Economic News Release

Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Wednesday, June 12, 2013             USDL-13-1141

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


     PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2012


In 2012, 17.8 percent of persons with a disability were employed, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. In contrast, the employment-population 
ratio for persons without a disability was 63.9 percent. The employment-population 
ratio for persons with a disability was unchanged from 2011 to 2012, while the 
ratio for persons without a disability increased. The unemployment rate for persons 
with a disability was 13.4 percent in 2012, higher than the rate for persons with 
no disability (7.9 percent). The jobless rates for both groups declined from 2011 to 2012.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current 
Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that 
provides information on employment and unemployment in the United States. The 
collection of data on persons with a disability is sponsored by the Department 
of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy. For more information, see 
the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2012 data:

   --Persons with a disability were over three times as likely as
     those with no disability to be age 65 and over. (See table 1.)

   --For all age groups, the employment-population ratio was much lower 
     for persons with a disability than for those with no disability.
     (See table 1.)

   --The unemployment rate for persons with a disability declined from
     2011 to 2012. The rate for persons without a disability also fell 
     over the year. (See table A.)

   --In 2012, 33 percent of workers with a disability were employed
     part time, compared with 19 percent of those with no disability. 
     (See table 2.)

   --Employed persons with a disability were more likely to be self-
     employed than those with no disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability, 
reflecting the increased incidence of disability with age. In 2012, 46 percent 
of persons with a disability were age 65 and over, compared with 13 percent of 
those with no disability. Overall, women were somewhat more likely to have a 
disability than men, partly reflecting the greater life expectancy of women. 
Among the major race and ethnicity groups, the prevalence of a disability was 
higher for blacks and whites than for Asians and Hispanics. (See table 1.)

Employment

The employment-population ratio for persons with a disability was 17.8 percent 
in 2012, unchanged from 2011. The ratio for those with no disability increased 
from 63.6 percent to 63.9 percent. The lower ratio among persons with a 
disability is due, in part, to the fact that a large share of the population 
of persons with a disability was age 65 and older, and older persons are less 
likely to be employed. However, across all age groups, persons with a 
disability were much less likely to be employed than those with no disability. 
(See tables A and 1.)

Among persons with a disability age 65 and over, the employment-population 
ratio rose to 6.9 percent in 2012, while the ratio for persons age 16 to 64 
with a disability held at 27.0 percent. For persons without a disability, the 
ratios for both age groups increased from 2011 to 2012. (See table A.)

In 2012, persons with a disability with higher levels of education were more 
likely to be employed than those with less education. At all levels of 
education, persons with a disability were much less likely to be employed than 
were their counterparts with no disability. (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely than those with no disability to 
work part time. Among workers with a disability, 33 percent usually worked part 
time in 2012, compared with 19 percent of workers without a disability. The 
proportion of workers who were employed part time for economic reasons was 
slightly higher among those with a disability than among those without a 
disability (7 percent versus 6 percent). These individuals were working part 
time because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find 
a full-time job. (See table 2.)

In 2012, workers with a disability were more likely than those with no 
disability to work in production, transportation, and materials moving
occupations (16 percent compared with 12 percent). Those with a disability 
were less likely than those with no disability to work in management, 
professional, and related occupations (32 percent compared with 38 percent). 
(See table 3.)

The share of workers with a disability employed in federal, state, and local 
government (15 percent) was about the same as the share for those with no 
disability (14 percent). Workers with a disability were less likely than those 
with no disability to be employed in private wage and salary jobs (73 percent 
versus 79 percent). The incidence of self-employment among workers with a 
disability was higher than among workers with no disability (11 percent versus 
7 percent). (See table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 13.4 percent in 2012, 
higher than the rate for persons with no disability (7.9 percent). (Unemployed 
persons are those who did not have a job, were available for work, and were 
actively looking for a job in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.) The 
unemployment rates for both persons with a disability and those without a 
disability were lower in 2012 than in the prior year. (See table A.)

In 2012, the unemployment rate for men with a disability (13.2 percent) was 
about the same as the rate for women (13.7 percent). As is the case among those 
without a disability, the unemployment rates in 2012 for those with a 
disability were higher among blacks (20.8 percent) and Hispanics (19.0 percent) 
than among whites (12.3 percent) and Asians (11.8 percent). (See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. A 
large proportion of persons with a disability--about 8 in 10--were not in the 
labor force in 2012, compared with about 3 in 10 persons with no disability. 
In part, this reflects the fact that persons with a disability tend to be much 
older than those without a disability, and older persons are, in general, less 
likely to be labor force participants. However, for all age groups, persons 
with a disability were more likely than those with no disability to be out of
the labor force. (See table 1.)

Among those not in the labor force, 1 percent of those with a disability were 
marginally attached to the labor force in 2012, compared with 3 percent of 
those with no disability. These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted 
and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 
months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for 
work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. For persons with and without a 
disability, the vast majority of those not in the labor force reported that 
they do not want a job. (See table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2011 and 2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2011 2012
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,382 15,047 12,335 28,251 15,339 12,912

Civilian labor force

5,722 4,854 868 5,816 4,854 961

Participation rate

20.9 32.3 7.0 20.6 31.6 7.4

Employed

4,861 4,067 794 5,037 4,146 890

Employment-population ratio

17.8 27.0 6.4 17.8 27.0 6.9

Unemployed

861 787 74 779 708 71

Unemployment rate

15.0 16.2 8.5 13.4 14.6 7.4

Not in labor force

21,659 10,192 11,467 22,435 10,484 11,951

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

212,236 184,842 27,394 215,034 186,077 28,957

Civilian labor force

147,894 141,650 6,244 149,159 142,393 6,766

Participation rate

69.7 76.6 22.8 69.4 76.5 23.4

Employed

135,008 129,155 5,853 137,433 131,078 6,355

Employment-population ratio

63.6 69.9 21.4 63.9 70.4 21.9

Unemployed

12,886 12,495 391 11,727 11,315 411

Unemployment rate

8.7 8.8 6.3 7.9 7.9 6.1

Not in labor force

64,342 43,192 21,150 65,875 43,683 22,191

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from  
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. 
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of 
about 60,000 eligible households that provides information on the labor force 
status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian
noninstitutional population age 16 and over.
   
   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a 
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The 
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor 
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these 
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment 
Policy.
   
   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling 
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is 
a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values 
they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because samples 
differ by chance is known as  sampling error, and its variability is measured 
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more 
than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling 
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of 
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can 
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the 
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, 
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS and 
estimating standard errors is available on the BLS website at 
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by 
age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the 
Census Bureau and are based on complete population counts obtained in the 
decennial census. In the years between decennial censuses, they incorporate 
the latest information about population change (births, deaths, and net
international migration). As part of its annual update of population estimates, 
the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to the total population controls. The 
updated controls  typically have a negligible impact on unemployment rates and 
other ratios. The estimates of the population of persons with a disability are 
not controlled to independent population totals of persons with a disability 
because such data are not available. Without independent population totals, 
sample-based estimates are more apt to vary from one time period to the next.  
Information about population controls is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. 
In the CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response 
of "yes" to any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS 
in the following format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years and older.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty 
     hearing?

   --Is  anyone  blind or does anyone have serious  difficulty
     seeing even when wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or
     making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing
     stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does
     anyone have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a
     doctor's office or shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only 
asked of household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask 
the respondent whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and 
if the respondent replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in 
the household who has the condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are 
tabulated for persons age 16 and older. More information on the disability 
questions and the limitations of the CPS disability data is available on the 
BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. 
Additional information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available 
at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed.  Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference 
week, (a) did any work at all as paid employees; (b) worked in their own 
business, profession, or on their own farm; (c) worked 15 hours or more as 
unpaid workers in a family member's business.  Persons who were temporarily 
absent from their jobs because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor 
dispute, or another reason also are counted as employed.

   Unemployed.  Unemployed persons are those who had no employment during the 
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific 
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they 
had been laid off need not have been looking for work to be classified as 
unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons 
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate represents the number of 
unemployed persons as a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force.  Persons not in the labor force include all those who 
are not classified as employed or unemployed. Information is collected on their 
desire for and availability to take a job at the time of the CPS interview, job 
search activity in the prior year, and reason for not looking in the 4-week 
period ending with the reference week. This group includes individuals 
marginally attached to the labor force, defined as persons not in the labor 
force who want and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime 
in the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one 
within the past 12 months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had 
not actively searched for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally 
attached group are discouraged workers--persons who are not currently looking for 
work because they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for 
which they would qualify. The other persons marginally attached to the labor 
force group includes persons who want a job but had not looked for work in the 
past 4 weeks for reasons such as family responsibilities or transportation 
problems.

   Part time for economic reasons.  Persons classified as at work part time for 
economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary part time, are 
those who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours during the reference 
week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business conditions, 
inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who 
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for 
full-time work.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker.  The occupation, industry, and 
class of worker classifications for the employed relate to the job held in the 
survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job 
at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using 
the 2010 Census occupational and 2007 Census industry classification systems. 
The class-of-worker breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: 
Private and government wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and 
unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers receive wages, salary, 
commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from a government 
unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their own 
business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are 
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that 
their businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers. 
Unpaid family workers are persons working without pay for 15 hours a week or 
more on a farm or in a business operated by a family member in their household.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 58.6 12,506 8.1 88,310

Men

117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 64.4 6,771 8.2 35,017

Women

125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 53.1 5,734 7.9 53,293

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

28,251 5,816 20.6 5,037 17.8 779 13.4 22,435

Men

12,929 3,190 24.7 2,770 21.4 420 13.2 9,739

Women

15,322 2,626 17.1 2,267 14.8 359 13.7 12,696

Age

16 to 64 years

15,339 4,854 31.6 4,146 27.0 708 14.6 10,484

16 to 19 years

626 139 22.3 85 13.6 54 38.7 486

20 to 24 years

777 309 39.8 223 28.8 86 27.7 468

25 to 34 years

1,652 699 42.3 574 34.7 126 18.0 953

35 to 44 years

2,183 810 37.1 682 31.2 128 15.8 1,373

45 to 54 years

4,182 1,309 31.3 1,144 27.3 165 12.6 2,873

55 to 64 years

5,919 1,588 26.8 1,438 24.3 150 9.4 4,332

65 years and over

12,912 961 7.4 890 6.9 71 7.4 11,951

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

22,854 4,820 21.1 4,228 18.5 592 12.3 18,035

Black or African American

3,732 635 17.0 503 13.5 132 20.8 3,097

Asian

709 125 17.7 111 15.6 15 11.8 583

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

2,813 563 20.0 456 16.2 107 19.0 2,250

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

26,848 5,367 20.0 4,728 17.6 640 11.9 21,481

Less than a high school diploma

6,109 599 9.8 500 8.2 99 16.5 5,509

High school graduates, no college(1)

9,851 1,726 17.5 1,518 15.4 208 12.1 8,126

Some college or associate degree

6,649 1,726 26.0 1,507 22.7 219 12.7 4,922

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

4,239 1,316 31.0 1,203 28.4 113 8.6 2,923

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

215,034 149,159 69.4 137,433 63.9 11,727 7.9 65,875

Men

104,415 79,137 75.8 72,785 69.7 6,352 8.0 25,278

Women

110,619 70,022 63.3 64,647 58.4 5,375 7.7 40,597

Age

16 to 64 years

186,077 142,393 76.5 131,078 70.4 11,315 7.9 43,683

16 to 19 years

16,359 5,684 34.7 4,341 26.5 1,343 23.6 10,675

20 to 24 years

21,022 15,153 72.1 13,185 62.7 1,968 13.0 5,869

25 to 34 years

39,323 32,766 83.3 30,127 76.6 2,639 8.1 6,557

35 to 44 years

37,459 31,924 85.2 29,894 79.8 2,030 6.4 5,535

45 to 54 years

39,516 33,745 85.4 31,730 80.3 2,015 6.0 5,770

55 to 64 years

32,398 23,122 71.4 21,801 67.3 1,321 5.7 9,276

65 years and over

28,957 6,766 23.4 6,355 21.9 411 6.1 22,191

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

170,350 118,865 69.8 110,541 64.9 8,324 7.0 51,485

Black or African American

26,176 17,765 67.9 15,353 58.7 2,412 13.6 8,411

Asian

12,107 8,062 66.6 7,594 62.7 468 5.8 4,044

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

33,945 23,828 70.2 21,421 63.1 2,406 10.1 10,118

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

177,653 128,323 72.2 119,907 67.5 8,415 6.6 49,330

Less than a high school diploma

18,773 10,729 57.2 9,423 50.2 1,306 12.2 8,044

High school graduates, no college(1)

51,961 35,046 67.4 32,201 62.0 2,845 8.1 16,915

Some college or associate degree

47,645 35,634 74.8 33,198 69.7 2,435 6.8 12,012

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

59,275 46,914 79.1 45,085 76.1 1,829 3.9 12,360

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1)
Total Usually
work
full time
Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

142,469 114,809 27,661 8,122

16 to 64 years

135,224 110,589 24,635 7,850

65 years and over

7,245 4,220 3,025 272

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

5,037 3,366 1,670 362

16 to 64 years

4,146 2,933 1,213 325

65 years and over

890 433 457 37

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

137,433 111,442 25,990 7,760

16 to 64 years

131,078 107,656 23,422 7,525

65 years and over

6,355 3,787 2,568 235

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2012 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,037 2,770 2,267 137,433 72,785 64,647

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

32.2 30.9 33.8 38.1 34.8 41.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

14.3 16.2 11.9 16.0 16.9 14.9

Management occupations

10.8 13.2 7.8 11.3 13.0 9.3

Business and financial operations occupations

3.5 3.0 4.1 4.7 3.9 5.6

Professional and related occupations

17.9 14.7 21.8 22.2 17.9 27.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

2.0 2.4 1.4 2.7 3.8 1.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.6 2.8 0.2 2.0 3.3 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.9

Community and social service occupations

1.9 1.6 2.3 1.6 1.1 2.2

Legal occupations

1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

5.0 2.5 8.1 6.0 3.0 9.4

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.9 1.8 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.0

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

3.6 1.8 5.9 5.7 2.7 9.0

Service occupations

20.0 15.5 25.5 17.8 14.7 21.3

Healthcare support occupations

2.4 0.5 4.8 2.5 0.6 4.6

Protective service occupations

2.2 3.1 1.2 2.2 3.2 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.2 3.7 6.9 5.6 4.9 6.5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

6.1 6.9 5.2 3.8 4.5 3.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.1 1.4 7.3 3.7 1.6 6.1

Sales and office occupations

23.5 16.0 32.7 23.3 16.8 30.6

Sales and related occupations

10.4 9.5 11.5 10.9 10.5 11.3

Office and administrative support occupations

13.1 6.5 21.1 12.4 6.3 19.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8.8 15.4 0.7 9.0 16.3 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.6 1.0 0.2 0.7 1.0 0.3

Construction and extraction occupations

4.6 8.2 0.2 4.9 9.1 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.5 6.2 0.2 3.4 6.2 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.5 22.1 7.4 11.8 17.4 5.5

Production occupations

7.7 10.5 4.3 5.9 8.0 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.8 11.6 3.1 5.9 9.4 2.0

Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2012 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

5,037 2,770 2,267 137,433 72,785 64,647

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

3.1 4.5 1.3 1.5 2.1 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

96.9 95.5 98.7 98.5 97.9 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.7 1.2 0.2 0.7 1.1 0.2

Construction

6.2 10.1 1.4 6.3 10.8 1.2

Manufacturing

10.3 13.9 6.0 10.3 13.8 6.4

Wholesale trade

2.1 2.8 1.3 2.6 3.5 1.6

Retail trade

12.7 11.9 13.6 11.3 11.0 11.6

Transportation and utilities

5.3 7.4 2.8 5.1 7.4 2.5

Information

1.9 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.5 1.7

Financial activities

5.7 4.9 6.8 6.8 6.0 7.7

Professional and business services

11.3 12.1 10.3 11.6 12.9 10.2

Education and health services

21.7 12.1 33.4 22.7 10.9 36.1

Leisure and hospitality

8.1 7.1 9.4 9.3 8.6 10.0

Other services

5.9 5.5 6.3 5.0 4.5 5.5

Public administration

5.0 4.7 5.4 4.7 4.9 4.5

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

88.5 86.8 90.5 93.4 92.4 94.5

Private industries

73.0 73.8 72.1 79.1 80.8 77.2

Government

15.4 13.0 18.4 14.3 11.6 17.3

Federal

2.7 2.4 3.0 2.5 2.6 2.3

State

5.4 4.1 7.0 4.4 3.3 5.6

Local

7.3 6.4 8.4 7.4 5.6 9.4

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

11.3 13.0 9.3 6.5 7.5 5.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2012 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total,
16 years and
over
16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over
Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

22,435 10,484 4,959 5,525 11,951

Persons who currently want a job

718 521 255 266 197

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

229 189 101 88 40

Discouraged workers(2)

67 53 31 22 15

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

162 136 71 66 26

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

65,875 43,683 15,980 27,703 22,191

Persons who currently want a job

5,840 5,260 2,404 2,856 580

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,287 2,124 1,083 1,041 163

Discouraged workers(2)

842 762 457 305 80

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,445 1,362 626 736 84

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: June 12, 2013
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