11.1      11.8      11.6 
        Office and administrative support occupations..............     20.7      21.3      22.1      19.9      22.4      19.3      21.4 
       Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations      1.5        .9        .3       1.9       2.0       2.3        .9 
        Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.................       .2      -         -         -           .4        .3        .3 
        Construction and extraction occupations....................       .6      -         -           .1       1.1       1.1        .3 
        Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations..........       .8        .8        .3       1.8        .4        .9        .3 
       Production, transportation, and material moving occupations       6.4       5.6       5.8       5.2       5.5       7.8       5.9 
        Production occupations.....................................      3.6       3.3       3.3       3.1       3.3       4.3       4.0 
        Transportation and material moving occupations.............      2.7       2.3       2.4       2.1       2.2       3.5       1.9 

          NOTE:  Veterans are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam era, the
       Gulf War era, and all other service periods.  Nonveterans are men and women who never served in the U.S. Armed Forces.  Other
       service periods include the periods between World War II and the Korean War, between the Korean War and the Vietnam era, and
       between the Vietnam era and the Gulf War era.  More detailed information appears in the Technical Note of this release.  Dash 
       represents or rounds to zero.







       Table 4.  Employed persons 18 years and over by industry, class of worker, sex, veteran status, and period of service, 
       2008 annual averages

       (Percent distribution)
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                       Gulf War era           WW II,                     
                                                                                                              Korean    Other      Non-  
                       Industry and class of worker                  Veterans                                War, and  service   veterans
                                                                                Total    Gulf War  Gulf War  Vietnam   periods           
                                                                                          era I     era II     era                       
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                  TOTAL                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                         
       Total, 18 years and over (in thousands).....................   11,795     3,782     2,479     1,303     4,492     3,522   131,578 
       Percent.....................................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
        Agriculture and related industries.........................      1.7        .6        .4       1.0       2.9       1.5       1.4 
          Wage and salary workers..................................       .6        .4        .2        .8        .8        .6        .9 
          Self-employed workers....................................      1.1        .2        .1        .2       2.1        .9        .6 
        Nonagricultural industries.................................     98.3      99.4      99.6      99.0      97.1      98.5      98.6 
          Wage and salary workers..................................     90.7      95.8      95.6      96.2      86.2      90.8      92.2 
            Private industries.....................................     70.6      72.2      72.3      71.9      68.8      71.4      77.9 
              Mining...............................................       .8       1.1        .9       1.5        .7        .7        .5 
              Construction.........................................      6.5       6.4       6.5       6.1       6.3       6.8       6.0 
              Manufacturing........................................     13.8      12.4      13.5      10.5      13.6      15.6      10.5 
              Wholesale trade......................................      3.1       2.8       2.8       2.6       3.5       3.0       2.6 
              Retail trade.........................................      8.7       8.8       7.7      10.9       8.7       8.4      10.7 
              Transportation and utilities.........................      7.3       7.2       7.8       6.0       7.2       7.6       3.7 
              Information..........................................      2.4       3.0       3.0       3.0       2.0       2.3       2.2 
              Financial activities.................................      4.7       4.5       4.8       3.9       4.9       4.7       6.6 
              Professional and business services...................      9.2      10.8      10.4      11.5       8.9       7.9       9.1 
              Education and health services........................      7.2       7.9       7.8       8.0       6.5       7.3      13.9 
              Leisure and hospitality..............................      3.7       4.5       4.1       5.3       3.1       3.6       7.8 
              Other services.......................................      3.2       2.7       2.8       2.5       3.3       3.6       4.2 
            Government.............................................     20.0      23.7      23.3      24.3      17.5      19.4      14.4 
              Federal..............................................      8.0      11.0       9.5      13.8       6.1       7.2       2.0 
              State................................................      4.4       4.9       5.4       3.9       4.3       4.1       4.3 
              Local................................................      7.6       7.8       8.4       6.6       7.1       8.1       8.1 
          Self-employed workers....................................      7.6       3.6       4.1       2.8      10.8       7.7       6.3 
          Unpaid family workers....................................     -         -         -         -         -         -           .1 
                                                                                                                                         
                                   MEN                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                         
       Total, 18 years and over (in thousands).....................   10,739     3,256     2,147     1,109     4,349     3,134    65,821 
       Percent.....................................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
        Agriculture and related industries.........................      1.8        .6        .4       1.1       3.0       1.5       2.1 
          Wage and salary workers..................................       .6        .5        .2        .9        .8        .6       1.3 
          Self-employed workers....................................      1.2        .2        .2        .2       2.2        .9        .8 
        Nonagricultural industries.................................     98.2      99.4      99.6      98.9      97.0      98.5      97.9 
          Wage and salary workers..................................     90.2      95.6      95.4      96.0      86.0      90.4      90.5 
            Private industries.....................................     70.9      72.7      72.7      72.7      68.8      72.0      79.8 
              Mining...............................................       .8       1.2        .9       1.8        .7        .6        .9 
              Construction.........................................      7.0       7.2       7.3       7.0       6.5       7.4      10.6 
              Manufacturing........................................     14.5      13.5      14.6      11.2      13.7      16.7      14.3 
              Wholesale trade......................................      3.3       3.0       3.1       2.9       3.6       3.2       3.5 
              Retail trade.........................................      8.7       9.0       8.0      11.0       8.7       8.4      10.3 
              Transportation and utilities.........................      7.8       8.0       8.7       6.8       7.3       8.1       5.6 
              Information..........................................      2.5       3.2       3.3       3.1       2.0       2.4       2.5 
              Financial activities.................................      4.6       4.1       4.2       3.8       5.0       4.5       5.4 
              Professional and business services...................      9.1      10.6      10.1      11.6       8.9       7.8       9.8 
              Education and health services........................      5.8       5.8       5.7       6.0       6.0       5.5       5.7 
              Leisure and hospitality..............................      3.5       4.1       3.8       4.6       3.0       3.7       7.3 
              Other services.......................................      3.3       2.9       3.0       2.8       3.3       3.7       3.8 
            Government.............................................     19.3      22.9      22.7      23.3      17.2      18.5      10.7 
              Federal..............................................      7.5      10.4       9.2      12.9       5.9       6.7       1.8 
              State................................................      4.3       4.7       5.1       4.0       4.3       4.0       3.3 
              Local................................................      7.5       7.7       8.4       6.4       7.0       7.8       5.6 
          Self-employed workers....................................      7.9       3.8       4.2       2.9      11.0       8.0       7.4 
          Unpaid family workers....................................     -         -         -         -         -         -         -    
                                                                                                                                         
                                  WOMEN                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                         
       Total, 18 years and over (in thousands).....................    1,057       526       332       194       143       388    65,757 
       Percent.....................................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                                         
        Agriculture and related industries.........................       .6        .2        .1        .2       1.1       1.0        .8 
          Wage and salary workers..................................       .4        .1      -           .2        .9        .5        .4 
          Self-employed workers....................................       .2        .1        .1      -           .3        .5        .3 
        Nonagricultural industries.................................     99.4      99.8      99.9      99.8      98.9      99.0      99.2 
          Wage and salary workers..................................     95.1      97.1      96.8      97.8      92.6      93.3      93.9 
            Private industries.....................................     67.9      68.8      69.4      67.6      68.2      66.6      75.9 
              Mining...............................................       .6        .4        .7      -         -           .9        .1 
              Construction.........................................      1.5       1.4       1.7       1.0       1.6       1.6       1.4 
              Manufacturing........................................      6.5       6.2       5.8       7.0       8.0       6.3       6.7 
              Wholesale trade......................................      1.4       1.0       1.2        .7       2.0       1.8       1.7 
              Retail trade.........................................      8.0       7.4       5.8      10.0       8.9       8.5      11.0 
              Transportation and utilities.........................      2.6       2.0       2.3       1.3       3.6       3.2       1.8 
              Information..........................................      1.6       1.7       1.1       2.8       1.9       1.4       1.9 
              Financial activities.................................      6.1       7.2       8.8       4.6       2.1       6.2       7.7 
              Professional and business services...................     10.5      12.0      12.7      10.9       8.7       9.0       8.4 
              Education and health services........................     21.5      20.8      21.7      19.4      23.1      21.9      22.2 
              Leisure and hospitality..............................      5.1       7.0       5.9       9.0       4.4       2.8       8.4 
              Other services.......................................      2.5       1.5       1.8       1.1       3.9       3.2       4.6 
            Government.............................................     27.2      28.4      27.3      30.1      24.3      26.7      18.0 
              Federal..............................................     12.7      14.3      11.5      19.1      11.4      11.0       2.2 
              State................................................      5.5       5.8       7.0       3.8       4.2       5.5       5.3 
              Local................................................      9.0       8.2       8.8       7.3       8.7      10.2      10.5 
          Self-employed workers....................................      4.3       2.7       3.1       2.1       6.3       5.6       5.2 
          Unpaid family workers....................................     -         -         -         -         -           .1        .1 

          NOTE:  Veterans are men and women who served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam era, the
       Gulf War era, and all other service periods.  Nonveterans are men and women who never served in the U.S. Armed Forces.  Other
       service periods include the periods between World War II and the Korean War, between the Korean War and the Vietnam era, and
       between the Vietnam era and the Gulf War era.  More detailed information appears in the Technical Note of this release.  Dash 
       represents or rounds to zero.






Last Modified Date: March 23, 2009
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