Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) 				USDL-14-0127
Wednesday, January 29, 2014	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  SECOND QUARTER 2013
	
From March 2013 to June 2013 gross job gains from opening and expanding
private sector establishments were 7.1 million, the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses 
from closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.5 
million, an increase of 191,000 from the previous quarter. (See box 
note on page 3.)

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of
gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 666,000 jobs in the 
private sector during the second quarter of 2013. (See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the 
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
|        Corrections to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data          |
|                                                                        |
|Following normal processing procedures, annual revisions were published |

|with the release of first quarter 2013 data. These annual revisions     |
|should have included updates to the BED establishment birth and death   |

|data series, but they were not updated due to a production error. For   |

|this reason, the BED birth and death data are revised with this release.|

|These revisions cover all four quarters of 2012 for not seasonally      |

|adjusted data and the previous five years of seasonally adjusted data.  |

|Table 8 is updated with this release along with the birth and death data|

|at the national industry level. These data are available at             |

|http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmind.htm and the state total private data are  |

|available at http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmstate.htm.                       |

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.8 million in 
second quarter 2013, an increase of 216,000 jobs from the previous
quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in second
quarter 2013. (See box note on page 3.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.3 million jobs in second quarter 
2013. This is an increase of 131,000 jobs from the prior quarter.

In the second quarter of 2013, closing establishments lost 1.2 million
jobs, an increase of 60,000 jobs from the previous quarter.  
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.4 percent of private sector employment 
in second quarter 2013, while gross job losses represented 5.8 percent
of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

In second quarter 2013, the number of establishment births (a subset of
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) was 
226,000. These new establishments accounted for 777,000 jobs. 
(See box note on page 3 and table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through third quarter 2012, when 684,000 jobs were lost at
185,000 establishments. These figures represent increases from the 
prior quarter when 666,000 jobs were lost at 184,000 establishments.

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all three major firm size 
classes during second quarter 2013.  Firms with less than 250 employees
accounted for 56 percent of the net job growth. (See tables 4 and 5.)

In the second quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 42 states and the District of Columbia. California had the
largest net employment gain of 79,166 jobs, followed by Texas with 
65,907 jobs. (See table 6.) Alaska had the largest rate of gross job 
gains as a percent of employment at 10.6 percent, above the U.S. rate
of 6.4 percent. Connecticut had the lowest rate of gross job losses as
a percent of employment at 4.8 percent, below the U.S. rate of 5.8 
percent. (See table 7.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                2012    2012    2012    2013    2013

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 7,027   6,847   7,110   7,200  7,143
 At expanding establishments... 5,738   5,552   5,769   5,623  5,839
 At opening establishments..... 1,289   1,295   1,341   1,577  1,304

Gross job losses............... 6,414   6,614   6,401   6,286  6,477
 At contracting establishments. 5,259   5,436   5,199   5,136  5,267
 At closing establishments..... 1,155   1,178   1,202   1,150  1,210

Net employment change(1).......   613     233     709     914    666
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.4     6.2     6.4     6.4    6.4
 At expanding establishments...   5.2     5.0     5.2     5.0    5.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.2     1.4    1.2

Gross job losses...............   5.9     6.0     5.8     5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.8     4.9     4.7     4.6    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.1     1.1     1.0    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .5      .2      .6      .8     .6

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.


More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.


The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2013 are scheduled 
to be released on Tuesday, April 29, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
|Administrative Change Affecting Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data |
|                                                                        |
|First quarter 2013 data were affected by an administrative change to the|
|count of establishments in the education and health services industry.  |
|A review of these data revealed that certain establishments that provide| 
|non-medical, home-based services for the elderly and persons with       |
|disabilities had been misclassified in the private households industry  |
|(NAICS 814110), which is out of scope for the BED. These establishments | 
|are now in scope and are classified in services for the elderly and     |
|persons with disabilities (NAICS 624120.) This non-economic industry    |
|code change artificially inflated the first quarter 2013 data for gross | 
|job gains, openings, births, and the net employment change for the      |
|following data series: national total private, state total private, the | 
|education and health services sector, firm size class, annual, and age  |
|and survival. As a result, data for first quarter 2013 are not          |
|comparable to data from other quarters.                                 |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  557,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.3    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.3 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2013.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data. As an illustration, the table below shows, in millions of
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the national gross
job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2013:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.3

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firms’ sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,710      5,844       4,655         1,189       8,554       7,132           1,422
      June              -1,659      6,391       5,088         1,303       8,050       6,667           1,383
      September           -880      6,340       5,125         1,215       7,220       5,863           1,357
      December            -229      6,640       5,316         1,324       6,869       5,589           1,280

2010  March               -262      6,256       5,086         1,170       6,518       5,313           1,205
      June                 715      6,966       5,684         1,282       6,251       5,086           1,165
      September            210      6,675       5,423         1,252       6,465       5,240           1,225
      December             591      7,015       5,642         1,373       6,424       5,202           1,222

2011  March                296      6,448       5,278         1,170       6,152       5,015           1,137
      June                 602      6,940       5,642         1,298       6,338       5,108           1,230
      September            819      7,144       5,785         1,359       6,325       5,181           1,144
      December             368      6,896       5,549         1,347       6,528       5,250           1,278

2012  March                847      6,946       5,702         1,244       6,099       4,995           1,104
      June                 613      7,027       5,738         1,289       6,414       5,259           1,155
      September            233      6,847       5,552         1,295       6,614       5,436           1,178
      December             709      7,110       5,769         1,341       6,401       5,199           1,202

2013  March                914      7,200       5,623         1,577       6,286       5,136           1,150
      June                 666      7,143       5,839         1,304       6,477       5,267           1,210

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .8       6.4         5.0           1.4         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2012    2012    2012    2013    2013   2012   2012   2012   2013   2013
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,027   6,847   7,110   7,200   7,143    6.4    6.2    6.4    6.4    6.4
 At expanding establishments      5,738   5,552   5,769   5,623   5,839    5.2    5.0    5.2    5.0    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,289   1,295   1,341   1,577   1,304    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.4    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,414   6,614   6,401   6,286   6,477    5.9    6.0    5.8    5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,259   5,436   5,199   5,136   5,267    4.8    4.9    4.7    4.6    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,155   1,178   1,202   1,150   1,210    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               613     233     709     914     666     .5     .2     .6     .8     .6

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,396   1,338   1,359   1,345   1,370    7.2    6.9    7.0    6.8    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,188   1,129   1,147   1,151   1,165    6.1    5.8    5.9    5.8    5.9
 At opening establishments          208     209     212     194     205    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,302   1,301   1,315   1,224   1,273    6.7    6.7    6.7    6.2    6.4
 At contracting establishments    1,087   1,090   1,097   1,020   1,067    5.6    5.6    5.6    5.2    5.4
 At closing establishments          215     211     218     204     206    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                94      37      44     121      97     .5     .2     .3     .6     .5

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     300     277     279     277     287   15.1   14.0   14.0   13.7   14.2
 At expanding establishments        259     236     238     238     249   13.0   11.9   11.9   11.8   12.3
 At opening establishments           41      41      41      39      38    2.1    2.1    2.1    1.9    1.9
Gross job losses                    293     276     288     250     272   14.8   13.9   14.4   12.4   13.4
 At contracting establishments      252     240     250     214     235   12.7   12.1   12.5   10.6   11.6
 At closing establishments           41      36      38      36      37    2.1    1.8    1.9    1.8    1.8
Net employment change                 7       1      -9      27      15     .3     .1    -.4    1.3     .8

Construction

Gross job gains                     641     648     667     674     661   11.5   11.6   11.9   11.7   11.4
 At expanding establishments        512     516     534     553     534    9.2    9.2    9.5    9.6    9.2
 At opening establishments          129     132     133     121     127    2.3    2.4    2.4    2.1    2.2
Gross job losses                    639     614     604     600     616   11.4   11.0   10.7   10.5   10.6
 At contracting establishments      510     484     474     476     494    9.1    8.7    8.4    8.3    8.5
 At closing establishments          129     130     130     124     122    2.3    2.3    2.3    2.2    2.1
Net employment change                 2      34      63      74      45     .1     .6    1.2    1.2     .8

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     455     413     413     394     422    3.8    3.5    3.4    3.3    3.5
 At expanding establishments        417     377     375     360     382    3.5    3.2    3.1    3.0    3.2
 At opening establishments           38      36      38      34      40     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    370     411     423     374     385    3.1    3.5    3.5    3.2    3.2
 At contracting establishments      325     366     373     330     338    2.7    3.1    3.1    2.8    2.8
 At closing establishments           45      45      50      44      47     .4     .4     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                85       2     -10      20      37     .7     .0    -.1     .1     .3

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,631   5,509   5,751   5,855   5,773    6.2    6.1    6.3    6.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,550   4,423   4,622   4,472   4,674    5.0    4.9    5.1    4.9    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,081   1,086   1,129   1,383   1,099    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.5    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,112   5,313   5,086   5,062   5,204    5.6    5.9    5.6    5.5    5.6
 At contracting establishments    4,172   4,346   4,102   4,116   4,200    4.6    4.8    4.5    4.5    4.5
 At closing establishments          940     967     984     946   1,004    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               519     196     665     793     569     .6     .2     .7     .9     .6

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     287     267     280     273     288    5.1    4.7    4.9    4.8    5.0
 At expanding establishments        236     217     227     227     237    4.2    3.8    4.0    4.0    4.1
 At opening establishments           51      50      53      46      51     .9     .9     .9     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    252     262     257     251     253    4.4    4.7    4.5    4.4    4.4
 At contracting establishments      195     208     200     194     199    3.4    3.7    3.5    3.4    3.5
 At closing establishments           57      54      57      57      54    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0     .9
Net employment change                35       5      23      22      35     .7     .0     .4     .4     .6

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     896     848     921     895     946    6.0    5.6    6.2    6.0    6.3
 At expanding establishments        760     708     788     777     816    5.1    4.7    5.3    5.2    5.4
 At opening establishments          136     140     133     118     130     .9     .9     .9     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    819     875     829     874     768    5.5    5.8    5.6    5.8    5.1
 At contracting establishments      716     764     710     768     664    4.8    5.1    4.8    5.1    4.4
 At closing establishments          103     111     119     106     104     .7     .7     .8     .7     .7
Net employment change                77     -27      92      21     178     .5    -.2     .6     .2    1.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     220     221     263     207     219    5.3    5.3    6.3    4.9    5.2
 At expanding establishments        187     189     231     177     185    4.5    4.5    5.5    4.2    4.4
 At opening establishments           33      32      32      30      34     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    201     208     211     236     210    4.8    5.0    5.0    5.5    5.0
 At contracting establishments      168     174     173     205     177    4.0    4.2    4.1    4.8    4.2
 At closing establishments           33      34      38      31      33     .8     .8     .9     .7     .8
Net employment change                19      13      52     -29       9     .5     .3    1.3    -.6     .2

Utilities

Gross job gains                      11      12      14      10      14    2.0    2.2    2.6    1.8    2.6
 At expanding establishments         10      10      12       9      12    1.8    1.8    2.2    1.6    2.2
 At opening establishments            1       2       2       1       2     .2     .4     .4     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     13      13      12      11      14    2.4    2.4    2.2    2.0    2.6
 At contracting establishments       12      12      11      10      13    2.2    2.2    2.0    1.8    2.4
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -2      -1       2      -1       0    -.4    -.2     .4    -.2     .0

Information

Gross job gains                     123     129     141     114     134    4.6    4.8    5.2    4.2    4.9
 At expanding establishments        105     108     116      97     114    3.9    4.0    4.3    3.6    4.2
 At opening establishments           18      21      25      17      20     .7     .8     .9     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    126     140     121     119     125    4.7    5.2    4.5    4.4    4.6
 At contracting establishments      104     118      96      99     101    3.9    4.4    3.6    3.7    3.7
 At closing establishments           22      22      25      20      24     .8     .8     .9     .7     .9
Net employment change                -3     -11      20      -5       9    -.1    -.4     .7    -.2     .3

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     360     354     376     346     365    4.8    4.7    5.0    4.5    4.8
 At expanding establishments        291     285     293     282     296    3.9    3.8    3.9    3.7    3.9
 At opening establishments           69      69      83      64      69     .9     .9    1.1     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    330     333     326     325     328    4.4    4.4    4.3    4.3    4.4
 At contracting establishments      255     262     251     250     255    3.4    3.5    3.3    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           75      71      75      75      73    1.0     .9    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                30      21      50      21      37     .4     .3     .7     .2     .4

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,362   1,325   1,403   1,255   1,358    7.6    7.4    7.8    6.9    7.3
 At expanding establishments      1,111   1,080   1,132   1,035   1,112    6.2    6.0    6.3    5.7    6.0
 At opening establishments          251     245     271     220     246    1.4    1.4    1.5    1.2    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,215   1,256   1,229   1,179   1,261    6.8    7.0    6.8    6.4    6.8
 At contracting establishments      959   1,003     977     940     995    5.4    5.6    5.4    5.1    5.4
 At closing establishments          256     253     252     239     266    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.3    1.4
Net employment change               147      69     174      76      97     .8     .4    1.0     .5     .5

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     799     840     836   1,200     838    4.1    4.3    4.3    6.0    4.1
 At expanding establishments        677     708     701     681     689    3.5    3.6    3.6    3.4    3.4
 At opening establishments          122     132     135     519     149     .6     .7     .7    2.6     .7
Gross job losses                    768     746     717     743     848    3.9    3.9    3.6    3.7    4.2
 At contracting establishments      644     618     590     600     673    3.3    3.2    3.0    3.0    3.3
 At closing establishments          124     128     127     143     175     .6     .7     .6     .7     .9
Net employment change                31      94     119     457     -10     .2     .4     .7    2.3    -.1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,212   1,162   1,176   1,202   1,245    8.8    8.5    8.5    8.5    8.8
 At expanding establishments        935     891     904     958     978    6.8    6.5    6.5    6.8    6.9
 At opening establishments          277     271     272     244     267    2.0    2.0    2.0    1.7    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,102   1,169   1,091   1,038   1,107    8.0    8.5    7.8    7.4    7.8
 At contracting establishments      908     960     881     844     909    6.6    7.0    6.3    6.0    6.4
 At closing establishments          194     209     210     194     198    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.4
Net employment change               110      -7      85     164     138     .8     .0     .7    1.1    1.0

Other services

Gross job gains                     290     275     269     272     285    7.6    7.2    7.0    7.1    7.4
 At expanding establishments        230     218     209     218     227    6.0    5.7    5.4    5.7    5.9
 At opening establishments           60      57      60      54      58    1.6    1.5    1.6    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    259     281     266     256     265    6.7    7.3    6.9    6.7    6.9
 At contracting establishments      204     219     207     199     208    5.3    5.7    5.4    5.2    5.4
 At closing establishments           55      62      59      57      57    1.4    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                31      -6       3      16      20     .9    -.1     .1     .4     .5

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,664      4,578    7,242        -983       2,715    3,698       -615          806    1,421      -1,066        1,057    2,123
      June          -1,764      5,170    6,934        -472       2,951    3,423       -277          954    1,231      -1,015        1,265    2,280
      September       -940      5,134    6,074        -374       2,821    3,195       -118          928    1,046        -448        1,385    1,833
      December        -289      5,405    5,694        -162       2,938    3,100        -43          964    1,007         -84        1,503    1,587

2010  March           -240      5,093    5,333        -198       2,855    3,053         -3          909      912         -39        1,329    1,368
      June             692      5,815    5,123         238       3,097    2,859        209        1,076      867         245        1,642    1,397
      September        188      5,490    5,302          23       2,939    2,916         79          994      915          86        1,557    1,471
      December         519      5,786    5,267          85       3,047    2,962         95        1,035      940         339        1,704    1,365

2011  March            313      5,334    5,021          93       2,968    2,875        118          963      845         102        1,403    1,301
      June             548      5,758    5,210         196       3,078    2,882        176        1,069      893         176        1,611    1,435
      September        823      5,943    5,120         259       3,123    2,864        161        1,061      900         403        1,759    1,356
      December         321      5,612    5,291          39       2,967    2,928         45          987      942         237        1,658    1,421

2012  March            846      5,761    4,915         385       3,157    2,772        217        1,047      830         244        1,557    1,313
      June             604      5,825    5,221         178       3,042    2,864        167        1,082      915         259        1,701    1,442
      September        213      5,565    5,352          49       2,950    2,901         44        1,002      958         120        1,613    1,493
      December         637      5,766    5,129         169       3,014    2,845         90        1,012      922         378        1,740    1,362

2013  March          1,198      6,302    5,104         281       3,098    2,817        156        1,021      865         761        2,183    1,422
      June             643      5,911    5,268         217       3,064    2,847        143        1,079      936         283        1,768    1,485


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2012    2012    2012    2013    2013   2012   2012   2012   2013   2013
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,825   5,565   5,766   6,302   5,911    5.3    5.0    5.2    5.6    5.3
 At expanding firms               4,925   4,670   4,840   5,365   5,039    4.5    4.2    4.4    4.8    4.5
 At opening firms                   900     895     926     937     872     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,221   5,352   5,129   5,104   5,268    4.8    4.9    4.7    4.6    4.6
 At contracting firms             4,393   4,515   4,282   4,251   4,444    4.0    4.1    3.9    3.8    3.9
 At closing firms                   828     837     847     853     824     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7

Net employment change               604     213     637   1,198     643     .5     .1     .5    1.0     .7


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,042   2,950   3,014   3,098   3,064    9.6    9.3    9.5    9.7    9.6
 At expanding firms               2,185   2,099   2,124   2,194   2,232    6.9    6.6    6.7    6.9    7.0
 At opening firms                   857     851     890     904     832    2.7    2.7    2.8    2.8    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,864   2,901   2,845   2,817   2,847    9.0    9.1    8.9    8.8    8.8
 At contracting firms             2,070   2,100   2,040   2,002   2,064    6.5    6.6    6.4    6.3    6.4
 At closing firms                   794     801     805     815     783    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.4

Net employment change               178      49     169     281     217     .6     .2     .6     .9     .8


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,082   1,002   1,012   1,021   1,079    5.3    5.0    5.0    4.9    5.3
 At expanding firms               1,046     966     979     991   1,044    5.1    4.8    4.8    4.8    5.1
 At opening firms                    36      36      33      30      35     .2     .2     .2     .1     .2

Gross job losses                    915     958     922     865     936    4.5    4.7    4.6    4.3    4.6
 At contracting firms               887     929     888     833     905    4.4    4.6    4.4    4.1    4.4
 At closing firms                    28      29      34      32      31     .1     .1     .2     .2     .2

Net employment change               167      44      90     156     143     .8     .3     .4     .6     .7


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,701   1,613   1,740   2,183   1,768    2.9    2.8    3.0    3.7    2.9
 At expanding firms               1,694   1,605   1,737   2,180   1,763    2.9    2.8    3.0    3.7    2.9
 At opening firms                     7       8       3       3       5     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,442   1,493   1,362   1,422   1,485    2.5    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.5
 At contracting firms             1,436   1,486   1,354   1,416   1,475    2.5    2.5    2.3    2.4    2.5
 At closing firms                     6       7       8       6      10     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               259     120     378     761     283     .4     .3     .7    1.3     .4


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June       June         Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June 
                        2012       2012       2012        2013      2013       2012         2012       2012        2013      2013

United States(1)...  7,027,000  6,847,000  7,110,000   7,200,000  7,143,000  6,414,000   6,614,000   6,401,000  6,286,000  6,477,000

Alabama.....            86,636     83,851     85,704      89,056     87,744     82,955      83,306      80,669     80,275     82,081
Alaska.....             27,530     22,445     24,240      26,662     26,706     23,495      25,672      25,260     23,917     25,115
Arizona.....           128,793    135,745    142,500     128,935    129,196    125,041     117,227     119,631    121,218    126,066
Arkansas.....           52,314     51,668     56,703      54,198     48,982     53,856      57,464      50,392     52,714     55,245
California.....        894,003    844,915    919,234   1,149,953    913,484    776,483     795,400     774,546    756,150    834,318
Colorado.....          136,640    131,864    134,421     135,946    137,839    118,410     123,134     117,054    120,012    120,105
Connecticut.....        75,561     72,837     75,395      70,949     78,215     68,910      75,227      71,198     72,020     67,043
Delaware.....           21,869     21,192     23,491      22,621     22,484     22,030      21,369      19,541     20,532     20,386
District of Columbia    27,380     27,410     31,906      27,106     29,043     25,248      28,636      25,818     25,558     26,928
Florida.....           431,131    457,853    455,616     425,622    461,241    395,664     423,743     399,755    383,394    409,372

Georgia.....           209,942    201,628    217,427     212,850    216,172    196,142     198,881     188,763    186,171    200,027
Hawaii.....             27,415     27,160     26,609      25,203     25,642     23,961      22,743      20,912     23,670     25,689
Idaho.....              40,455     41,233     40,125      41,579     41,461     37,818      35,434      36,684     36,854     38,558
Illinois.....          265,911    271,148    258,830     268,730    283,705    243,549     263,946     251,875    265,334    261,498
Indiana.....           141,219    138,626    143,227     136,368    139,661    132,146     133,678     130,952    130,034    129,407
Iowa.....               71,500     70,809     71,392      72,607     75,237     64,753      68,605      68,038     66,921     67,017
Kansas.....             64,309     60,448     67,871      61,140     67,481     61,195      64,860      58,658     59,438     60,483
Kentucky.....           88,382     83,055     93,554      84,328     85,477     80,246      85,735      80,606     84,243     81,754
Louisiana.....         103,796    101,975    107,395     104,541     98,313    105,425     102,711      91,414     94,234     99,533
Maine.....              38,534     32,673     34,238      32,143     39,249     33,537      35,673      36,486     34,202     31,139

Maryland.....          128,774    128,971    129,764     126,945    126,893    121,718     128,148     127,138    118,295    125,056
Massachusetts.....     164,755    149,438    151,216     175,505    173,757    137,124     155,111     148,085    138,023    142,775
Michigan.....          207,062    207,299    205,504     207,947    217,038    192,021     197,226     183,401    171,542    200,728
Minnesota.....         138,414    136,191    134,577     137,595    141,183    121,959     128,083     130,799    120,381    122,226
Mississippi.....        50,119     53,633     57,216      49,609     49,612     55,578      52,107      51,673     47,175     51,657
Missouri.....          133,660    127,233    138,250     142,864    131,513    134,163     128,691     122,509    122,171    119,004
Montana.....            28,856     27,400     29,068      28,651     28,546     26,533      25,705      27,260     26,427     27,473
Nebraska.....           43,558     42,551     44,816      45,864     45,752     39,222      41,491      39,881     40,939     43,811
Nevada.....             62,766     58,249     60,294      62,843     66,018     53,406      57,228      56,082     53,767     55,959
New Hampshire.....      37,456     34,114     34,580      33,735     36,200     33,920      36,227      34,128     32,155     31,552

New Jersey.....        209,311    197,518    203,835     202,206    213,505    189,291     202,355     198,718    187,276    181,131
New Mexico.....         40,507     38,580     44,250      37,762     40,791     41,590      39,230      37,406     39,187     40,789
New York.....          466,207    454,607    466,748     456,587    472,820    429,311     443,564     440,756    429,494    426,420
North Carolina.....    205,622    202,081    211,726     196,443    207,942    196,910     193,077     190,051    184,492    189,804
North Dakota.....       26,806     28,903     29,218      29,398     25,853     22,207      25,009      23,917     23,359     28,021
Ohio.....              253,914    241,581    263,759     256,737    274,779    229,793     250,160     238,558    244,972    234,133
Oklahoma.....           76,079     73,753     82,091      72,957     75,621     68,331      73,607      68,685     74,768     70,293
Oregon.....             94,439     97,220     95,654      99,441     99,417     89,229      86,297      91,054     84,487     85,962
Pennsylvania.....      264,855    264,397    265,032     268,272    262,901    266,763     266,195     252,649    262,407    252,075
Rhode Island.....       25,079     23,706     24,574      24,360     25,911     23,337      24,729      23,675     23,094     22,672

South Carolina.....     89,273     85,519     97,458      87,131     95,628     86,862      87,308      79,795     83,845     82,252
South Dakota.....       22,284     21,046     20,959      20,848     21,611     20,663      20,682      20,519     20,553     19,329
Tennessee.....         134,381    124,873    138,078     123,145    127,303    125,736     124,155     114,673    116,749    121,662
Texas.....             549,198    532,447    553,932     537,115    530,372    458,036     473,461     450,359    465,576    464,465
Utah.....               71,874     68,688     74,490      75,396     72,630     60,288      61,913      61,715     64,502     67,465
Vermont.....            18,231     17,200     18,800      17,248     18,264     17,602      17,307      17,530     16,860     19,400
Virginia.....          169,738    186,995    177,043     165,555    165,372    168,085     179,241     165,510    159,740    164,084
Washington.....        173,163    163,111    166,655     204,649    177,515    148,738     153,439     153,804    148,789    148,500
West Virginia.....      36,043     36,427     36,002      35,950     34,375     40,260      38,609      36,604     34,714     37,260
Wisconsin.....         133,444    125,268    131,552     125,586    134,838    120,808     127,601     122,830    120,242    124,587

Wyoming.....            17,401     18,081     20,277      18,617     18,151     19,123      18,364      17,704     18,333     19,316
Puerto Rico.....        46,152     42,434     46,915      38,510     40,549     38,353      43,922      40,722     43,762     42,254
Virgin Islands.....      1,843      1,512      1,981       1,570      1,419      4,106       2,173       1,599      1,819      1,819

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     Mar.    June        June     Sept.     Dec.    Mar.     June 
                        2012    2012     2012     2013    2013        2012     2012      2012    2013     2013

United States(1)...      6.4     6.2      6.4      6.4     6.4         5.9      6.0       5.8      5.6     5.8

Alabama.....             5.9     5.7      5.8      6.0     5.9         5.6      5.7       5.5      5.4     5.5
Alaska.....             11.1     9.0      9.8     10.7    10.6         9.4     10.3      10.1      9.6    10.0
Arizona.....             6.3     6.7      6.9      6.2     6.2         6.1      5.7       5.8      5.9     6.1
Arkansas.....            5.5     5.5      6.0      5.7     5.2         5.7      6.1       5.3      5.5     5.8
California.....          7.2     6.8      7.4      9.0     7.0         6.3      6.4       6.2      5.9     6.4
Colorado.....            7.3     6.9      7.1      7.1     7.1         6.3      6.5       6.2      6.2     6.1
Connecticut.....         5.5     5.2      5.4      5.1     5.6         4.9      5.4       5.1      5.2     4.8
Delaware.....            6.4     6.2      6.8      6.5     6.5         6.4      6.2       5.7      5.9     5.8
District of Columbia..   5.8     5.8      6.8      5.7     6.1         5.3      6.1       5.5      5.4     5.6
Florida.....             6.9     7.3      7.1      6.7     7.1         6.3      6.7       6.3      6.0     6.3

Georgia.....             6.6     6.4      6.8      6.6     6.6         6.1      6.2       5.9      5.7     6.2
Hawaii.....              5.7     5.6      5.4      5.1     5.2         5.0      4.7       4.3      4.8     5.2
Idaho.....               8.0     8.2      7.9      8.1     8.0         7.5      7.0       7.2      7.2     7.5
Illinois.....            5.5     5.5      5.3      5.5     5.8         5.0      5.4       5.2      5.5     5.3
Indiana.....             5.8     5.7      5.9      5.6     5.7         5.5      5.5       5.4      5.3     5.3
Iowa.....                5.8     5.7      5.7      5.8     6.0         5.2      5.6       5.5      5.4     5.4
Kansas.....              6.0     5.6      6.3      5.6     6.2         5.7      6.1       5.4      5.5     5.5
Kentucky.....            6.1     5.7      6.5      5.8     5.8         5.5      5.9       5.5      5.8     5.6
Louisiana.....           6.7     6.6      7.0      6.7     6.2         6.9      6.7       5.9      6.1     6.3
Maine.....               7.9     6.7      7.0      6.7     8.1         6.9      7.3       7.5      7.0     6.4

Maryland.....            6.3     6.3      6.4      6.3     6.2         6.0      6.3       6.3      5.8     6.1
Massachusetts.....       5.9     5.3      5.4      6.2     6.1         4.9      5.6       5.3      4.9     5.0
Michigan.....            6.1     6.2      6.0      6.0     6.3         5.7      5.9       5.4      5.0     5.8
Minnesota.....           6.1     6.0      5.9      6.0     6.1         5.4      5.6       5.7      5.2     5.2
Mississippi.....         5.9     6.4      6.8      5.9     5.8         6.5      6.2       6.1      5.5     6.0
Missouri.....            6.1     5.9      6.4      6.5     5.9         6.1      5.9       5.6      5.5     5.4
Montana.....             8.3     7.9      8.3      8.1     8.0         7.6      7.3       7.8      7.4     7.7
Nebraska.....            5.7     5.6      5.9      6.0     6.0         5.2      5.5       5.2      5.4     5.7
Nevada.....              6.4     5.9      6.0      6.3     6.6         5.4      5.7       5.7      5.4     5.5
New Hampshire.....       7.1     6.4      6.5      6.3     6.8         6.4      6.9       6.4      6.1     5.9

New Jersey.....          6.5     6.2      6.4      6.3     6.6         5.9      6.3       6.2      5.8     5.6
New Mexico.....          6.7     6.4      7.4      6.2     6.7         6.9      6.6       6.2      6.5     6.8
New York.....            6.5     6.3      6.4      6.3     6.4         6.0      6.2       6.1      5.9     5.8
North Carolina.....      6.4     6.3      6.5      6.0     6.3         6.1      6.0       5.9      5.7     5.8
North Dakota.....        7.9     8.3      8.3      8.3     7.2         6.5      7.2       6.8      6.6     7.9
Ohio.....                5.8     5.6      6.1      5.9     6.2         5.3      5.7       5.5      5.6     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.3     6.1      6.7      6.0     6.1         5.6      6.0       5.6      6.0     5.7
Oregon.....              6.9     7.1      7.0      7.2     7.1         6.6      6.4       6.6      6.1     6.2
Pennsylvania.....        5.4     5.4      5.5      5.5     5.3         5.5      5.4       5.1      5.3     5.2
Rhode Island.....        6.4     6.0      6.3      6.1     6.5         5.9      6.3       6.0      5.8     5.7

South Carolina.....      6.1     5.8      6.6      5.8     6.3         5.9      5.9       5.4      5.6     5.5
South Dakota.....        6.7     6.4      6.3      6.3     6.5         6.3      6.2       6.2      6.2     5.8
Tennessee.....           6.0     5.6      6.1      5.4     5.5         5.6      5.5       5.1      5.1     5.4
Texas.....               6.2     5.9      6.1      5.9     5.8         5.2      5.2       5.0      5.1     5.0
Utah.....                7.2     6.9      7.3      7.3     7.0         6.1      6.1       6.1      6.3     6.5
Vermont.....             7.4     7.0      7.6      7.0     7.3         7.1      7.0       7.1      6.7     7.8
Virginia.....            5.8     6.4      6.0      5.7     5.6         5.8      6.1       5.6      5.5     5.6
Washington.....          7.4     7.0      7.1      8.6     7.3         6.4      6.6       6.5      6.2     6.1
West Virginia.....       6.3     6.4      6.4      6.3     6.1         7.1      6.8       6.5      6.1     6.6
Wisconsin.....           5.8     5.4      5.7      5.4     5.8         5.2      5.5       5.3      5.2     5.4

Wyoming.....             8.2     8.6      9.5      8.7     8.5         9.0      8.7       8.4      8.5     9.0
Puerto Rico.....         6.8     6.2      6.8      5.6     5.9         5.6      6.3       5.9      6.4     6.2
Virgin Islands.....      6.2     5.3      7.0      5.6     5.0        13.9      7.7       5.6      6.5     6.5

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March            207(C)   3.0(C)    211(C)  3.0(C)       900(C)     .8(C)   817(C)     .7(C)
      June             202(C)   2.9(C)    228(C)  3.3(C)       873(C)     .8(C)   934(C)     .8(C)
      September        191(C)   2.7(C)    223(C)  3.2(C)       826(C)     .7(C)   877(C)     .8(C)
      December         187(C)   2.7(C)    238(C)  3.4(C)       798(C)     .7(C)   941(C)     .8(C)
  
2009  March            172(C)   2.5(C)    236(C)  3.4(C)       705(C)     .6(C)   851(C)     .8(C)
      June             178(C)   2.6(C)    226(C)  3.3(C)       743(C)     .7(C)   830(C)     .8(C)
      September        169(C)   2.5(C)    216(C)  3.2(C)       692(C)     .7(C)   785(C)     .7(C)
      December         183(C)   2.7(C)    199(C)  2.9(C)       712(C)     .7(C)   730(C)     .7(C)
  
2010  March            175(C)   2.6(C)    195(C)  2.9(C)       688(C)     .7(C)   671(C)     .6(C)
      June             179(C)   2.7(C)    185(C)  2.7(C)       713(C)     .7(C)   650(C)     .6(C)
      September        187(C)   2.8(C)    189(C)  2.8(C)       741(C)     .7(C)   694(C)     .7(C)
      December         200(C)   2.9(C)    186(C)  2.7(C)       787(C)     .7(C)   688(C)     .6(C)
  
2011  March            189(C)   2.8(C)    184(C)  2.7(C)       698(C)     .7(C)   615(C)     .6(C)
      June             192(C)   2.8(C)    190(C)  2.8(C)       749(C)     .7(C)   677(C)     .6(C)
      September        199(C)   2.9(C)    187(C)  2.7(C)       788(C)     .7(C)   673(C)     .6(C)
      December         202(C)   2.9(C)    191(C)  2.8(C)       801(C)     .7(C)   749(C)     .7(C)
  
2012  March            201(C)   2.9(C)    181(C)  2.6(C)       748(C)     .7(C)   604(C)     .6(C)
      June             197(C)   2.9(C)    184(C)  2.7(C)       778(C)     .7(C)   666(C)     .6(C)
      September        201(C)   2.9(C)       185     2.7       796(C)     .7(C)      684        .6
      December         201(C)   2.9(C)       N/A     N/A       795(C)     .7(C)      N/A       N/A
  
2013  March               578      8.0       N/A     N/A        1,067       1.0      N/A       N/A
      June                226      3.0       N/A     N/A          777        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

(C) Corrected

Last Modified Date: January 29, 2014
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