Economic News Release

Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, November 1, 2013                      USDL-13-2078

Technical information:   (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS
                                      THIRD QUARTER 2013


Median weekly earnings of the nation's 105.5 million full-time wage and salary workers
were $771 in the third quarter of 2013 (not seasonally adjusted), the U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics reported today. This was 1.7 percent higher than a year earlier,
compared with a gain of 1.6 percent in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban
Consumers (CPI-U) over the same period.

Data on usual weekly earnings are collected as part of the Current Population Survey,
a nationwide sample survey of households in which respondents are asked, among other
things, how much each wage and salary worker usually earns. (See the Technical Note.)
Data shown in this release are not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified.
Highlights from the third-quarter data are:

   --Seasonally adjusted median weekly earnings were $777 in the third quarter
     of 2013, little changed from the previous quarter ($775). (See table 1.)

   --On a not seasonally adjusted basis, median weekly earnings were $771 in the
     third quarter of 2013. Women who usually worked full time had median weekly
     earnings of $698, or 82.4 percent of the $847 median for men. (See table 2.)

   --The women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio varied by race and ethnicity. White women
     earned 82.8 percent as much as their male counterparts, compared with black
     (87.1 percent), Asian (77.4 percent), and Hispanic women (90.8 percent).
     (See table 2.)

   --Among the major race and ethnicity groups, median weekly earnings for black
     men working at full-time jobs were $682 per week, or 78.6 percent of the
     median for white men ($868). The difference was less among women, as black
     women's median earnings ($594) were 82.6 percent of those for white women
     ($719). Overall, median earnings of Hispanics who worked full time ($587)
     were lower than those of blacks ($630), whites ($794), and Asians ($922).
     (See table 2.)

   --Usual weekly earnings of full-time workers varied by age. Among men, those
     age 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 had the highest median weekly earnings, $970 and
     $1,001, respectively. Usual weekly earnings were highest for women age 35
     to 64; weekly earnings were $775 for women age 35 to 44, $755 for women
     age 45 to 54, and $769 for women age 55 to 64. Workers age 16 to 24 had
     the lowest median weekly earnings, at $430. (See table 3.)

   --Among the major occupational groups, persons employed full time in management,
     professional, and related occupations had the highest median weekly earnings-—
     $1,338 for men and $962 for women. Men and women employed in service jobs
     earned the least, $562 and $447, respectively. (See table 4.)

   --By educational attainment, full-time workers age 25 and over without a high
     school diploma had median weekly earnings of $479, compared with $659 for
     high school graduates (no college) and $1,174 for those holding at least a
     bachelor's degree. Among college graduates with advanced degrees (professional
     or master's degree and above), the highest earning 10 percent of male workers
     made $3,436 or more per week, compared with $2,302 or more for their female
     counterparts. (See table 5.)


     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                                           |
    |          Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Usual Weekly Earnings Data       |
    |                                                                           |
    |The Usual Weekly Earnings news release for the fourth quarter of 2013 will |
    |incorporate annual revisions to seasonally adjusted data for full-time wage|
    |and salary workers and median weekly earnings in current dollars. (See     |
    |table 1.) Estimates for constant (1982-84) dollar median weekly earnings   |
    |also will be affected by revisions to the current dollar series. Seasonally|
    |adjusted estimates back to the first quarter of 2009 will be subject to    |
    |revision.                                                                  |
    |                                                                           |
     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population
Survey (CPS), which provides basic information on the labor force, employment,
and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau using a scientifically selected national
sample of about 60,000 eligible households, with coverage in all 50 states
and the District of Columbia. The earnings data are collected from one-quarter
of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers (both
incorporated and unincorporated self-employed are excluded). The data, there-
fore, exclude self-employment income.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a
chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values
they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on
the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the stan-
dard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of
confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error.
BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling errors can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the popu-
lation, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection
or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the Current Population
Survey and information on estimating standard errors is available on the BLS
website www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in connection with the earnings series are
described briefly below.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions
and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main
job in the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how
much they usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked
to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly,
twice monthly, monthly, annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the
reported time period.

   Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equi-
valent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks
for a definition of "usual", interviewers are instructed to define the term as more
than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Medians (and other quantiles) of weekly earnings. The median (or upper limit of
the second quartile) is the amount that divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings
below the median. Ten percent of a given distribution have earnings below the upper
limit of the first decile (90 percent have higher earnings); 25 percent have earnings
below the upper limit of the first quartile (75 percent have higher earnings); 75
percent have earnings below the upper limit of the third quartile (25 percent have
higher earnings); and 90 percent have earnings below the upper limit of the ninth
decile (10 percent have higher earnings).

   The estimation procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value
into $50-wide intervals that are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value
is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the quantile
boundary lies.

   Over-the-year changes in the medians (and other quantile boundaries) for specific
groups may not necessarily be consistent with the movements estimated for the overall
quantile boundary. The most common reasons for this possible anomaly are: (1) There
could be a change in the relative weights of the subgroups. For example, the medians
of both 16- to 24-year-olds and those 25 years and over may rise; but if the lower-
earning 16- to 24-year-olds group accounts for a greatly increased share of the total,
the overall median could actually fall. (2) There could be a large change in the shape 
of the distribution of reported earnings, particularly near a quantile boundary. This
could be caused by survey observations that are clustered at rounded values, such as
$250, $300, or $400. An estimate lying in a $50-wide centered interval containing
such a cluster or "spike" tends to change more slowly than one in other intervals.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private
and public sectors but, for the purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-
employed persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Constant dollars. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used
to convert current dollars to constant (1982-84) dollars.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Persons whose 
ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and  other measures
of labor market activity undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These recurring
events include seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening and closing
of schools. The effect of such seasonal variations can be very large.

   Because seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their
influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments easier to spot. The season-
ally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
quarter-to-quarter activity.

   At the end of each calendar year, the seasonally adjusted data are revised for the
past 5 years when the seasonal adjustment factors are updated. More information on sea-
sonal adjustment is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.




Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted
Year and quarter Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
Total Men Women In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$

2004

3rd Quarter

101,148 56,931 44,217 635 712 574 335 376 303

4th Quarter

101,658 57,289 44,369 646 720 577 337 376 302

2005

1st Quarter

102,091 57,710 44,381 647 723 580 336 376 302

2nd Quarter

103,201 58,099 45,101 647 714 584 334 369 301

3rd Quarter

104,310 58,843 45,467 651 723 588 331 368 299

4th Quarter

104,605 58,967 45,638 658 730 588 332 368 296

2006

1st Quarter

104,708 58,960 45,748 662 737 594 332 370 298

2nd Quarter

105,798 59,831 45,966 663 732 597 329 364 296

3rd Quarter

107,041 60,060 46,981 678 755 603 334 372 297

4th Quarter

106,847 60,140 46,707 681 748 607 337 370 300

2007

1st Quarter

107,176 60,105 47,070 687 752 610 336 368 298

2nd Quarter

106,827 60,351 46,476 693 765 610 335 370 295

3rd Quarter

107,156 60,216 46,940 698 774 621 336 372 298

4th Quarter

108,178 60,508 47,670 700 774 615 332 368 292

2008

1st Quarter

107,786 60,378 47,408 713 783 633 335 368 298

2nd Quarter

107,046 59,586 47,460 722 802 636 335 372 295

3rd Quarter

106,136 59,273 46,863 724 802 637 331 367 291

4th Quarter

105,617 58,511 47,106 727 806 647 340 377 302

2009

1st Quarter

101,680 56,299 45,381 732 815 645 344 384 304

2nd Quarter

99,990 55,233 44,757 736 818 652 345 383 306

3rd Quarter

99,049 54,481 44,567 742 820 664 345 381 308

4th Quarter

98,569 54,412 44,156 747 823 666 344 379 307

2010

1st Quarter

98,149 54,102 44,048 748 836 662 344 385 304

2nd Quarter

99,598 55,038 44,559 742 813 671 342 374 309

3rd Quarter

100,410 55,618 44,792 746 822 670 342 377 307

4th Quarter

99,960 55,469 44,491 750 826 676 342 376 308

2011

1st Quarter

99,690 55,338 44,353 750 821 679 338 370 306

2nd Quarter

100,343 55,848 44,495 754 828 688 336 369 306

3rd Quarter

100,487 56,053 44,434 759 837 681 336 370 301

4th Quarter

101,316 56,643 44,674 761 838 686 335 369 302

2012

1st Quarter

102,194 57,113 45,081 764 842 693 335 369 304

2nd Quarter

102,491 57,102 45,389 772 867 688 337 379 301

3rd Quarter

102,637 57,236 45,401 765 838 693 333 364 301

4th Quarter

103,681 57,701 45,980 772 868 690 334 376 298

2013

1st Quarter

103,972 57,914 46,058 769 862 699 331 371 301

2nd Quarter

103,946 57,964 45,983 775 863 705 334 372 304

3rd Quarter

104,492 58,143 46,350 777 860 706 333 368 302

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
3rd
2012
3rd
2013
In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
3rd
2012
3rd
2013
3rd
2012
3rd
2013

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

103,577 105,459 $758 $771 $329 $330

Men, 16 years and over

58,069 58,990 828 847 359 362

16 to 24 years

5,576 5,733 459 452 199 193

25 years and over

52,493 53,257 891 904 387 387

Women, 16 years and over

45,508 46,469 685 698 298 299

16 to 24 years

4,036 4,324 414 414 180 177

25 years and over

41,472 42,146 725 737 315 315

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

82,259 83,689 780 794 339 340

Men

47,292 47,897 854 868 371 371

Women

34,967 35,791 712 719 309 307

Black or African American

12,340 12,571 606 630 263 270

Men

5,771 5,898 633 682 275 292

Women

6,569 6,672 590 594 256 254

Asian

5,986 6,141 915 922 397 394

Men

3,338 3,473 1,043 1,027 453 439

Women

2,649 2,668 762 795 331 340

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,889 17,480 556 587 241 251

Men

10,110 10,593 586 609 255 260

Women

6,779 6,887 513 553 223 236

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and sex, 3rd quarter 2013 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings

TOTAL

16 years and over

105,459 $771 58,990 $847 46,469 $698

16 to 24 years

10,056 430 5,733 452 4,324 414

16 to 19 years

1,422 369 824 381 598 352

20 to 24 years

8,634 454 4,909 476 3,726 425

25 years and over

95,403 820 53,257 904 42,146 737

25 to 54 years

74,859 807 42,089 885 32,770 729

25 to 34 years

25,164 710 14,284 756 10,879 651

35 to 44 years

24,527 870 13,948 947 10,579 775

45 to 54 years

25,169 870 13,857 970 11,311 755

55 years and over

20,544 879 11,168 984 9,376 765

55 to 64 years

17,030 893 9,208 1,001 7,822 769

65 years and over

3,514 804 1,960 907 1,554 736

White

16 years and over

83,689 794 47,897 868 35,791 719

16 to 24 years

7,989 447 4,689 475 3,300 417

25 years and over

75,700 845 43,208 925 32,492 755

25 to 54 years

58,643 829 33,724 905 24,920 746

55 years and over

17,056 903 9,484 1,012 7,572 785

Black or African American

16 years and over

12,571 630 5,898 682 6,672 594

16 to 24 years

1,277 382 623 378 654 388

25 years and over

11,294 664 5,275 719 6,019 618

25 to 54 years

9,191 654 4,345 704 4,846 616

55 years and over

2,103 728 931 819 1,173 635

Asian

16 years and over

6,141 922 3,473 1,027 2,668 795

16 to 24 years

370 467 208 413 162 574

25 years and over

5,771 953 3,265 1,083 2,506 827

25 to 54 years

4,708 980 2,675 1,136 2,032 853

55 years and over

1,064 797 590 852 474 686

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16 years and over

17,480 587 10,593 609 6,887 553

16 to 24 years

2,257 416 1,381 421 876 410

25 years and over

15,223 618 9,211 658 6,012 585

25 to 54 years

13,230 615 8,047 656 5,183 584

55 years and over

1,993 639 1,164 676 828 604

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and sex, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Occupation and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
3rd
2012
3rd
2013
3rd
2012
3rd
2013

TOTAL

Management, professional, and related occupations

41,105 41,679 $1,098 $1,116

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17,266 17,082 1,159 1,179

Professional and related occupations

23,839 24,597 1,056 1,056

Service occupations

15,540 15,419 487 490

Sales and office occupations

22,726 23,379 645 655

Sales and related occupations

9,251 9,708 667 710

Office and administrative support occupations

13,475 13,671 637 629

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,135 10,886 728 744

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

943 856 417 462

Construction and extraction occupations

5,090 5,762 723 725

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,102 4,269 811 828

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14,072 14,096 615 633

Production occupations

7,310 7,215 621 623

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,762 6,881 608 647

Men

Management, professional, and related occupations

20,168 20,372 1,300 1,338

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

9,142 9,215 1,368 1,417

Professional and related occupations

11,026 11,158 1,259 1,268

Service occupations

7,980 7,730 530 562

Sales and office occupations

8,889 9,185 751 744

Sales and related occupations

5,253 5,565 825 805

Office and administrative support occupations

3,636 3,620 685 636

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,720 10,442 737 756

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

748 712 439 482

Construction and extraction occupations

4,998 5,608 723 733

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,973 4,122 812 832

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11,312 11,260 657 685

Production occupations

5,422 5,265 680 692

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,890 5,994 626 680

Women

Management, professional, and related occupations

20,937 21,306 948 962

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

8,124 7,867 983 1,034

Professional and related occupations

12,813 13,439 928 941

Service occupations

7,560 7,689 440 447

Sales and office occupations

13,836 14,194 607 615

Sales and related occupations

3,998 4,143 543 558

Office and administrative support occupations

9,838 10,051 624 627

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

415 444 501 551

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

195 144 369 396

Construction and extraction occupations

92 153 724 585

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

129 147 760 680

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

2,759 2,836 494 492

Production occupations

1,888 1,950 502 493

Transportation and material moving occupations

872 886 479 490

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 3rd quarter 2013 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Upper limit of:
First decile First
quartile
Second
quartile
(median)
Third
quartile
Ninth
decile

SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Total, 16 years and over

105,459 $370 $509 $771 $1,221 $1,886

Men

58,990 385 546 847 1,361 2,082

Women

46,469 350 481 698 1,068 1,574

White

83,689 379 521 794 1,244 1,899

Men

47,897 391 565 868 1,384 2,100

Women

35,791 360 493 719 1,086 1,604

Black or African American

12,571 322 427 630 962 1,475

Men

5,898 337 470 682 1,022 1,574

Women

6,672 313 410 594 905 1,340

Asian

6,141 388 569 922 1,484 2,192

Men

3,473 400 609 1,027 1,729 2,493

Women

2,668 373 514 795 1,270 1,764

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,480 317 404 587 869 1,330

Men

10,593 328 413 609 917 1,398

Women

6,887 305 389 553 798 1,165

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

95,403 393 551 820 1,277 1,914

Less than a high school diploma

7,166 296 363 479 655 903

High school graduates, no college(1)

25,392 360 477 659 933 1,339

Some college or associate degree

25,867 399 531 747 1,091 1,517

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

36,977 581 803 1,174 1,781 2,584

Bachelor's degree only

23,815 530 746 1,101 1,646 2,320

Advanced degree

13,162 682 947 1,365 1,984 2,920

Men, 25 years and over

53,257 411 598 904 1,430 2,164

Less than a high school diploma

5,053 313 388 509 705 982

High school graduates, no college(1)

15,248 384 514 742 1,041 1,484

Some college or associate degree

13,642 430 597 846 1,221 1,719

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

19,313 639 924 1,378 2,012 2,979

Bachelor's degree only

12,612 601 846 1,267 1,891 2,816

Advanced degree

6,701 752 1,062 1,645 2,376 3,436

Women, 25 years and over

42,146 374 508 737 1,116 1,638

Less than a high school diploma

2,113 277 319 404 540 721

High school graduates, no college(1)

10,144 329 426 569 763 1,053

Some college or associate degree

12,225 377 492 654 910 1,251

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

17,664 518 727 1,031 1,492 2,095

Bachelor's degree only

11,202 485 672 941 1,396 1,921

Advanced degree

6,462 628 860 1,172 1,641 2,302

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper limit of the second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and 90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
3rd
2012
3rd
2013
3rd
2012
3rd
2013

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

24,086 24,064 $240 $241

Men, 16 years and over

8,319 8,391 238 234

16 to 24 years

3,589 3,634 196 193

25 years and over

4,730 4,758 278 278

Women, 16 years and over

15,767 15,673 241 245

16 to 24 years

4,727 4,642 180 187

25 years and over

11,039 11,031 283 280

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

19,577 19,288 243 243

Men

6,652 6,578 239 235

Women

12,925 12,710 246 247

Black or African American

2,530 2,668 226 231

Men

945 1,074 235 229

Women

1,585 1,594 220 233

Asian

1,145 1,236 251 246

Men

403 408 239 225

Women

742 828 255 258

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,583 3,597 230 228

Men

1,446 1,463 245 238

Women

2,137 2,134 218 222

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: November 01, 2013
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