Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) 				USDL-14-0698
Tuesday, April 29, 2014	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2013
	
From June 2013 to September 2013 gross job gains from opening and 
expanding private sector establishments were 7.0 million, a decrease of
168,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.6 million,
an increase of 77,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 421,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the third quarter of 2013. (See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the 
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.7 million in 
third quarter 2013, a decrease of 153,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in third 
quarter 2013, a decrease of 15,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.4 million jobs in third quarter 
2013. This is an increase of 136,000 jobs from the prior quarter.

In the third quarter of 2013, closing establishments lost 1.2 million
jobs, a decrease of 59,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See 
tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private sector employment
in third quarter 2013, while gross job losses represented 5.8 percent 
of private sector employment. (See table 2.)

In third quarter 2013, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) 
decreased by 11,000 to 215,000. These new establishments accounted for 
792,000 jobs, an increase of 15,000 from the previous quarter. 
(See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through fourth quarter 2012, when 675,000 jobs were lost at 
182,000 establishments. These figures represent a decrease from the 
prior quarter when 684,000 jobs were lost at 185,000 establishments.

During the third quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in all industry sectors except: natural resources and mining, 
manufacturing, utilities, information, and leisure and hospitality. 
The professional and business services sector, which includes temporary 
help services, experienced a net increase of 123,000 jobs as a result 
of higher gross job gains (1,360,000) and fewer gross job losses 
(1,237,000) this quarter. This represents the largest over the quarter 
net employment change of all industry sectors, and it is the sixteenth 
consecutive quarter of net job growth for this sector. (See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.
                                2012    2012    2013    2013    2013

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,847   7,110   7,200   7,143  6,975
 At expanding establishments... 5,552   5,769   5,623   5,839  5,686
 At opening establishments..... 1,295   1,341   1,577   1,304  1,289

Gross job losses............... 6,614   6,401   6,286   6,477  6,554
 At contracting establishments. 5,436   5,199   5,136   5,267  5,403
 At closing establishments..... 1,178   1,202   1,150   1,210  1,151

Net employment change(1).......   233     709     914     666    421
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.2     6.4     6.4     6.4    6.1
 At expanding establishments...   5.0     5.2     5.0     5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.4     1.2    1.1

Gross job losses...............   6.0     5.8     5.6     5.8    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.9     4.7     4.6     4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.1     1.0     1.1    1.0

Net employment change(1).......    .2      .6      .8      .6     .3

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

Firms with 1-49 employees accounted for 40 percent of total net job 
growth in the third quarter of 2013. Firms with 50-249 employees and 
firms with 250 or more employees accounted for 14 percent and 46 
percent of net job growth, respectively. This quarter is the fourteenth
consecutive quarter of positive net employment change for all three 
major firm size categories. Of the 7.9 million net new jobs created 
between the second quarter of 2010 and the third quarter of 2013, firms
with 1-49 employees contributed 30 percent of net job growth, while 
firms with 50-249 employees contributed 22 percent, and firms with 250
or more employees contributed 48 percent. (See Tables 4 and 5.)

In the third quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in 38 states and the District of Columbia. California had the largest 
net employment gain of 77,594 jobs, followed by Texas with 64,642 jobs. 
(See table 6.) Alaska had the largest rate of gross job gains as a 
percent of employment at 9.7 percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.1 
percent. Hawaii had the lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent 
of employment at 4.9 percent, below the U.S. rate of 5.8 percent. 
(See table 7.)


More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2013 are scheduled |
| to be released on Wednesday, July 30, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).        |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 






                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  557,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.3    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.3 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2013.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data. As an illustration, the table below shows, in millions of
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the national gross
job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2013:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.3

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firms’ sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,710      5,844       4,655         1,189       8,554       7,132           1,422
      June              -1,659      6,391       5,088         1,303       8,050       6,667           1,383
      September           -880      6,340       5,125         1,215       7,220       5,863           1,357
      December            -229      6,640       5,316         1,324       6,869       5,589           1,280

2010  March               -262      6,256       5,086         1,170       6,518       5,313           1,205
      June                 715      6,966       5,684         1,282       6,251       5,086           1,165
      September            210      6,675       5,423         1,252       6,465       5,240           1,225
      December             591      7,015       5,642         1,373       6,424       5,202           1,222

2011  March                296      6,448       5,278         1,170       6,152       5,015           1,137
      June                 602      6,940       5,642         1,298       6,338       5,108           1,230
      September            819      7,144       5,785         1,359       6,325       5,181           1,144
      December             368      6,896       5,549         1,347       6,528       5,250           1,278

2012  March                847      6,946       5,702         1,244       6,099       4,995           1,104
      June                 613      7,027       5,738         1,289       6,414       5,259           1,155
      September            233      6,847       5,552         1,295       6,614       5,436           1,178
      December             709      7,110       5,769         1,341       6,401       5,199           1,202

2013  March                914      7,200       5,623         1,577       6,286       5,136           1,150
      June                 666      7,143       5,839         1,304       6,477       5,267           1,210
      September            421      6,975       5,686         1,289       6,554       5,403           1,151

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .8       6.4         5.0           1.4         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .3       6.1         5.0           1.1         5.8          4.8            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2012    2012    2013    2013    2013   2012   2012   2013   2013   2013
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,847   7,110   7,200   7,143   6,975    6.2    6.4    6.4    6.4    6.1
 At expanding establishments      5,552   5,769   5,623   5,839   5,686    5.0    5.2    5.0    5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,295   1,341   1,577   1,304   1,289    1.2    1.2    1.4    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,614   6,401   6,286   6,477   6,554    6.0    5.8    5.6    5.8    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,436   5,199   5,136   5,267   5,403    4.9    4.7    4.6    4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,178   1,202   1,150   1,210   1,151    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               233     709     914     666     421     .2     .6     .8     .6     .3

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,338   1,359   1,345   1,370   1,309    6.9    7.0    6.8    6.9    6.6
 At expanding establishments      1,129   1,147   1,151   1,165   1,109    5.8    5.9    5.8    5.9    5.6
 At opening establishments          209     212     194     205     200    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,301   1,315   1,224   1,273   1,248    6.7    6.7    6.2    6.4    6.3
 At contracting establishments    1,090   1,097   1,020   1,067   1,053    5.6    5.6    5.2    5.4    5.3
 At closing establishments          211     218     204     206     195    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                37      44     121      97      61     .2     .3     .6     .5     .3

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     277     279     277     287     257   14.0   14.0   13.7   14.2   12.7
 At expanding establishments        236     238     238     249     220   11.9   11.9   11.8   12.3   10.9
 At opening establishments           41      41      39      38      37    2.1    2.1    1.9    1.9    1.8
Gross job losses                    276     288     250     272     262   13.9   14.4   12.4   13.4   13.0
 At contracting establishments      240     250     214     235     228   12.1   12.5   10.6   11.6   11.3
 At closing establishments           36      38      36      37      34    1.8    1.9    1.8    1.8    1.7
Net employment change                 1      -9      27      15      -5     .1    -.4    1.3     .8    -.3

Construction

Gross job gains                     648     667     674     661     655   11.6   11.9   11.7   11.4   11.3
 At expanding establishments        516     534     553     534     529    9.2    9.5    9.6    9.2    9.1
 At opening establishments          132     133     121     127     126    2.4    2.4    2.1    2.2    2.2
Gross job losses                    614     604     600     616     588   11.0   10.7   10.5   10.6   10.1
 At contracting establishments      484     474     476     494     473    8.7    8.4    8.3    8.5    8.1
 At closing establishments          130     130     124     122     115    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.1    2.0
Net employment change                34      63      74      45      67     .6    1.2    1.2     .8    1.2

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     413     413     394     422     397    3.5    3.4    3.3    3.5    3.3
 At expanding establishments        377     375     360     382     360    3.2    3.1    3.0    3.2    3.0
 At opening establishments           36      38      34      40      37     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    411     423     374     385     398    3.5    3.5    3.2    3.2    3.3
 At contracting establishments      366     373     330     338     352    3.1    3.1    2.8    2.8    2.9
 At closing establishments           45      50      44      47      46     .4     .4     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                 2     -10      20      37      -1     .0    -.1     .1     .3     .0

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,509   5,751   5,855   5,773   5,666    6.1    6.3    6.4    6.2    6.1
 At expanding establishments      4,423   4,622   4,472   4,674   4,577    4.9    5.1    4.9    5.0    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,086   1,129   1,383   1,099   1,089    1.2    1.2    1.5    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,313   5,086   5,062   5,204   5,306    5.9    5.6    5.5    5.6    5.7
 At contracting establishments    4,346   4,102   4,116   4,200   4,350    4.8    4.5    4.5    4.5    4.7
 At closing establishments          967     984     946   1,004     956    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               196     665     793     569     360     .2     .7     .9     .6     .4

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     267     280     273     288     274    4.7    4.9    4.8    5.0    4.7
 At expanding establishments        217     227     227     237     227    3.8    4.0    4.0    4.1    3.9
 At opening establishments           50      53      46      51      47     .9     .9     .8     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    262     257     251     253     258    4.7    4.5    4.4    4.4    4.5
 At contracting establishments      208     200     194     199     205    3.7    3.5    3.4    3.5    3.6
 At closing establishments           54      57      57      54      53    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9     .9
Net employment change                 5      23      22      35      16     .0     .4     .4     .6     .2

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     848     921     895     946     888    5.6    6.2    6.0    6.3    5.8
 At expanding establishments        708     788     777     816     760    4.7    5.3    5.2    5.4    5.0
 At opening establishments          140     133     118     130     128     .9     .9     .8     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    875     829     874     768     851    5.8    5.6    5.8    5.1    5.6
 At contracting establishments      764     710     768     664     750    5.1    4.8    5.1    4.4    4.9
 At closing establishments          111     119     106     104     101     .7     .8     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change               -27      92      21     178      37    -.2     .6     .2    1.2     .2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     221     263     207     219     226    5.3    6.3    4.9    5.2    5.3
 At expanding establishments        189     231     177     185     195    4.5    5.5    4.2    4.4    4.6
 At opening establishments           32      32      30      34      31     .8     .8     .7     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    208     211     236     210     209    5.0    5.0    5.5    5.0    4.9
 At contracting establishments      174     173     205     177     173    4.2    4.1    4.8    4.2    4.1
 At closing establishments           34      38      31      33      36     .8     .9     .7     .8     .8
Net employment change                13      52     -29       9      17     .3    1.3    -.6     .2     .4

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      14      10      14      11    2.2    2.6    1.8    2.6    2.0
 At expanding establishments         10      12       9      12      10    1.8    2.2    1.6    2.2    1.8
 At opening establishments            2       2       1       2       1     .4     .4     .2     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     13      12      11      14      13    2.4    2.2    2.0    2.6    2.4
 At contracting establishments       12      11      10      13      12    2.2    2.0    1.8    2.4    2.2
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -1       2      -1       0      -2    -.2     .4    -.2     .0    -.4

Information

Gross job gains                     129     141     114     134     129    4.8    5.2    4.2    4.9    4.8
 At expanding establishments        108     116      97     114     108    4.0    4.3    3.6    4.2    4.0
 At opening establishments           21      25      17      20      21     .8     .9     .6     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    140     121     119     125     135    5.2    4.5    4.4    4.6    5.0
 At contracting establishments      118      96      99     101     113    4.4    3.6    3.7    3.7    4.2
 At closing establishments           22      25      20      24      22     .8     .9     .7     .9     .8
Net employment change               -11      20      -5       9      -6    -.4     .7    -.2     .3    -.2

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     354     376     346     365     350    4.7    5.0    4.5    4.8    4.6
 At expanding establishments        285     293     282     296     282    3.8    3.9    3.7    3.9    3.7
 At opening establishments           69      83      64      69      68     .9    1.1     .8     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    333     326     325     328     346    4.4    4.3    4.3    4.4    4.5
 At contracting establishments      262     251     250     255     275    3.5    3.3    3.3    3.4    3.6
 At closing establishments           71      75      75      73      71     .9    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9
Net employment change                21      50      21      37       4     .3     .7     .2     .4     .1

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,325   1,403   1,255   1,358   1,360    7.4    7.8    6.9    7.3    7.3
 At expanding establishments      1,080   1,132   1,035   1,112   1,116    6.0    6.3    5.7    6.0    6.0
 At opening establishments          245     271     220     246     244    1.4    1.5    1.2    1.3    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,256   1,229   1,179   1,261   1,237    7.0    6.8    6.4    6.8    6.7
 At contracting establishments    1,003     977     940     995     994    5.6    5.4    5.1    5.4    5.4
 At closing establishments          253     252     239     266     243    1.4    1.4    1.3    1.4    1.3
Net employment change                69     174      76      97     123     .4    1.0     .5     .5     .6

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     840     836   1,200     838     886    4.3    4.3    6.0    4.1    4.3
 At expanding establishments        708     701     681     689     737    3.6    3.6    3.4    3.4    3.6
 At opening establishments          132     135     519     149     149     .7     .7    2.6     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    746     717     743     848     778    3.9    3.6    3.7    4.2    3.8
 At contracting establishments      618     590     600     673     630    3.2    3.0    3.0    3.3    3.1
 At closing establishments          128     127     143     175     148     .7     .6     .7     .9     .7
Net employment change                94     119     457     -10     108     .4     .7    2.3    -.1     .5

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,162   1,176   1,202   1,245   1,177    8.5    8.5    8.5    8.8    8.2
 At expanding establishments        891     904     958     978     914    6.5    6.5    6.8    6.9    6.4
 At opening establishments          271     272     244     267     263    2.0    2.0    1.7    1.9    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,169   1,091   1,038   1,107   1,183    8.5    7.8    7.4    7.8    8.3
 At contracting establishments      960     881     844     909     980    7.0    6.3    6.0    6.4    6.9
 At closing establishments          209     210     194     198     203    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.4
Net employment change                -7      85     164     138      -6     .0     .7    1.1    1.0    -.1

Other services

Gross job gains                     275     269     272     285     274    7.2    7.0    7.1    7.4    7.0
 At expanding establishments        218     209     218     227     218    5.7    5.4    5.7    5.9    5.6
 At opening establishments           57      60      54      58      56    1.5    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.4
Gross job losses                    281     266     256     265     271    7.3    6.9    6.7    6.9    6.9
 At contracting establishments      219     207     199     208     212    5.7    5.4    5.2    5.4    5.4
 At closing establishments           62      59      57      57      59    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                -6       3      16      20       3    -.1     .1     .4     .5     .1

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,664      4,578    7,242        -983       2,715    3,698       -615          806    1,421      -1,066        1,057    2,123
      June          -1,764      5,170    6,934        -472       2,951    3,423       -277          954    1,231      -1,015        1,265    2,280
      September       -940      5,134    6,074        -374       2,821    3,195       -118          928    1,046        -448        1,385    1,833
      December        -289      5,405    5,694        -162       2,938    3,100        -43          964    1,007         -84        1,503    1,587

2010  March           -240      5,093    5,333        -198       2,855    3,053         -3          909      912         -39        1,329    1,368
      June             692      5,815    5,123         238       3,097    2,859        209        1,076      867         245        1,642    1,397
      September        188      5,490    5,302          23       2,939    2,916         79          994      915          86        1,557    1,471
      December         519      5,786    5,267          85       3,047    2,962         95        1,035      940         339        1,704    1,365

2011  March            313      5,334    5,021          93       2,968    2,875        118          963      845         102        1,403    1,301
      June             548      5,758    5,210         196       3,078    2,882        176        1,069      893         176        1,611    1,435
      September        823      5,943    5,120         259       3,123    2,864        161        1,061      900         403        1,759    1,356
      December         321      5,612    5,291          39       2,967    2,928         45          987      942         237        1,658    1,421

2012  March            846      5,761    4,915         385       3,157    2,772        217        1,047      830         244        1,557    1,313
      June             604      5,825    5,221         178       3,042    2,864        167        1,082      915         259        1,701    1,442
      September        213      5,565    5,352          49       2,950    2,901         44        1,002      958         120        1,613    1,493
      December         637      5,766    5,129         169       3,014    2,845         90        1,012      922         378        1,740    1,362

2013  March          1,198      6,302    5,104         281       3,098    2,817        156        1,021      865         761        2,183    1,422
      June             643      5,911    5,268         217       3,064    2,847        143        1,079      936         283        1,768    1,485
      September        386      5,692    5,306         154       2,987    2,833         54        1,014      960         178        1,691    1,513


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2012    2012    2013    2013    2013   2012   2012   2013   2013   2013
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,565   5,766   6,302   5,911   5,692    5.0    5.2    5.6    5.3    5.1
 At expanding firms               4,670   4,840   5,365   5,039   4,821    4.2    4.4    4.8    4.5    4.3
 At opening firms                   895     926     937     872     871     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,352   5,129   5,104   5,268   5,306    4.9    4.7    4.6    4.6    4.7
 At contracting firms             4,515   4,282   4,251   4,444   4,496    4.1    3.9    3.8    3.9    4.0
 At closing firms                   837     847     853     824     810     .8     .8     .8     .7     .7

Net employment change               213     637   1,198     643     386     .1     .5    1.0     .7     .4


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,950   3,014   3,098   3,064   2,987    9.3    9.5    9.7    9.6    9.3
 At expanding firms               2,099   2,124   2,194   2,232   2,155    6.6    6.7    6.9    7.0    6.7
 At opening firms                   851     890     904     832     832    2.7    2.8    2.8    2.6    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,901   2,845   2,817   2,847   2,833    9.1    8.9    8.8    8.8    8.8
 At contracting firms             2,100   2,040   2,002   2,064   2,058    6.6    6.4    6.3    6.4    6.4
 At closing firms                   801     805     815     783     775    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.4    2.4

Net employment change                49     169     281     217     154     .2     .6     .9     .8     .5


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,002   1,012   1,021   1,079   1,014    5.0    5.0    4.9    5.3    4.9
 At expanding firms                 966     979     991   1,044     979    4.8    4.8    4.8    5.1    4.7
 At opening firms                    36      33      30      35      35     .2     .2     .1     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    958     922     865     936     960    4.7    4.6    4.3    4.6    4.6
 At contracting firms               929     888     833     905     929    4.6    4.4    4.1    4.4    4.5
 At closing firms                    29      34      32      31      31     .1     .2     .2     .2     .1

Net employment change                44      90     156     143      54     .3     .4     .6     .7     .3


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,613   1,740   2,183   1,768   1,691    2.8    3.0    3.7    2.9    2.8
 At expanding firms               1,605   1,737   2,180   1,763   1,687    2.8    3.0    3.7    2.9    2.8
 At opening firms                     8       3       3       5       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,493   1,362   1,422   1,485   1,513    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.5    2.5
 At contracting firms             1,486   1,354   1,416   1,475   1,509    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.5    2.5
 At closing firms                     7       8       6      10       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               120     378     761     283     178     .3     .7    1.3     .4     .3


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.
                        2012       2012       2013        2013      2013       2012         2012       2013        2013      2013

United States(1)...  6,847,000  7,110,000  7,200,000   7,143,000  6,975,000  6,614,000   6,401,000   6,286,000  6,477,000  6,554,000

Alabama.....            83,851     85,704     89,056      87,744     81,342     83,306      80,669      80,275     82,081     83,875
Alaska.....             22,445     24,240     26,662      26,706     24,229     25,672      25,260      23,917     25,115     24,892
Arizona.....           135,745    142,500    128,935     129,196    134,517    117,227     119,631     121,218    126,066    116,992
Arkansas.....           51,668     56,703     54,198      48,982     54,326     57,464      50,392      52,714     55,245     51,476
California.....        844,915    919,234  1,149,953     913,484    879,014    795,400     774,546     756,150    834,318    801,420
Colorado.....          131,864    134,421    135,946     137,839    135,926    123,134     117,054     120,012    120,105    122,797
Connecticut.....        72,837     75,395     70,949      78,215     73,457     75,227      71,198      72,020     67,043     75,657
Delaware.....           21,192     23,491     22,621      22,484     22,844     21,369      19,541      20,532     20,386     21,220
District of Columbia    27,410     31,906     27,106      29,043     28,154     28,636      25,818      25,558     26,928     25,021
Florida.....           457,853    455,616    425,622     461,241    458,172    423,743     399,755     383,394    409,372    398,680

Georgia.....           201,628    217,427    212,850     216,172    217,516    198,881     188,763     186,171    200,027    193,856
Hawaii.....             27,160     26,609     25,203      25,642     26,481     22,743      20,912      23,670     25,689     24,498
Idaho.....              41,233     40,125     41,579      41,461     40,067     35,434      36,684      36,854     38,558     37,495
Illinois.....          271,148    258,830    268,730     283,705    279,866    263,946     251,875     265,334    261,498    280,153
Indiana.....           138,626    143,227    136,368     139,661    135,733    133,678     130,952     130,034    129,407    131,184
Iowa.....               70,809     71,392     72,607      75,237     73,752     68,605      68,038      66,921     67,017     68,186
Kansas.....             60,448     67,871     61,140      67,481     67,108     64,860      58,658      59,438     60,483     62,717
Kentucky.....           83,055     93,554     84,328      85,477     85,803     85,735      80,606      84,243     81,754     78,578
Louisiana.....         101,975    107,395    104,541      98,313    104,587    102,711      91,414      94,234     99,533     94,339
Maine.....              32,673     34,238     32,143      39,249     35,517     35,673      36,486      34,202     31,139     36,066

Maryland.....          128,971    129,764    126,945     126,893    125,703    128,148     127,138     118,295    125,056    123,937
Massachusetts.....     149,438    151,216    175,505     173,757    155,978    155,111     148,085     138,023    142,775    158,373
Michigan.....          207,299    205,504    207,947     217,038    203,757    197,226     183,401     171,542    200,728    200,275
Minnesota.....         136,191    134,577    137,595     141,183    129,214    128,083     130,799     120,381    122,226    127,789
Mississippi.....        53,633     57,216     49,609      49,612     52,352     52,107      51,673      47,175     51,657     49,553
Missouri.....          127,233    138,250    142,864     131,513    128,924    128,691     122,509     122,171    119,004    125,534
Montana.....            27,400     29,068     28,651      28,546     27,381     25,705      27,260      26,427     27,473     26,596
Nebraska.....           42,551     44,816     45,864      45,752     47,699     41,491      39,881      40,939     43,811     43,810
Nevada.....             58,249     60,294     62,843      66,018     61,324     57,228      56,082      53,767     55,959     57,965
New Hampshire.....      34,114     34,580     33,735      36,200     31,531     36,227      34,128      32,155     31,552     34,347

New Jersey.....        197,518    203,835    202,206     213,505    201,174    202,355     198,718     187,276    181,131    197,415
New Mexico.....         38,580     44,250     37,762      40,791     39,367     39,230      37,406      39,187     40,789     40,761
New York.....          454,607    466,748    456,587     472,820    466,932    443,564     440,756     429,494    426,420    446,778
North Carolina.....    202,081    211,726    196,443     207,942    206,049    193,077     190,051     184,492    189,804    191,366
North Dakota.....       28,903     29,218     29,398      25,853     29,744     25,009      23,917      23,359     28,021     24,846
Ohio.....              241,581    263,759    256,737     274,779    244,965    250,160     238,558     244,972    234,133    244,391
Oklahoma.....           73,753     82,091     72,957      75,621     76,396     73,607      68,685      74,768     70,293     70,196
Oregon.....             97,220     95,654     99,441      99,417     99,194     86,297      91,054      84,487     85,962     87,165
Pennsylvania.....      264,397    265,032    268,272     262,901    254,554    266,195     252,649     262,407    252,075    255,635
Rhode Island.....       23,706     24,574     24,360      25,911     24,731     24,729      23,675      23,094     22,672     24,044

South Carolina.....     85,519     97,458     87,131      95,628     92,756     87,308      79,795      83,845     82,252     84,223
South Dakota.....       21,046     20,959     20,848      21,611     20,456     20,682      20,519      20,553     19,329     20,886
Tennessee.....         124,873    138,078    123,145     127,303    124,360    124,155     114,673     116,749    121,662    118,445
Texas.....             532,447    553,932    537,115     530,372    547,426    473,461     450,359     465,576    464,465    482,784
Utah.....               68,688     74,490     75,396      72,630     71,225     61,913      61,715      64,502     67,465     65,096
Vermont.....            17,200     18,800     17,248      18,264     17,553     17,307      17,530      16,860     19,400     18,316
Virginia.....          186,995    177,043    165,555     165,372    172,770    179,241     165,510     159,740    164,084    172,320
Washington.....        163,111    166,655    204,649     177,515    171,550    153,439     153,804     148,789    148,500    157,575
West Virginia.....      36,427     36,002     35,950      34,375     33,177     38,609      36,604      34,714     37,260     35,830
Wisconsin.....         125,268    131,552    125,586     134,838    127,659    127,601     122,830     120,242    124,587    126,994

Wyoming.....            18,081     20,277     18,617      18,151     17,341     18,364      17,704      18,333     19,316     17,255
Puerto Rico.....        42,434     46,915     38,510      40,549     41,766     43,922      40,722      43,762     42,254     45,569
Virgin Islands.....      1,512      1,981      1,570       1,419      1,519      2,173       1,599       1,819      1,819      1,891

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     Mar.     June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      Mar.    June     Sept.
                        2012    2012     2013     2013    2013        2012     2012      2013    2013     2013

United States(1)...      6.2     6.4      6.4      6.4     6.1         6.0      5.8       5.6      5.8     5.8

Alabama.....             5.7     5.8      6.0      5.9     5.5         5.7      5.5       5.4      5.5     5.6
Alaska.....              9.0     9.8     10.7     10.6     9.7        10.3     10.1       9.6     10.0     9.8
Arizona.....             6.7     6.9      6.2      6.2     6.4         5.7      5.8       5.9      6.1     5.5
Arkansas.....            5.5     6.0      5.7      5.2     5.8         6.1      5.3       5.5      5.8     5.4
California.....          6.8     7.4      9.0      7.0     6.7         6.4      6.2       5.9      6.4     6.1
Colorado.....            6.9     7.1      7.1      7.1     7.0         6.5      6.2       6.2      6.1     6.3
Connecticut.....         5.2     5.4      5.1      5.6     5.3         5.4      5.1       5.2      4.8     5.4
Delaware.....            6.2     6.8      6.5      6.5     6.5         6.2      5.7       5.9      5.8     6.0
District of Columbia..   5.8     6.8      5.7      6.1     5.8         6.1      5.5       5.4      5.6     5.3
Florida.....             7.3     7.1      6.7      7.1     7.0         6.7      6.3       6.0      6.3     6.2

Georgia.....             6.4     6.8      6.6      6.6     6.6         6.2      5.9       5.7      6.2     6.0
Hawaii.....              5.6     5.4      5.1      5.2     5.3         4.7      4.3       4.8      5.2     4.9
Idaho.....               8.2     7.9      8.1      8.0     7.7         7.0      7.2       7.2      7.5     7.2
Illinois.....            5.5     5.3      5.5      5.8     5.7         5.4      5.2       5.5      5.3     5.8
Indiana.....             5.7     5.9      5.6      5.7     5.5         5.5      5.4       5.3      5.3     5.3
Iowa.....                5.7     5.7      5.8      6.0     5.8         5.6      5.5       5.4      5.4     5.5
Kansas.....              5.6     6.3      5.6      6.2     6.1         6.1      5.4       5.5      5.5     5.7
Kentucky.....            5.7     6.5      5.8      5.8     5.8         5.9      5.5       5.8      5.6     5.4
Louisiana.....           6.6     7.0      6.7      6.2     6.6         6.7      5.9       6.1      6.3     6.0
Maine.....               6.7     7.0      6.7      8.1     7.3         7.3      7.5       7.0      6.4     7.4

Maryland.....            6.3     6.4      6.3      6.2     6.2         6.3      6.3       5.8      6.1     6.1
Massachusetts.....       5.3     5.4      6.2      6.1     5.4         5.6      5.3       4.9      5.0     5.5
Michigan.....            6.2     6.0      6.0      6.3     5.9         5.9      5.4       5.0      5.8     5.8
Minnesota.....           6.0     5.9      6.0      6.1     5.5         5.6      5.7       5.2      5.2     5.5
Mississippi.....         6.4     6.8      5.9      5.8     6.1         6.2      6.1       5.5      6.0     5.8
Missouri.....            5.9     6.4      6.5      5.9     5.8         5.9      5.6       5.5      5.4     5.7
Montana.....             7.9     8.3      8.1      8.0     7.7         7.3      7.8       7.4      7.7     7.5
Nebraska.....            5.6     5.9      6.0      6.0     6.1         5.5      5.2       5.4      5.7     5.6
Nevada.....              5.9     6.0      6.3      6.6     6.0         5.7      5.7       5.4      5.5     5.7
New Hampshire.....       6.4     6.5      6.3      6.8     6.0         6.9      6.4       6.1      5.9     6.5

New Jersey.....          6.2     6.4      6.3      6.6     6.2         6.3      6.2       5.8      5.6     6.0
New Mexico.....          6.4     7.4      6.2      6.7     6.5         6.6      6.2       6.5      6.8     6.7
New York.....            6.3     6.4      6.3      6.4     6.4         6.2      6.1       5.9      5.8     6.1
North Carolina.....      6.3     6.5      6.0      6.3     6.2         6.0      5.9       5.7      5.8     5.8
North Dakota.....        8.3     8.3      8.3      7.2     8.3         7.2      6.8       6.6      7.9     6.9
Ohio.....                5.6     6.1      5.9      6.2     5.5         5.7      5.5       5.6      5.3     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.1     6.7      6.0      6.1     6.1         6.0      5.6       6.0      5.7     5.6
Oregon.....              7.1     7.0      7.2      7.1     7.0         6.4      6.6       6.1      6.2     6.2
Pennsylvania.....        5.4     5.5      5.5      5.3     5.2         5.4      5.1       5.3      5.2     5.2
Rhode Island.....        6.0     6.3      6.1      6.5     6.2         6.3      6.0       5.8      5.7     6.1

South Carolina.....      5.8     6.6      5.8      6.3     6.2         5.9      5.4       5.6      5.5     5.6
South Dakota.....        6.4     6.3      6.3      6.5     6.2         6.2      6.2       6.2      5.8     6.3
Tennessee.....           5.6     6.1      5.4      5.5     5.4         5.5      5.1       5.1      5.4     5.2
Texas.....               5.9     6.1      5.9      5.8     5.9         5.2      5.0       5.1      5.0     5.2
Utah.....                6.9     7.3      7.3      7.0     6.8         6.1      6.1       6.3      6.5     6.2
Vermont.....             7.0     7.6      7.0      7.3     7.1         7.0      7.1       6.7      7.8     7.4
Virginia.....            6.4     6.0      5.7      5.6     5.9         6.1      5.6       5.5      5.6     5.9
Washington.....          7.0     7.1      8.6      7.3     7.0         6.6      6.5       6.2      6.1     6.4
West Virginia.....       6.4     6.4      6.3      6.1     5.9         6.8      6.5       6.1      6.6     6.4
Wisconsin.....           5.4     5.7      5.4      5.8     5.5         5.5      5.3       5.2      5.4     5.4

Wyoming.....             8.6     9.5      8.7      8.5     8.2         8.7      8.4       8.5      9.0     8.1
Puerto Rico.....         6.2     6.8      5.6      5.9     6.1         6.3      5.9       6.4      6.2     6.6
Virgin Islands.....      5.3     7.0      5.6      5.0     5.5         7.7      5.6       6.5      6.5     6.8

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          900        .8      817        .7
      June                202      2.9       228     3.3          873        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          826        .7      877        .8
      December            187      2.7       238     3.4          798        .7      941        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          705        .6      851        .8
      June                178      2.6       226     3.3          743        .7      830        .8
      September           169      2.5       216     3.2          692        .7      785        .7
      December            183      2.7       199     2.9          712        .7      730        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       195     2.9          688        .7      671        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      650        .6
      September           187      2.8       189     2.8          741        .7      694        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          787        .7      688        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          698        .7      615        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          749        .7      677        .6
      September           199      2.9       187     2.7          788        .7      673        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          801        .7      749        .7
  
2012  March               201      2.9       181     2.6          748        .7      604        .6
      June                197      2.9       184     2.7          778        .7      666        .6
      September           201      2.9       185     2.7          796        .7      684        .6
      December            201      2.9       182     2.6          795        .7      675        .6
  
2013  March               578      8.0       N/A     N/A        1,067       1.0      N/A       N/A
      June                226      3.0       N/A     N/A          777        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           215      2.9       N/A     N/A          792        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: April 29, 2014
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