Technical Note The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a continuous survey about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time. Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339. Survey methodology Data collection for the ATUS began in January 2003. Sample cases for the survey are selected monthly, and interviews are conducted continuously throughout the year. In 2011, approximately 12,500 individuals were interviewed. Estimates are released annually. ATUS sample households are chosen from the households that completed their eighth (final) interview for the Current Population Survey (CPS), the nations monthly household labor force survey. ATUS sample households are selected to ensure that estimates will be nationally representative. One individual age 15 or over is randomly chosen from each sampled household. This "designated person" is interviewed by telephone once about his or her activities on the day before the interview--the "diary day." All ATUS interviews are conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Procedures are in place to collect information from the small number of households that did not provide a telephone number during the CPS interview. ATUS designated persons are preassigned a day of the week about which to report. Preassignment is designed to reduce variability in response rates across the week and to allow oversampling of weekend days so that accurate weekend day measures can be developed. Interviews occur on the day following the assigned day. For example, a person assigned to report about a Monday would be contacted on the following Tuesday. Ten percent of designated persons are assigned to report about each of the five weekdays. Twenty-five percent are assigned to report about each weekend day. Households are called for up to 8 consecutive weeks (for example, 8 Tuesdays) in order to secure an interview. About the questionnaire In the time diary portion of the ATUS interview, survey respondents sequentially report activities they did between 4 a.m. on the day before the interview ("yesterday") until 4 a.m. on the day of the interview. For each activity, respondents are asked how long the activity lasted. For activities other than personal care activities (such as sleeping and grooming), interviewers also ask respondents where they were and who was in the room with them (if at home) or who accompanied them (if away from home). If respondents report doing more than one activity at a time, they are asked to identify which one was the "main" (primary) activity. If none can be identified, then the interviewer records the first activity mentioned. After completing the time diary, interviewers ask respondents additional questions to clearly identify work, volunteering, and secondary childcare activities. Secondary childcare is defined as having a child under age 13 in ones care while doing other activities. Questions to identify eldercare providers and activities done as eldercare were added to the survey in 2011. In addition, the ATUS includes an update of the household composition information from the last CPS interview (2 to 5 months prior to the ATUS interview) and the employment status information of the respondent and his or her spouse or unmarried partner. For respondents who became employed or changed jobs between the last CPS interview and the ATUS interview, information also is collected on industry, occupation, class of worker, and earnings. For those who are unemployed or on layoff, CPS questions on job search activities are asked. Those who report being on layoff are asked if or when they expect to be recalled to work. Finally, a question about current school enrollment status is asked of all respondents ages 15 to 49. After completing the interview, primary activity descriptions are assigned a single 6-digit code using the ATUS Coding Lexicon. The 3- tier coding system consists of 17 major activity categories, each with multiple second- and third-tier subcategories. These coding lexicon categories are then combined into composite categories for publication, such as in this news release. Descriptions of categories shown in this release can be found in the Major activity category definitions section of this Technical Note. The 2011 ATUS Coding Lexicon can be accessed at www.bls.gov/tus/lexicons.htm. Concepts and definitions Average day. The average day measure reflects an average distribution across all persons in the reference population and all days of the week. Average day measures for the entire population provide a mechanism for seeing the overall distribution of time allocation for society as a whole. The ATUS collects data about daily activities from all segments of the population age 15 and over, including persons who are employed and not employed. Activity profiles differ based upon age, employment status, gender, and other characteristics. On an average day in 2011, persons in the U.S. age 15 and over did work and work-related activities for 3.6 hours, slept 8.7 hours, spent 5.2 hours doing leisure and sports activities, and spent 1.8 hours doing household activities. The remaining 4.7 hours were spent doing a variety of other activities, including eating and drinking, attending school, and shopping. (See table 1.) By comparison, an average weekday for persons employed full time on days that they worked included 9.2 hours doing work and work-related activities, 7.6 hours sleeping, 2.9 hours doing leisure and sports activities, and 0.9 hour doing household activities. The remaining 3.4 hours were spent in other activities, such as those described above. (These estimates include related travel time.) Many activities typically are not done on a daily basis, and some activities only are done by a subset of the population. For example, only 42 percent of all persons age 15 years and over worked on an average day in 2011 because some were not employed and those who were employed did not work every day. (See table 1.) Average hours per day. The average number of hours spent in a 24- hour day (between 4 a.m. on the diary day and 4 a.m. on the interview day) doing a specified activity. --Average hours per day, population. The average number of hours per day is computed using all responses from a given population, including those of respondents who did not do a particular activity on their diary day. These estimates reflect how many population members engaged in an activity and the amount of time they spent doing it. --Average hours per day, persons who did the activity. The average number of hours per day is computed using only responses from those who engaged in a particular activity on their diary day. --Condition related to aging. An ongoing ailment or physical or emotional limitation that typically affects older people, such as becoming more frail; having difficulty seeing, hearing, or physically moving; becoming more forgetful; tiring more quickly; or having specific medical ailments that are more common among older adults. It also refers to existing conditions that become progressively worse as one ages. Diary day. The diary day is the day about which the respondent reports. For example, the diary day of a respondent interviewed on Tuesday is Monday. Earnings --Usual weekly earnings. Estimates represent the earnings of full- time wage and salary workers with one job only (both incorporated and unincorporated self-employed are excluded), before taxes and other deductions. They include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received. Usual weekly earnings are only updated in ATUS for about a third of employed respondents--if the respondent changed jobs or employment status between the CPS and ATUS interviews or if the CPS weekly earnings value was imputed. This means that the earnings information could be out of date because the CPS interview was done 2 to 5 months prior to the ATUS interview. Respondents are asked to identify the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, annually, or other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. --Weekly earnings ranges. The ranges used represent approximately 25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers (both incorporated and unincorporated self-employed are excluded) who held only one job. For example, 25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers with one job only had weekly earnings of $520 or less. These dollar values vary from year to year. Eldercare. Eldercare is providing unpaid care or assistance to an individual who needed help because of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided by a family member or non-family member. Care can be provided in the recipients home, the providers home, or a care facility, such as in a nursing home. Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with grooming and feeding, preparing meals, arranging medical care, and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve providing companionship or being available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be associated with nearly any activity. Estimates of the time spent providing eldercare are derived by summing the durations of activities during which respondents provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a condition related to aging. These estimates never include times the respondent reported Personal care activities or Personal care services. Eldercare provider. An individual who provided eldercare more than one time in the 3 to 4 months prior to the interview day. The time frame varies slightly by respondent because the question asks about care provided between the first day of a given reference month and the interview day. Estimates are restricted to eldercare providers caring for at least one person age 65 or older. Employment status --Employed. All persons who, at any time during the 7 days prior to the interview: 1) Did any work at all as paid employees; worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; or 2) Were not working but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity leave, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. --Employed full time. Full-time workers are those who usually worked 35 hours or more per week at all jobs combined. --Employed part time. Part-time workers are those who usually worked fewer than 35 hours per week at all jobs combined. --Not employed. Persons are not employed if they do not meet the conditions for employment. The not employed include those classified as unemployed as well as those classified as not in the labor force (using CPS definitions). The numbers of employed and not employed persons in this report do not correspond to published totals from the CPS for several reasons. First, the reference population for the ATUS is age 15 years and over, whereas it is age 16 years and over for the CPS. Second, ATUS data are collected continuously, the employment reference period being the 7 days prior to the interview. By contrast, CPS data are usually collected during the week including the 19th of the month and refer to employment during the week containing the 12th of the month. Finally, the CPS accepts answers from household members about other household members whereas such proxy responses are not allowed in the ATUS. One consequence of the difference in proxy reporting is that a significantly higher proportion of teenagers report employment in the ATUS than in the CPS. While the information on employment from the ATUS is useful for assessing work in the context of other daily activities, the employment data are not intended for analysis of current employment trends. Compared with the CPS and other estimates of employment, the ATUS estimates are based on a much smaller sample and are only available with a substantial lag since ATUS data and estimates are published during the year following data collection. Household children. Household children are children under age 18 residing in the household of the ATUS respondent. The children may be related to the respondent (such as his or her own children, grandchildren, nieces or nephews, or siblings) or not related (such as foster children or children of roommates). Primary activity. A primary activity is the main activity a respondent was doing at a specified time. With the exception of secondary childcare in table 10 and eldercare in table 16, the estimates presented in this release reflect time spent in primary activities only. Secondary activities. A secondary (or simultaneous) activity is an activity done at the same time as a primary activity. With the exception of the care of children under age 13, information on secondary activities is not systematically collected in the ATUS. Secondary childcare. Secondary childcare is care for children under age 13 that is done while doing an activity other than primary childcare, such as cooking dinner. Secondary childcare estimates are derived by summing the durations of activities during which respondents had a household child or their own nonhousehold child under age 13 in their care while doing activities other than primary childcare. It is restricted to times the respondent was awake. Secondary childcare time for household children is further restricted to the time between when the first household child under age 13 woke up and the last household child under age 13 went to bed. If respondents report providing both primary and secondary care at the same time, the time is attributed to primary care only. Weekday, weekend, and holiday estimates. Estimates for weekdays are an average of reports about Monday through Friday. Estimates for weekend days and holidays are an average of reports about Saturdays, Sundays, and the following holidays: New Years Day, Easter, Memorial Day, the Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. In 2011, the telephone call center was closed the day after Christmas Day, so data were not collected about this holiday. Data were not collected about New Years Day in 2007, Christmas Day in 2008, and the Fourth of July in 2010. Major activity category definitions The following definitions describe the activity categories shown in this report. All major time-use categories in Tables 1-12 include related travel time and waiting time. For example, time spent "driving to the stadium" and time spent "waiting to get into the stadium to play ball" are included in Leisure and sports. Activity categories in Table 16--which details time spent providing eldercare--are slightly different than those in Tables 1-12: Traveling appears as a separate activity rather than being combined with each of the major activity categories, and the composition of Other activities, not elsewhere classified, has changed. Personal care activities. Personal care activities include sleeping, grooming (such as bathing or dressing), health-related self- care, and personal or private activities. Receiving unpaid personal care from others (for example, "my sister put polish on my nails") also is captured in this category. In general, respondents are not asked who they were with or where they were for personal care activities, as such information can be sensitive. Eating and drinking. All time spent eating or drinking (except eating and drinking done as part of a work or volunteer activity), whether alone, with others, at home, at a place of purchase, or somewhere else, is classified here. Household activities. Household activities are those done by persons to maintain their households. These include housework; cooking; lawn and garden care; pet care; vehicle maintenance and repair; home maintenance, repair, decoration, and renovation; and household management and organizational activities (such as filling out paperwork or planning a party). Food preparation, whether or not reported as done specifically for another household member, is always classified as a household activity unless it was done as a volunteer, work, or income-generating activity. For example, "making breakfast for my son" is coded as a household activity, not as childcare. Purchasing goods and services. This category includes purchases of consumer goods, professional and personal care services, household services, and government services. Consumer purchases include most purchases and rentals of consumer goods, regardless of the mode or place of purchase or rental (in person, via telephone, over the Internet, at home, or in a store). Gasoline, grocery, other food purchases, and all other shopping are further broken out in subcategories. Time spent obtaining, receiving, and purchasing professional and personal care services provided by someone else also is classified in this category. Professional services include childcare, financial services and banking, legal services, medical and adult care services, real estate services, and veterinary services. Personal care services include day spas, hair salons and barbershops, nail salons, and tanning salons. Activities classified here include time spent paying, meeting with, or talking to service providers, as well as time spent receiving the service or waiting to receive the service. Time spent arranging for and purchasing household services provided by someone else also is classified here. Household services include housecleaning; cooking; lawn care and landscaping; pet care; tailoring, laundering, and dry cleaning; vehicle maintenance and repairs; and home repairs, maintenance, and construction. This category also captures the time spent obtaining government services--such as applying for food stamps--and purchasing government- required licenses or paying fines or fees. Caring for and helping household members. Time spent doing activities to care for or help any child (under age 18) or adult in the household, regardless of relationship to the respondent or the physical or mental health status of the person being helped, is classified here. Caring for and helping activities for household children and adults are coded separately in subcategories. Primary childcare activities include time spent providing physical care; playing with children; reading to children; assistance with homework; attending children's events; taking care of children's health needs; and dropping off, picking up, and waiting for children. Passive childcare done as a primary activity (such as "keeping an eye on my son while he swam in the pool") also is included. A child's presence during the activity is not enough in itself to classify the activity as childcare. For example, "watching television with my child" is coded as a leisure activity, not as childcare. Secondary childcare occurs when persons have a child under age 13 "in their care" while doing activities other than primary childcare. For a complete definition, see the Concepts and definitions section of this Technical Note. Caring for and helping household members also includes a range of activities done to benefit adult members of households, such as providing physical and medical care or obtaining medical services. Doing something as a favor for or helping another household adult does not automatically result in classification as a helping activity. For example, a report of "helping my spouse cook dinner" is considered a household activity (food preparation), not a helping activity, because cooking dinner benefits the household as a whole. By contrast, doing paperwork for another person usually benefits the individual, so a report of "filling out an insurance application for my spouse" is considered a helping activity. Caring for and helping nonhousehold members. Caring for and helping nonhousehold members includes activities persons do to care for or help those--either children (under age 18) or adults--who do not live with them. When done for or through an organization, time spent helping nonhousehold members is classified as volunteering, rather than as helping nonhousehold members. Care of nonhousehold children, even when done as a favor or helping activity for another adult, is always classified as caring for and helping nonhousehold children, not as helping another adult. Working and work-related activities. This category includes time spent working, doing activities as part of one's job, engaging in income-generating activities (not as part of one's job), and job search activities. "Working" includes hours spent doing the specific tasks required of one's main or other job, regardless of location or time of day. "Work-related activities" include activities that are not obviously work but are done as part of one's job, such as having a business lunch or playing golf with clients. "Other income-generating activities" are those done "on the side" or under informal arrangement and are not part of a regular job. Such activities might include selling homemade crafts, babysitting, maintaining a rental property, or having a yard sale. These activities are those that persons "are paid for or will be paid for." Travel time related to working and work-related activities includes time spent traveling to and from work, as well as time spent traveling for work-related, income-generating, and job search activities. Educational activities. Educational activities include taking classes (including Internet and other distance-learning courses) for a degree as well as for personal interest; doing research and homework; and taking care of administrative tasks related to education, such as registering for classes or obtaining a school ID. For high school students, before- and after-school extracurricular activities (except sports) also are classified as educational activities. Educational activities do not include time spent for classes or training received as part of a job. Time spent helping others with their education- related activities is classified in the Caring for and helping categories. Organizational, civic, and religious activities. This category captures time spent volunteering for or through an organization, performing civic obligations, and participating in religious and spiritual activities. Civic obligations include government-required duties, such as serving jury duty or appearing in court, and activities that assist or influence government processes, such as voting or attending town hall meetings. Religious activities include those normally associated with membership in or identification with specific religions or denominations, such as attending religious services; participating in choirs, youth groups, orchestras, or unpaid teaching (unless identified as volunteer activities); and engaging in personal religious practices, such as praying. Leisure and sports. The leisure and sports category includes sports, exercise, and recreation; socializing and communicating; and other leisure activities. Sports, exercise, and recreation activities include participating in--as well as attending or watching--sports, exercise, and recreational activities. Recreational activities are leisure activities that are active in nature, such as yard games like croquet or horseshoes. Socializing and communicating includes face-to- face social communication and hosting or attending social functions. Leisure activities include watching television; reading; relaxing or thinking; playing computer, board, or card games; using a computer or the Internet for personal interest; playing or listening to music; and other activities, such as attending arts, cultural, and entertainment events. Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail. This category captures telephone communication and handling household or personal mail or e- mail. Telephone and Internet purchases are classified in Purchasing goods and services. Telephone calls, mail, or e-mail identified as related to work or volunteering are classified as work or volunteering. Traveling. This category includes all travel, regardless of mode or purpose, as well as security procedures related to traveling. All major time-use categories in Tables 1-12 include related travel time and waiting time; therefore, no Traveling category appears in these tables. Other activities, not elsewhere classified. This is a residual category intended to capture activities not elsewhere classified in each table. These might be ambiguous activities that could not be coded, missing activities, or activities that occurred very infrequently. Missing activities result when respondents do not remember what they did for a period of time, or when they consider an activity too private or personal to report. In Tables 1-12, this category also includes security procedures related to traveling and traveling that is not associated with a specific activity category, as no Traveling category appears in these tables. In Table 16, this category includes the small amount of time that was spent in educational activities, as no Educational activities category appears in this table. Processing and estimation After ATUS data are collected, they go through an editing and imputation procedure. Responses to CPS questions that are re-asked in the ATUS go through the regular CPS edit and imputation procedures. Some item nonresponses for questions unique to the ATUS (such as where an activity took place or how much time was spent doing secondary childcare) also are imputed. Missing activities and missing values for who was present during an activity are never imputed. ATUS records are weighted quarterly to reduce bias in the estimates due to differences in sampling and response rates across subpopulations and days of the week. Specifically, the data are weighted to ensure the following: --Weekdays represent about 5/7 of the weighted data, and weekend days each represent about 1/7 of the weighted data for the population as a whole. The actual proportions depend on the number of weekdays and weekend days in a given quarter. --The sum of the weights is equal to the number of person-days in the quarter for the population as a whole and for selected subpopulations. Reliability of the estimates Statistics based on the ATUS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the estimates from all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population value. In this case, the sample estimate and its standard error can be used to construct approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values that include the true population value with known probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the population were repeated many times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its standard error calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include the true population value. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The ATUS data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the average difference between population and sample values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data. Errors also could occur if non-response is correlated with time use. Nonsampling error and eldercare. Eldercare done for a spouse or partner may be underreported, especially when the care provided has only recently become necessary. For example, a survey respondent who has always prepared the family dinner may not view cooking as an eldercare activity; if her husband is no longer capable of preparing his own meals, though, he depends on this assistance and it meets the definition of eldercare. Additionally, nonsampling error affects data on the frequency of care. Survey respondents were asked how often they provided eldercare in recent months and whether they provided eldercare on the diary day. Information about care provided on the diary day was used to calculate daily participation rates. There are some inconsistencies between the reported frequency of care and the actual provision of eldercare on an average day. For example, in 2011, only 65 percent of eldercare providers who self-reported providing care "daily" actually provided eldercare on an average day. This discrepancy reflects some respondents choice of "daily" rather than "several times a week" or another option to best describe their eldercare frequency, even while acknowledging they had not provided care on the diary day. Publication requirements Estimates of average hours per day and participation rates are not published unless there are a minimum number of respondents representing the given population. Additional publication criteria are applied that include the number of respondents who reported doing a specified activity and the standard error or coefficient of variation for the estimate. Estimates that are considered "close to zero" or that round to 0.00, are published as approximately zero or "~0." For a detailed description of the statistical reliability criteria necessary for publication, please contact ATUS staff at ATUSinfo@bls.gov.