Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) 				USDL-15-0755
Wednesday, April 29, 2015	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2014

From June 2014 to September 2014, gross job gains from opening and
expanding private sector establishments were 7.2 million, a decrease
of 259,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.6 million,
an increase of 115,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 542,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the third quarter of 2014. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 
 
The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.9 million in 
the third quarter of 2014, a decrease of 231,000 jobs from the 
previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in the 
third quarter of 2014, a decrease of 28,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter. (See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.5 million jobs in the third quarter 
of 2014. This was an increase of 152,000 jobs from the prior quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

In the third quarter of 2014, closing establishments lost 1.1 million 
jobs, a decrease of 37,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private sector employment
in the third quarter of 2014, while gross job losses represented 5.8 
percent of private sector employment. (See tables A, 2, and 3.)

In the third quarter of 2014, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) increased by 4,000 to 224,000 establishments. These 
new establishments accounted for 825,000 jobs, an increase of 22,000
jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through the fourth quarter of 2013, when 677,000 jobs were 
lost at 190,000 establishments. In the prior quarter, 683,000 jobs were
lost at 195,000 establishments.  (See table 8.)

During the third quarter of 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in all industry sectors except the retail trade sector and 
leisure and hospitality sector. The retail trade sector and leisure
and hospitality sector experienced net employment losses of 8,000 jobs 
and 27,000 jobs, respectively. The service-providing sector experienced
a net increase of 422,000 jobs. The goods-producing sector experienced
a net increase of 120,000 jobs.  (See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.
                                2013    2013    2014    2014    2014

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,051   7,296   6,856   7,438  7,179
 At expanding establishments... 5,708   5,856   5,624   6,109  5,878
 At opening establishments..... 1,343   1,340   1,232   1,329  1,301

Gross job losses............... 6,583   6,553   6,459   6,522  6,637
 At contracting establishments. 5,435   5,335   5,330   5,340  5,492
 At closing establishments..... 1,148   1,218   1,129   1,182  1,145

Net employment change(1).......   468     743     397     916    542
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.3     6.4     6.0     6.5    6.2
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     5.2     4.9     5.3    5.1
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.1     1.2    1.1

Gross job losses...............   5.8     5.8     5.7     5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.8     4.7     4.7     4.6    4.8
 At closing establishments.....   1.0     1.1     1.0     1.0    1.0

Net employment change(1).......    .5      .6      .3      .9     .4

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

In the third quarter of 2014, firms with 1-49 employees accounted for 
33 percent of total net job growth. Firms with 50-249 employees 
accounted for 19 percent of net job growth. Firms with 250 or more 
employees accounted for 48 percent of net job growth. This quarter is 
the eighteenth consecutive quarter of positive net employment change
for all three major firm size categories. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Of the 2.5 million net jobs created over the last year, firms with 1-49
employees contributed 34 percent of net job growth, while firms with
50-249 employees contributed 23 percent, and firms with 250 or more 
employees contributed 43 percent. (See table 4.)

In the third quarter of 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses
in 32 states and the District of Columbia. California experienced 
939,378 gross job gains and 809,544 gross job losses resulting in a 
net employment gain of 129,834. This is the largest net employment 
gain of any state this quarter. Texas had the second largest net 
employment gain this quarter with 89,959 net jobs. (See table 6.) 
Alaska had the highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of 
employment at 9.4 percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.2 percent. 
Hawaii had the lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent of
employment at 4.7 percent, below the U.S. rate of 5.8 percent. 
(See table 7.)


More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2014 are scheduled |
| to be released on Wednesday, July 29, 2015 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).        |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------





                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  554,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.4   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.5    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.5 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.4 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2014.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of 
establishments excluded from the national gross job gains and gross job losses 
data in the first quarter 2014:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.4

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.5

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firms’ sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,716      5,850       4,659         1,191       8,566       7,141           1,425
      June              -1,667      6,386       5,084         1,302       8,053       6,671           1,382
      September           -878      6,342       5,131         1,211       7,220       5,856           1,364
      December            -234      6,640       5,315         1,325       6,874       5,596           1,278

2010  March               -263      6,264       5,090         1,174       6,527       5,320           1,207
      June                 709      6,958       5,679         1,279       6,249       5,087           1,162
      September            215      6,678       5,428         1,250       6,463       5,234           1,229
      December             585      7,010       5,638         1,372       6,425       5,206           1,219

2011  March                301      6,458       5,286         1,172       6,157       5,021           1,136
      June                 600      6,936       5,640         1,296       6,336       5,109           1,227
      September            824      7,148       5,790         1,358       6,324       5,174           1,150
      December             364      6,894       5,546         1,348       6,530       5,253           1,277

2012  March                851      6,953       5,706         1,247       6,102       4,997           1,105
      June                 607      7,020       5,732         1,288       6,413       5,260           1,153
      September            241      6,851       5,559         1,292       6,610       5,430           1,180
      December             698      7,107       5,766         1,341       6,409       5,209           1,200

2013  March                926      7,272       5,648         1,624       6,346       5,187           1,159
      June                 678      7,174       5,849         1,325       6,496       5,284           1,212
      September            468      7,051       5,708         1,343       6,583       5,435           1,148
      December             743      7,296       5,956         1,340       6,553       5,335           1,218

2014  March                397      6,856       5,624         1,232       6,459       5,330           1,129
      June                 916      7,438       6,109         1,329       6,522       5,340           1,182
      September            542      7,179       5,878         1,301       6,637       5,492           1,145

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.3       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.2          5.1            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                1.0       6.6         5.1           1.5         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .5       6.3         5.1           1.2         5.8          4.8            1.0
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2014  March                 .3       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .9       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.6          4.6            1.0
      September             .4       6.2         5.1           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2013    2013    2014    2014    2014   2013   2013   2014   2014   2014
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,051   7,296   6,856   7,438   7,179    6.3    6.4    6.0    6.5    6.2
 At expanding establishments      5,708   5,956   5,624   6,109   5,878    5.1    5.2    4.9    5.3    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,343   1,340   1,232   1,329   1,301    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,583   6,553   6,459   6,522   6,637    5.8    5.8    5.7    5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,435   5,335   5,330   5,340   5,492    4.8    4.7    4.7    4.6    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,148   1,218   1,129   1,182   1,145    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               468     743     397     916     542     .5     .6     .3     .9     .4

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,333   1,357   1,355   1,410   1,335    6.7    6.8    6.8    7.0    6.5
 At expanding establishments      1,120   1,155   1,163   1,211   1,145    5.6    5.8    5.8    6.0    5.6
 At opening establishments          213     202     192     199     190    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                  1,261   1,312   1,208   1,233   1,215    6.4    6.6    6.0    6.0    6.0
 At contracting establishments    1,064   1,102   1,017   1,042   1,036    5.4    5.5    5.1    5.1    5.1
 At closing establishments          197     210     191     191     179    1.0    1.1     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change                72      45     147     177     120     .3     .2     .8    1.0     .5

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     263     280     288     281     279   13.1   13.8   14.0   13.7   13.5
 At expanding establishments        223     243     253     246     243   11.1   12.0   12.3   12.0   11.8
 At opening establishments           40      37      35      35      36    2.0    1.8    1.7    1.7    1.7
Gross job losses                    265     280     253     271     247   13.2   13.8   12.4   13.2   12.0
 At contracting establishments      231     243     219     237     216   11.5   12.0   10.7   11.5   10.5
 At closing establishments           34      37      34      34      31    1.7    1.8    1.7    1.7    1.5
Net employment change                -2       0      35      10      32    -.1     .0    1.6     .5    1.5

Construction

Gross job gains                     665     653     673     692     652   11.4   11.1   11.2   11.4   10.7
 At expanding establishments        531     526     551     564     537    9.1    8.9    9.2    9.3    8.8
 At opening establishments          134     127     122     128     115    2.3    2.2    2.0    2.1    1.9
Gross job losses                    593     638     585     597     579   10.2   10.9    9.8    9.9    9.5
 At contracting establishments      477     511     468     483     471    8.2    8.7    7.8    8.0    7.7
 At closing establishments          116     127     117     114     108    2.0    2.2    2.0    1.9    1.8
Net employment change                72      15      88      95      73    1.2     .2    1.4    1.5    1.2

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     405     424     394     437     404    3.3    3.5    3.3    3.6    3.3
 At expanding establishments        366     386     359     401     365    3.0    3.2    3.0    3.3    3.0
 At opening establishments           39      38      35      36      39     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    403     394     370     365     389    3.4    3.3    3.0    3.0    3.2
 At contracting establishments      356     348     330     322     349    3.0    2.9    2.7    2.6    2.9
 At closing establishments           47      46      40      43      40     .4     .4     .3     .4     .3
Net employment change                 2      30      24      72      15    -.1     .2     .3     .6     .1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,718   5,939   5,501   6,028   5,844    6.1    6.3    5.8    6.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,588   4,801   4,461   4,898   4,733    4.9    5.1    4.7    5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,130   1,138   1,040   1,130   1,111    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,322   5,241   5,251   5,289   5,422    5.7    5.6    5.6    5.5    5.7
 At contracting establishments    4,371   4,233   4,313   4,298   4,456    4.7    4.5    4.6    4.5    4.7
 At closing establishments          951   1,008     938     991     966    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               396     698     250     739     422     .4     .7     .2     .9     .5

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     279     286     272     284     277    4.9    4.9    4.7    4.9    4.8
 At expanding establishments        228     237     225     240     231    4.0    4.1    3.9    4.1    4.0
 At opening establishments           51      49      47      44      46     .9     .8     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    260     251     251     248     251    4.5    4.3    4.4    4.3    4.3
 At contracting establishments      206     192     196     191     199    3.6    3.3    3.4    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           54      59      55      57      52     .9    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9
Net employment change                19      35      21      36      26     .4     .6     .3     .6     .5

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     899     944     877     969     897    5.9    6.2    5.7    6.3    5.8
 At expanding establishments        764     818     757     837     771    5.0    5.4    4.9    5.4    5.0
 At opening establishments          135     126     120     132     126     .9     .8     .8     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    856     835     879     827     905    5.7    5.5    5.8    5.3    5.9
 At contracting establishments      755     720     775     716     798    5.0    4.7    5.1    4.6    5.2
 At closing establishments          101     115     104     111     107     .7     .8     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change                43     109      -2     142      -8     .2     .7    -.1    1.0    -.1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     231     283     232     244     248    5.4    6.5    5.4    5.6    5.6
 At expanding establishments        197     252     199     210     215    4.6    5.8    4.6    4.8    4.9
 At opening establishments           34      31      33      34      33     .8     .7     .8     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    210     206     244     206     212    4.9    4.8    5.6    4.7    4.8
 At contracting establishments      174     168     210     172     176    4.1    3.9    4.8    3.9    4.0
 At closing establishments           36      38      34      34      36     .8     .9     .8     .8     .8
Net employment change                21      77     -12      38      36     .5    1.7    -.2     .9     .8

Utilities

Gross job gains                      11      12      14      12      12    2.0    2.2    2.6    2.2    2.2
 At expanding establishments         10      11      12      11      11    1.8    2.0    2.2    2.0    2.0
 At opening establishments            1       1       2       1       1     .2     .2     .4     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     13      16      11      13      11    2.4    3.0    2.0    2.4    2.0
 At contracting establishments       12      14      10      12      10    2.2    2.6    1.8    2.2    1.8
 At closing establishments            1       2       1       1       1     .2     .4     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -2      -4       3      -1       1    -.4    -.8     .6    -.2     .2

Information

Gross job gains                     130     136     122     141     139    4.8    5.0    4.5    5.2    5.1
 At expanding establishments        108     113     101     119     117    4.0    4.2    3.7    4.4    4.3
 At opening establishments           22      23      21      22      22     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    136     123     127     133     138    5.0    4.5    4.6    4.9    5.0
 At contracting establishments      114     101     107     111     118    4.2    3.7    3.9    4.1    4.3
 At closing establishments           22      22      20      22      20     .8     .8     .7     .8     .7
Net employment change                -6      13      -5       8       1    -.2     .5    -.1     .3     .1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     356     368     324     374     357    4.7    4.8    4.2    4.9    4.6
 At expanding establishments        283     288     262     305     288    3.7    3.8    3.4    4.0    3.7
 At opening establishments           73      80      62      69      69    1.0    1.0     .8     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    347     356     343     333     340    4.5    4.6    4.5    4.3    4.4
 At contracting establishments      277     278     269     262     268    3.6    3.6    3.5    3.4    3.5
 At closing establishments           70      78      74      71      72     .9    1.0    1.0     .9     .9
Net employment change                 9      12     -19      41      17     .2     .2    -.3     .6     .2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,379   1,455   1,258   1,438   1,378    7.4    7.7    6.7    7.6    7.2
 At expanding establishments      1,119   1,187   1,034   1,187   1,137    6.0    6.3    5.5    6.3    5.9
 At opening establishments          260     268     224     251     241    1.4    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,240   1,256   1,263   1,236   1,247    6.7    6.7    6.7    6.5    6.5
 At contracting establishments      998   1,000   1,026     983   1,000    5.4    5.3    5.4    5.2    5.2
 At closing establishments          242     256     237     253     247    1.3    1.4    1.3    1.3    1.3
Net employment change               139     199      -5     202     131     .7    1.0     .0    1.1     .7

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     896     886     827     882     927    4.4    4.4    4.1    4.3    4.5
 At expanding establishments        738     725     694     731     768    3.6    3.6    3.4    3.6    3.7
 At opening establishments          158     161     133     151     159     .8     .8     .7     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    782     781     779     836     786    3.8    3.9    3.8    4.1    3.8
 At contracting establishments      634     626     640     671     632    3.1    3.1    3.1    3.3    3.1
 At closing establishments          148     155     139     165     154     .7     .8     .7     .8     .7
Net employment change               114     105      48      46     141     .6     .5     .3     .2     .7

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,195   1,209   1,197   1,275   1,199    8.4    8.4    8.3    8.8    8.2
 At expanding establishments        915     945     942   1,003     950    6.4    6.6    6.5    6.9    6.5
 At opening establishments          280     264     255     272     249    2.0    1.8    1.8    1.9    1.7
Gross job losses                  1,184   1,121   1,075   1,162   1,226    8.3    7.8    7.4    8.0    8.4
 At contracting establishments      983     914     876     961   1,024    6.9    6.4    6.0    6.6    7.0
 At closing establishments          201     207     199     201     202    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.4
Net employment change                11      88     122     113     -27     .1     .6     .9     .8    -.2

Other services

Gross job gains                     280     272     280     302     282    7.2    7.0    7.1    7.6    7.1
 At expanding establishments        219     214     224     241     227    5.6    5.5    5.7    6.1    5.7
 At opening establishments           61      58      56      61      55    1.6    1.5    1.4    1.5    1.4
Gross job losses                    271     273     252     268     280    7.0    7.0    6.4    6.7    7.1
 At contracting establishments      213     214     197     211     222    5.5    5.5    5.0    5.3    5.6
 At closing establishments           58      59      55      57      58    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.5
Net employment change                 9      -1      28      34       2     .2     .0     .7     .9     .0

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,673      4,584    7,257        -991       2,714    3,705       -620          806    1,426      -1,062        1,064    2,126
      June          -1,767      5,165    6,932        -472       2,948    3,420       -277          953    1,230      -1,018        1,264    2,282
      September       -933      5,138    6,071        -375       2,822    3,197       -114          930    1,044        -444        1,386    1,830
      December        -288      5,405    5,693        -155       2,942    3,097        -43          964    1,007         -90        1,499    1,589

2010  March           -247      5,097    5,344        -207       2,851    3,058         -6          910      916         -34        1,336    1,370
      June             687      5,809    5,122         238       3,096    2,858        207        1,074      867         242        1,639    1,397
      September        200      5,497    5,297          24       2,940    2,916         83          996      913          93        1,561    1,468
      December         518      5,781    5,263          91       3,048    2,957         95        1,035      940         332        1,698    1,366

2011  March            316      5,344    5,028          87       2,966    2,879        118          965      847         111        1,413    1,302
      June             546      5,753    5,207         198       3,077    2,879        175        1,067      892         173        1,609    1,436
      September        834      5,948    5,114         260       3,123    2,863        164        1,062      898         410        1,763    1,353
      December         320      5,613    5,293          46       2,973    2,927         45          987      942         229        1,653    1,424

2012  March            840      5,767    4,927         373       3,153    2,780        214        1,047      833         253        1,567    1,314
      June             602      5,819    5,217         179       3,041    2,862        167        1,080      913         256        1,698    1,442
      September        219      5,569    5,350          48       2,951    2,903         47        1,003      956         124        1,615    1,491
      December         637      5,766    5,129         176       3,018    2,842         91        1,013      922         370        1,735    1,365

2013  March          1,209      6,350    5,141         294       3,138    2,844        153        1,022      869         762        2,190    1,428
      June             656      5,929    5,273         226       3,093    2,867        146        1,081      935         284        1,755    1,471
      September        433      5,746    5,313         203       3,050    2,847         55        1,014      959         175        1,682    1,507
      December         658      5,897    5,239         130       3,028    2,898        104        1,034      930         424        1,835    1,411

2014  March            445      5,621    5,176         236       3,044    2,808        151        1,026      875          58        1,551    1,493
      June             915      6,134    5,219         322       3,160    2,838        227        1,129      902         366        1,845    1,479
      September        521      5,813    5,292         171       3,002    2,831         99        1,057      958         251        1,754    1,503


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2013    2013    2014    2014    2014   2013   2013   2014   2014   2014
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,746   5,897   5,621   6,134   5,813    5.1    5.2    4.9    5.4    5.0
 At expanding firms               4,826   4,988   4,738   5,240   4,949    4.3    4.4    4.1    4.6    4.3
 At opening firms                   920     909     883     894     864     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7

Gross job losses                  5,313   5,239   5,176   5,219   5,292    4.7    4.6    4.5    4.5    4.6
 At contracting firms             4,507   4,394   4,349   4,410   4,498    4.0    3.9    3.8    3.8    3.9
 At closing firms                   806     845     827     809     794     .7     .7     .7     .7     .7

Net employment change               433     658     445     915     521     .4     .6     .4     .9     .4


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,050   3,028   3,044   3,160   3,002    9.4    9.4    9.4    9.7    9.2
 At expanding firms               2,168   2,158   2,196   2,305   2,183    6.7    6.7    6.8    7.1    6.7
 At opening firms                   882     870     848     855     819    2.7    2.7    2.6    2.6    2.5

Gross job losses                  2,847   2,898   2,808   2,838   2,831    8.8    9.0    8.6    8.7    8.6
 At contracting firms             2,074   2,089   2,015   2,065   2,074    6.4    6.5    6.2    6.3    6.3
 At closing firms                   773     809     793     773     757    2.4    2.5    2.4    2.4    2.3

Net employment change               203     130     236     322     171     .6     .4     .8    1.0     .6


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,014   1,034   1,026   1,129   1,057    4.9    4.9    4.9    5.4    5.0
 At expanding firms                 980   1,003     996   1,094   1,020    4.7    4.8    4.8    5.2    4.8
 At opening firms                    34      31      30      35      37     .2     .1     .1     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    959     930     875     902     958    4.6    4.4    4.1    4.3    4.5
 At contracting firms               931     899     845     874     928    4.5    4.3    4.0    4.2    4.4
 At closing firms                    28      31      30      28      30     .1     .1     .1     .1     .1

Net employment change                55     104     151     227      99     .3     .5     .8    1.1     .5


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,682   1,835   1,551   1,845   1,754    2.8    3.0    2.5    3.0    2.8
 At expanding firms               1,678   1,827   1,546   1,841   1,746    2.8    3.0    2.5    3.0    2.8
 At opening firms                     4       8       5       4       8     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,507   1,411   1,493   1,479   1,503    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.4    2.4
 At contracting firms             1,502   1,406   1,489   1,471   1,496    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.4    2.4
 At closing firms                     5       5       4       8       7     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               175     424      58     366     251     .3     .7     .1     .6     .4


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.
                        2013       2013       2014        2014      2014       2013         2013       2014        2014      2014

United States(1)...  7,051,000  7,296,000  6,856,000   7,438,000  7,179,000  6,583,000   6,553,000   6,459,000  6,522,000  6,637,000

Alabama.....            82,579     88,974     84,701      87,364     88,919     85,001      80,202      84,878     81,574     81,945
Alaska.....             24,727     25,599     27,111      27,613     23,910     25,387      26,151      24,286     27,672     26,323
Arizona.....           136,257    142,862    122,710     128,550    137,917    115,847     114,990     127,049    126,814    117,215
Arkansas.....           54,835     56,317     55,241      52,907     56,474     53,002      52,575      48,156     46,722     50,404
California.....        898,198    970,775    908,148     934,892    939,378    811,587     826,149     819,458    863,561    809,544
Colorado.....          136,576    138,088    134,852     147,457    149,148    123,433     120,042     117,084    122,734    126,134
Connecticut.....        74,212     72,962     71,412      78,491     73,150     75,904      75,714      70,265     68,091     73,700
Delaware.....           23,073     23,382     22,392      23,550     21,635     21,141      20,578      21,103     18,717     22,310
District of Columbia    28,686     27,767     28,507      31,217     27,893     24,431      26,410      26,428     27,883     27,027
Florida.....           456,824    459,908    429,242     478,152    487,819    399,647     396,853     379,039    412,796    401,485

Georgia.....           218,936    223,857    218,553     229,447    229,767    193,605     191,558     187,662    201,150    198,093
Hawaii.....             27,482     27,361     24,229      24,507     26,070     23,731      22,530      25,768     25,728     23,396
Idaho.....              40,288     43,528     44,986      40,993     39,497     37,011      38,182      38,401     42,522     38,930
Illinois.....          281,978    287,742    282,582     301,654    279,907    276,028     262,299     273,676    271,324    289,157
Indiana.....           137,321    151,123    130,738     146,372    133,763    131,335     126,070     137,774    125,025    131,464
Iowa.....               74,723     75,848     73,265      78,695     72,206     68,754      69,858      69,123     72,090     73,304
Kansas.....             67,027     68,947     62,686      67,594     63,328     62,992      58,995      61,041     62,628     64,034
Kentucky.....           88,456     97,171     91,202      91,806     91,563     81,995      80,834      87,753     82,312     81,553
Louisiana.....         107,860    106,092    106,380     105,324    106,145     94,599      96,483      92,250    102,933     93,279
Maine.....              36,387     34,549     32,803      38,308     32,929     36,208      36,734      34,830     31,772     34,869

Maryland.....          125,548    129,342    120,701     136,035    133,072    123,521     129,324     119,730    119,062    128,097
Massachusetts.....     158,095    155,212    153,255     182,525    162,669    158,148     152,909     146,767    151,926    160,288
Michigan.....          206,945    210,828    193,208     226,224    192,391    200,593     193,392     179,299    192,512    205,613
Minnesota.....         131,274    132,158    122,559     152,857    131,751    127,618     131,154     131,329    118,560    139,248
Mississippi.....        53,106     56,504     49,034      52,831     53,592     49,713      48,189      50,683     57,818     51,427
Missouri.....          128,987    133,406    124,363     134,112    125,122    125,906     123,901     123,281    117,942    125,281
Montana.....            27,406     29,553     25,940      29,275     28,828     26,967      26,617      28,165     27,435     28,838
Nebraska.....           48,324     49,098     46,627      47,067     47,231     43,905      44,342      43,926     46,594     45,164
Nevada.....             61,343     63,969     68,371      69,971     69,834     58,707      53,928      54,147     58,601     58,920
New Hampshire.....      32,195     35,941     30,782      36,567     31,977     34,455      31,262      31,894     32,625     34,115

New Jersey.....        204,129    208,002    191,577     224,863    208,063    201,050     207,528     201,873    189,895    205,705
New Mexico.....         40,743     42,014     38,773      40,569     40,285     40,982      38,594      39,417     37,554     37,562
New York.....          470,406    488,832    453,091     494,472    478,751    443,888     440,138     439,127    429,972    447,805
North Carolina.....    207,989    213,112    196,483     215,534    207,123    189,970     189,004     186,412    182,481    193,641
North Dakota.....       29,955     29,881     31,989      28,240     30,567     24,693      24,992      24,936     26,117     25,255
Ohio.....              247,306    265,643    250,208     270,113    246,052    246,422     236,612     245,509    234,618    248,466
Oklahoma.....           78,989     77,204     76,411      77,458     76,496     70,356      77,423      74,634     76,244     69,680
Oregon.....            100,209     97,663     99,610      98,987    100,879     88,268      92,599      87,208     91,579     87,386
Pennsylvania.....      256,618    267,301    253,643     273,659    255,730    257,811     253,489     242,728    240,437    252,935
Rhode Island.....       24,986     24,474     22,816      26,158     24,210     24,222      22,933      22,863     22,333     23,419

South Carolina.....     93,633    102,061     95,713      99,522     93,993     84,442      82,586      88,987     89,050     90,212
South Dakota.....       20,459     22,932     21,356      21,583     20,766     20,881      20,102      20,435     20,238     20,179
Tennessee.....         125,251    144,253    125,985     130,918    133,159    119,399     110,071     121,089    117,551    117,107
Texas.....             552,753    566,604    553,296     571,566    576,117    485,228     487,463     479,767    465,260    486,158
Utah.....               71,558     77,520     69,642      75,546     76,505     65,955      64,131      63,801     70,146     65,137
Vermont.....            17,608     18,911     16,846      18,513     17,138     18,362      16,542      16,944     17,331     18,095
Virginia.....          173,917    169,315    157,945     183,313    168,475    173,680     165,862     161,816    164,858    174,289
Washington.....        172,308    171,855    165,916     183,724    176,717    159,889     156,542     147,848    138,526    149,394
West Virginia.....      33,802     36,600     35,778      37,208     34,450     35,722      35,915      37,449     36,067     36,943
Wisconsin.....         129,748    131,886    124,346     139,665    126,572    126,892     122,147     121,292    119,588    133,120

Wyoming.....            17,677     20,206     18,391      18,848     17,986     17,452      17,263      17,376     17,883     18,285
Puerto Rico.....        42,140     45,339     35,354      38,012     38,138     45,363      36,188      44,386     42,472     40,511
Virgin Islands.....      1,575      1,497      1,354       1,647      1,701      1,809       1,668       1,662      1,719      1,486

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     Mar.     June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      Mar.    June     Sept.
                        2013    2013     2014     2014    2014        2013     2013      2014    2014     2014

United States(1)...      6.3     6.4      6.0      6.5     6.2         5.8      5.8       5.7      5.6     5.8

Alabama.....             5.5     6.0      5.6      5.9     5.9         5.7      5.3       5.7      5.5     5.4
Alaska.....              9.8    10.1     10.8     10.9     9.4        10.1     10.4       9.6     10.9    10.4
Arizona.....             6.4     6.7      5.7      6.0     6.4         5.5      5.4       6.0      6.0     5.4
Arkansas.....            5.8     6.0      5.8      5.6     5.9         5.7      5.5       5.0      4.9     5.3
California.....          6.9     7.3      6.8      7.0     7.0         6.2      6.3       6.1      6.4     6.0
Colorado.....            7.0     6.9      6.7      7.3     7.3         6.3      6.1       5.9      6.1     6.2
Connecticut.....         5.3     5.3      5.1      5.6     5.2         5.4      5.4       5.0      4.8     5.3
Delaware.....            6.6     6.6      6.3      6.5     6.0         6.0      5.8       5.9      5.2     6.1
District of Columbia..   6.0     5.8      5.9      6.4     5.7         5.1      5.4       5.5      5.7     5.5
Florida.....             7.0     7.0      6.5      7.2     7.2         6.2      6.0       5.8      6.2     5.9

Georgia.....             6.6     6.8      6.5      6.8     6.8         6.0      5.8       5.6      5.9     5.9
Hawaii.....              5.6     5.4      4.8      4.9     5.2         4.7      4.5       5.1      5.1     4.7
Idaho.....               7.7     8.3      8.4      7.7     7.5         7.2      7.3       7.2      8.0     7.3
Illinois.....            5.7     5.8      5.8      6.1     5.7         5.7      5.3       5.5      5.5     5.8
Indiana.....             5.6     6.1      5.3      5.9     5.3         5.4      5.1       5.5      5.0     5.3
Iowa.....                5.9     6.0      5.8      6.2     5.7         5.5      5.5       5.5      5.7     5.7
Kansas.....              6.1     6.2      5.7      6.1     5.7         5.7      5.3       5.5      5.7     5.8
Kentucky.....            6.0     6.5      6.1      6.2     6.1         5.5      5.4       5.9      5.5     5.4
Louisiana.....           6.9     6.7      6.7      6.6     6.6         6.0      6.1       5.8      6.4     5.8
Maine.....               7.4     7.0      6.7      7.8     6.7         7.3      7.5       7.0      6.5     7.1

Maryland.....            6.1     6.4      5.9      6.6     6.5         6.1      6.3       5.8      5.8     6.2
Massachusetts.....       5.5     5.4      5.3      6.3     5.6         5.5      5.3       5.0      5.3     5.5
Michigan.....            5.9     6.0      5.5      6.4     5.5         5.8      5.6       5.1      5.4     5.8
Minnesota.....           5.6     5.6      5.3      6.5     5.5         5.5      5.6       5.7      5.1     5.9
Mississippi.....         6.2     6.6      5.7      6.1     6.2         5.8      5.6       5.9      6.7     6.0
Missouri.....            5.8     6.0      5.6      6.0     5.6         5.7      5.5       5.5      5.3     5.6
Montana.....             7.7     8.2      7.2      8.2     8.0         7.6      7.5       7.9      7.7     8.1
Nebraska.....            6.3     6.3      5.9      6.0     6.0         5.7      5.7       5.6      6.0     5.7
Nevada.....              6.0     6.3      6.6      6.7     6.6         5.8      5.3       5.2      5.6     5.5
New Hampshire.....       6.0     6.8      5.7      6.7     5.9         6.5      5.8       5.9      6.1     6.3

New Jersey.....          6.2     6.4      5.9      6.9     6.3         6.2      6.4       6.2      5.8     6.3
New Mexico.....          6.7     6.9      6.3      6.6     6.5         6.7      6.4       6.4      6.1     6.1
New York.....            6.4     6.6      6.2      6.6     6.4         6.1      6.0       6.0      5.7     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.3     6.4      5.9      6.4     6.1         5.8      5.7       5.6      5.5     5.8
North Dakota.....        8.3     8.2      8.6      7.6     8.2         6.9      6.9       6.8      7.0     6.7
Ohio.....                5.6     6.0      5.6      6.1     5.5         5.6      5.3       5.6      5.3     5.5
Oklahoma.....            6.4     6.2      6.1      6.2     6.1         5.7      6.2       6.0      6.1     5.5
Oregon.....              7.1     6.9      7.0      6.9     7.0         6.3      6.6       6.1      6.4     6.0
Pennsylvania.....        5.2     5.4      5.2      5.6     5.2         5.2      5.2       4.9      4.8     5.1
Rhode Island.....        6.2     6.2      5.7      6.5     5.9         6.1      5.7       5.7      5.5     5.8

South Carolina.....      6.2     6.7      6.2      6.5     6.1         5.6      5.5       5.8      5.7     5.8
South Dakota.....        6.2     6.9      6.3      6.4     6.2         6.3      6.0       6.1      6.0     6.0
Tennessee.....           5.5     6.3      5.4      5.6     5.7         5.3      4.7       5.3      5.0     5.0
Texas.....               6.0     6.1      5.9      6.0     6.0         5.2      5.3       5.1      4.9     5.1
Utah.....                6.9     7.4      6.5      7.0     7.1         6.4      6.1       6.0      6.6     6.0
Vermont.....             7.1     7.6      6.7      7.4     6.8         7.4      6.6       6.8      6.9     7.2
Virginia.....            5.9     5.7      5.3      6.2     5.6         5.9      5.6       5.5      5.5     5.8
Washington.....          7.0     6.9      6.6      7.3     7.0         6.6      6.3       5.9      5.5     6.0
West Virginia.....       6.0     6.5      6.3      6.6     6.1         6.4      6.4       6.7      6.4     6.6
Wisconsin.....           5.5     5.7      5.3      5.9     5.3         5.4      5.2       5.1      5.0     5.6

Wyoming.....             8.4     9.4      8.4      8.7     8.3         8.2      8.1       8.0      8.2     8.4
Puerto Rico.....         6.1     6.6      5.1      5.6     5.6         6.6      5.2       6.4      6.3     5.9
Virgin Islands.....      5.7     5.5      4.9      6.1     6.3         6.5      6.0       6.1      6.4     5.5

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          900        .8      817        .7
      June                202      2.9       228     3.3          873        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          826        .7      877        .8
      December            187      2.7       238     3.4          798        .7      941        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          707        .6      853        .8
      June                177      2.6       225     3.3          742        .7      830        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          691        .7      783        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          711        .7      731        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       195     2.9          687        .7      671        .6
      June                180      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      649        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          738        .7      693        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          788        .7      685        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          697        .7      615        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          747        .7      678        .6
      September           199      2.9       187     2.7          786        .7      672        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          801        .7      750        .7
  
2012  March               201      2.9       181     2.6          750        .7      607        .6
      June                197      2.9       185     2.7          777        .7      664        .6
      September           201      2.9       185     2.7          794        .7      684        .6
      December            201      2.9       182     2.6          793        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               584      8.1       185     2.6        1,092       1.0      633        .6
      June                229      3.1       219     3.0          796        .7      706        .6
      September           224      3.0       195     2.6          831        .7      683        .6
      December            215      2.9       190     2.5          811        .7      677        .6
  
2014  March               213      2.8       N/A     N/A          763        .7      N/A       N/A
      June                220      2.9       N/A     N/A          803        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           224      3.0       N/A     N/A          825        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: April 29, 2015
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