Economic News Release

Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, July 18, 2013              USDL-13-1345

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


         USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS
                        SECOND QUARTER 2013             


Median weekly earnings of the nation's 104.2 million full-time wage and 
salary workers were $776 in the second quarter of 2013 (not seasonally 
adjusted), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This was 
0.6 percent higher than a year earlier, compared with a gain of 1.4 percent 
in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) over the same 
period.

Data on usual weekly earnings are collected as part of the Current Population 
Survey, a nationwide sample survey of households in which respondents are 
asked, among other things, how much each wage and salary worker usually 
earns. (See the Technical Note.) Data shown in this release are not seasonally 
adjusted unless otherwise specified. Highlights from the second-quarter data 
are:

   --Seasonally adjusted median weekly earnings were $775 in the second 
     quarter of 2013, little changed from the previous quarter ($769). 
     (See table 1.)

   --On a not seasonally adjusted basis, median weekly earnings were $776 
     in the second quarter of 2013. Women who usually worked full time had 
     median weekly earnings of $707, or 82.2 percent of the $860 median
     for men. (See table 2.)

   --The women's-to-men's earnings ratio varied by race and ethnicity.
     White women earned 81.1 percent as much as their male counterparts,
     compared with black (91.6 percent), Asian (77.1 percent), and Hispanic
     women (94.2 percent). (See table 2.)
     
   --Among the major race and ethnicity groups, median weekly earnings
     for black men working at full-time jobs were $666, or 75.3 percent of
     the median for white men ($885). The difference was less among women,
     as black women's median weekly earnings ($610) were 85.0 percent of
     those for white women ($718). Overall, median weekly earnings of
     Hispanics who worked full time ($572) were lower than those of blacks
     ($634), whites ($799), and Asians ($973). (See table 2.)
     
   --Usual weekly earnings of full-time workers varied by age. Among
     men, those age 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 had the highest median weekly
     earnings, $1,007 and $1,023, respectively. Usual weekly earnings were
     highest for women age 35 to 64; weekly earnings were $760 for women
     age 35 to 44, $767 for women age 45 to 54, and $789 for women age 55
     to 64. Workers age 16 to 24 had the lowest median weekly earnings, at
     $452. (See table 3.)
     
   --Among the major occupational groups, persons employed full time
     in management, professional, and related occupations had the highest
     median weekly earnings--$1,345 for men and $962 for women. Men and
     women employed in service jobs earned the least, $534 and $461,
     respectively. (See table 4.)
     
   --By educational attainment, full-time workers age 25 and over
     without a high school diploma had median weekly earnings of $477,
     compared with $647 for high school graduates (no college) and $1,193
     for those holding at least a bachelor's degree. Among college
     graduates with advanced degrees (professional or master's degree and
     above), the highest earning 10 percent of male workers made $3,510 or
     more per week, compared with $2,339 or more for their female
     counterparts. (See table 5.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population
Survey (CPS), which provides basic information on the labor force, employment,
and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a scientifically selected national
sample of about 60,000 eligible households, with coverage in all 50 states
and the District of Columbia. The earnings data are collected from one-quarter
of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers (both
incorporated and unincorporated self-employed are excluded). The data, there-
fore, exclude self-employment income.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a
chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values
they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on
the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the stan-
dard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error.
BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling errors can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the popu-
lation, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection
or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the Current Population
Survey and information on estimating standard errors is available on the BLS
website www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in connection with the earnings series are
described briefly below.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions
and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main
job in the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how
much they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked
to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly,
twice monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the
reported time period.

   Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equi-
valent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks
for a definition of "usual", interviewers are instructed to define the term as more
than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Medians (and other quantiles) of weekly earnings. The median (or upper limit of
the second quartile) is the amount that divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings
below the median. Ten percent of a given distribution have earnings below the upper
limit of the first decile (90 percent have higher earnings); 25 percent have earnings
below the upper limit of the first quartile (75 percent have higher earnings); 75
percent have earnings below the upper limit of the third quartile (25 percent have
higher earnings); and 90 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the ninth
decile (10 percent have higher earnings).

   The estimation procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value
into $50-wide intervals that are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value
is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the quantile
boundary lies.

   Over-the-year changes in the medians (and other quantile boundaries) for specific
groups may not necessarily be consistent with the movements estimated for the overall
quantile boundary. The most common reasons for this possible anomaly are: (1) There
could be a change in the relative weights of the subgroups. For example, the medians
of both 16- to 24-year-olds and those 25 years and over may rise; but if the lower-
earning 16- to 24-year-olds group accounts for a greatly increased share of the total,
the overall median could actually fall. (2) There could be a large change in the shape 
of the distribution of reported earnings, particularly near a quantile boundary. This
could be caused by survey observations that are clustered at rounded values, such as
$250, $300, or $400. An estimate lying in a $50-wide centered interval containing
such a cluster or "spike" tends to change more slowly than one in other intervals.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private
and public sectors but, for the purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-
employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Constant dollars. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used
to convert current dollars to constant (1982-84) dollars.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Persons whose 
ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and  other measures
of labor market activity undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These recurring
events include seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening and closing
of schools. The effect of such seasonal variations can be very large.

   Because seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their
influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments easier to spot. The season-
ally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
quarter-to-quarter activity.

   At the end of each calendar year, the seasonally adjusted data are revised for the
past 5 years when the seasonal adjustment factors are updated. More information on sea-
sonal adjustment is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.




Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted
Year and quarter Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
Total Men Women In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$

2004

2nd Quarter

101,135 56,914 44,221 642 715 576 341 380 306

3rd Quarter

101,148 56,931 44,217 635 712 574 335 376 303

4th Quarter

101,658 57,289 44,369 646 720 577 337 376 302

2005

1st Quarter

102,091 57,710 44,381 647 723 580 336 376 302

2nd Quarter

103,201 58,099 45,101 647 714 584 334 369 301

3rd Quarter

104,310 58,843 45,467 651 723 588 331 368 299

4th Quarter

104,605 58,967 45,638 658 730 588 332 368 296

2006

1st Quarter

104,708 58,960 45,748 662 737 594 332 370 298

2nd Quarter

105,798 59,831 45,966 663 732 597 329 364 296

3rd Quarter

107,041 60,060 46,981 678 755 603 334 372 297

4th Quarter

106,847 60,140 46,707 681 748 607 337 370 300

2007

1st Quarter

107,176 60,105 47,070 687 752 610 336 368 298

2nd Quarter

106,827 60,351 46,476 693 765 610 335 370 295

3rd Quarter

107,156 60,216 46,940 698 774 621 336 372 298

4th Quarter

108,178 60,508 47,670 700 774 615 332 368 292

2008

1st Quarter

107,786 60,378 47,408 713 783 633 335 368 298

2nd Quarter

107,046 59,586 47,460 722 802 636 335 372 295

3rd Quarter

106,136 59,273 46,863 724 802 637 331 367 291

4th Quarter

105,617 58,511 47,106 727 806 647 340 377 302

2009

1st Quarter

101,680 56,299 45,381 732 815 645 344 384 304

2nd Quarter

99,990 55,233 44,757 736 818 652 345 383 306

3rd Quarter

99,049 54,481 44,567 742 820 664 345 381 308

4th Quarter

98,569 54,412 44,156 747 823 666 344 379 307

2010

1st Quarter

98,149 54,102 44,048 748 836 662 344 385 304

2nd Quarter

99,598 55,038 44,559 742 813 671 342 374 309

3rd Quarter

100,410 55,618 44,792 746 822 670 342 377 307

4th Quarter

99,960 55,469 44,491 750 826 676 342 376 308

2011

1st Quarter

99,690 55,338 44,353 750 821 679 338 370 306

2nd Quarter

100,343 55,848 44,495 754 828 688 336 369 306

3rd Quarter

100,487 56,053 44,434 759 837 681 336 370 301

4th Quarter

101,316 56,643 44,674 761 838 686 335 369 302

2012

1st Quarter

102,194 57,113 45,081 764 842 693 335 369 304

2nd Quarter

102,491 57,102 45,389 772 867 688 337 379 301

3rd Quarter

102,637 57,236 45,401 765 838 693 333 364 301

4th Quarter

103,681 57,701 45,980 772 868 690 334 376 298

2013

1st Quarter

103,972 57,914 46,058 769 862 699 331 371 301

2nd Quarter

103,946 57,964 45,983 775 863 705 334 372 304

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
2nd
2012
2nd
2013
In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
2nd
2012
2nd
2013
2nd
2012
2nd
2013

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

102,769 104,194 $771 $776 $335 $333

Men, 16 years and over

57,319 58,164 865 860 376 369

16 to 24 years

5,200 5,304 460 479 200 206

25 years and over

52,119 52,859 918 913 400 392

Women, 16 years and over

45,450 46,030 689 707 300 303

16 to 24 years

3,897 4,069 409 422 178 181

25 years and over

41,553 41,961 727 743 316 319

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

82,045 82,612 792 799 344 343

Men

46,765 47,223 891 885 388 380

Women

35,280 35,390 701 718 305 308

Black or African American

12,198 12,353 637 634 277 272

Men

5,785 5,876 668 666 291 286

Women

6,413 6,476 616 610 268 262

Asian

5,540 6,085 930 973 405 418

Men

3,101 3,356 1,092 1,117 475 479

Women

2,439 2,729 771 861 336 369

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,325 16,990 576 572 251 245

Men

9,995 10,478 600 583 261 250

Women

6,330 6,512 525 549 229 236

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and sex, 2nd quarter 2013 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings

TOTAL

16 years and over

104,194 $776 58,164 $860 46,030 $707

16 to 24 years

9,373 452 5,304 479 4,069 422

16 to 19 years

1,068 362 619 373 449 326

20 to 24 years

8,305 472 4,685 492 3,620 440

25 years and over

94,821 828 52,859 913 41,961 743

25 to 54 years

74,384 810 41,936 890 32,449 735

25 to 34 years

25,031 706 14,193 731 10,838 670

35 to 44 years

24,149 868 13,888 956 10,262 760

45 to 54 years

25,204 892 13,855 1,007 11,348 767

55 years and over

20,436 893 10,924 1,018 9,513 769

55 to 64 years

17,007 907 8,993 1,023 8,013 789

65 years and over

3,429 825 1,930 987 1,499 682

White

16 years and over

82,612 799 47,223 885 35,390 718

16 to 24 years

7,464 471 4,324 492 3,140 426

25 years and over

75,148 851 42,899 936 32,249 753

25 to 54 years

58,203 831 33,670 907 24,533 743

55 years and over

16,945 924 9,229 1,061 7,717 783

Black or African American

16 years and over

12,353 634 5,876 666 6,476 610

16 to 24 years

1,110 392 532 383 578 400

25 years and over

11,243 667 5,344 695 5,899 639

25 to 54 years

9,105 657 4,362 695 4,743 623

55 years and over

2,138 727 982 702 1,156 738

Asian

16 years and over

6,085 973 3,356 1,117 2,729 861

16 to 24 years

365 495 209 518 155 487

25 years and over

5,721 1,019 3,147 1,155 2,574 896

25 to 54 years

4,718 1,058 2,621 1,166 2,097 926

55 years and over

1,002 898 526 1,095 477 768

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16 years and over

16,990 572 10,478 583 6,512 549

16 to 24 years

2,103 415 1,334 422 769 406

25 years and over

14,887 598 9,144 607 5,743 583

25 to 54 years

12,916 594 8,022 604 4,894 579

55 years and over

1,971 635 1,122 651 849 619

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and sex, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Occupation and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
2nd
2012
2nd
2013
2nd
2012
2nd
2013

TOTAL

Management, professional, and related occupations

40,782 41,607 $1,102 $1,126

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

16,884 17,080 1,174 1,205

Professional and related occupations

23,898 24,527 1,036 1,060

Service occupations

14,836 15,203 485 493

Sales and office occupations

23,536 23,349 659 658

Sales and related occupations

9,394 9,279 696 704

Office and administrative support occupations

14,142 14,070 646 637

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,732 10,272 745 759

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

699 665 444 460

Construction and extraction occupations

5,040 5,289 762 744

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,993 4,318 800 826

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,883 13,762 651 616

Production occupations

7,407 7,188 647 622

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,475 6,574 656 608

Men

Management, professional, and related occupations

19,720 20,298 1,342 1,345

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

9,163 9,036 1,410 1,428

Professional and related occupations

10,557 11,262 1,269 1,268

Service occupations

7,642 7,793 529 534

Sales and office occupations

9,515 9,219 764 750

Sales and related occupations

5,504 5,291 843 897

Office and administrative support occupations

4,011 3,928 692 658

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,383 9,871 756 766

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

578 529 453 488

Construction and extraction occupations

4,946 5,195 766 747

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,859 4,147 802 828

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11,059 10,983 696 657

Production occupations

5,433 5,279 716 685

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,626 5,704 676 625

Women

Management, professional, and related occupations

21,062 21,309 945 962

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

7,721 8,045 979 1,031

Professional and related occupations

13,341 13,264 928 932

Service occupations

7,194 7,411 435 461

Sales and office occupations

14,021 14,130 615 615

Sales and related occupations

3,890 3,988 509 557

Office and administrative support occupations

10,131 10,142 636 632

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

349 401 586 565

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

121 136 428 369

Construction and extraction occupations

94 95 647 668

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

134 171 709 724

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

2,824 2,779 512 498

Production occupations

1,974 1,909 505 503

Transportation and material moving occupations

850 870 551 488

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2nd quarter 2013 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Upper limit of:
First decile First
quartile
Second
quartile
(median)
Third
quartile
Ninth
decile

SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Total, 16 years and over

104,194 $374 $510 $776 $1,235 $1,895

Men

58,164 388 543 860 1,385 2,084

Women

46,030 352 482 707 1,072 1,573

White

82,612 381 523 799 1,253 1,907

Men

47,223 396 565 885 1,414 2,106

Women

35,390 359 493 718 1,079 1,577

Black or African American

12,353 332 427 634 959 1,423

Men

5,876 341 443 666 986 1,481

Women

6,476 322 417 610 934 1,375

Asian

6,085 394 589 973 1,633 2,381

Men

3,356 420 633 1,117 1,867 2,732

Women

2,729 376 533 861 1,363 1,979

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,990 321 402 572 876 1,364

Men

10,478 331 409 583 912 1,485

Women

6,512 306 389 549 811 1,170

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

94,821 393 547 828 1,289 1,922

Less than a high school diploma

7,197 299 367 477 637 953

High school graduates, no college(1)

24,950 361 478 647 931 1,291

Some college or associate degree

25,957 399 527 751 1,116 1,550

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

36,717 578 811 1,193 1,837 2,682

Bachelor's degree only

23,141 526 746 1,101 1,656 2,324

Advanced degree

13,576 676 940 1,387 2,055 3,003

Men, 25 years and over

52,859 411 590 913 1,450 2,152

Less than a high school diploma

5,049 314 388 502 697 1,018

High school graduates, no college(1)

14,772 386 510 722 1,046 1,456

Some college or associate degree

13,932 436 598 869 1,262 1,773

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

19,106 617 916 1,390 2,017 3,045

Bachelor's degree only

11,922 586 834 1,263 1,889 2,875

Advanced degree

7,184 757 1,098 1,604 2,375 3,510

Women, 25 years and over

41,961 374 508 743 1,126 1,641

Less than a high school diploma

2,148 279 326 404 528 684

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,178 334 425 581 777 1,055

Some college or associate degree

12,025 376 483 657 919 1,246

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

17,611 528 739 1,040 1,495 2,117

Bachelor's degree only

11,219 497 680 963 1,383 1,969

Advanced degree

6,392 628 855 1,172 1,731 2,339

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper limit of the second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and 90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
2nd
2012
2nd
2013
2nd
2012
2nd
2013

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

24,616 25,015 $226 $238

Men, 16 years and over

8,484 8,763 220 234

16 to 24 years

3,735 3,653 171 189

25 years and over

4,749 5,109 277 280

Women, 16 years and over

16,132 16,252 229 241

16 to 24 years

4,720 4,687 172 177

25 years and over

11,412 11,565 263 276

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

19,741 20,072 228 239

Men

6,683 6,943 220 233

Women

13,058 13,130 233 243

Black or African American

2,787 2,964 218 236

Men

949 1,070 220 238

Women

1,838 1,895 217 234

Asian

1,140 1,205 240 252

Men

457 433 242 254

Women

682 772 238 250

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,846 3,922 218 231

Men

1,431 1,684 230 248

Women

2,414 2,237 213 220

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: July 18, 2013
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