Economic News Release

Worker Displacement News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, August 26, 2014             USDL-14-1605

Technical information: (202) 691-6378  •  cpsinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                        WORKER DISPLACEMENT:  2011-2013


From January 2011 through December 2013, 4.3 million workers were displaced 
from jobs they had held for at least 3 years, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
reported today. This was down from 6.1 million workers for the prior survey period
covering January 2009 to December 2011. In January 2014, 61 percent of workers
displaced from 2011 to 2013 were reemployed, up by 5 percentage points from the
prior survey in January 2012.

Since 1984, the Employment and Training Administration of the U.S. Department 
of Labor has sponsored surveys that collect information on workers who were 
displaced from their jobs. These surveys have been conducted biennially as 
supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of 
households that is the primary source of information on the nation's labor 
force.

Displaced workers are defined as persons 20 years of age and older who lost or 
left jobs because their plant or company closed or moved, there was insufficient 
work for them to do, or their position or shift was abolished. The period covered 
in this study was 2011-13, the 3 calendar years prior to the January 2014 survey 
date. Most of this period was characterized by employment growth. The following 
analysis focuses primarily on the 4.3 million persons who had worked for their 
employer for 3 or more years at the time of displacement (referred to as long-
tenured). An additional 5.2 million persons were displaced from jobs they had 
held for less than 3 years (referred to as short-tenured). Combining the short- 
and long-tenured groups, the number of displaced workers totaled 9.5 million from 
2011 to 2013. In the prior survey, which was conducted in January 2012 and covered 
2009-11, this group numbered 12.9 million. 

Highlights from the January 2014 survey include:

   --In January 2014, 61 percent of the 4.3 million long-tenured displaced 
     workers were reemployed, up from 56 percent in January 2012 and 49 percent 
     in January 2010. (See table 1.) 

   --Thirty-five percent of long-tenured displaced workers from the 2011-13 
     period cited that they lost their job because their plant or company closed 
     down or moved; an additional 33 percent cited insufficient work, and 32 
     percent said their position or shift was abolished. (See table 2.) 

   --Eighteen percent of long-tenured displaced workers lost a job in manufacturing. 
     (See table 4.) 

   --Among long-tenured workers who were displaced from full-time wage and salary 
     jobs and were reemployed in such jobs in January 2014, 52 percent had earnings 
     that were as much or greater than those of their lost job, up from 46 percent 
     in the prior survey. (See table 7.) 

Characteristics of the Displaced

Sixty-one percent of the 4.3 million long-tenured displaced workers were 
reemployed at the time of the survey in January 2014, up from 56 percent for 
the January 2012 survey. The proportion unemployed at the time of the most 
recent survey was 21 percent, down from 27 percent in the January 2012 survey 
and from 36 percent in the January 2010 survey. Eighteen percent of long-tenured 
displaced workers were not in the labor force in January 2014, about unchanged 
from the previous survey. (See table 1.)

In January 2014, the reemployment rate was 68 percent for workers ages 25 to 54. 
Reemployment rates were lower for older workers. The rates for those ages 55 to 
64 and 65 years and over were 53 percent and 23 percent, respectively. Among those
age 65 and over, 64 percent were no longer in the labor force when surveyed, up from
49 percent in the prior survey.

Among long-tenured displaced workers, men had a higher reemployment rate (64 
percent) in January 2014 than women (58 percent). The reemployment rate for men 
increased by 3 percentage points from the prior survey, and the rate for women 
rose by 8 percentage points. Displaced men and women were about equally likely 
to be unemployed at the time of the survey in January 2014--22 percent and 20 
percent, respectively. The share of displaced men who had left the labor force, 
at 14 percent, continued to be lower than that for women--22 percent.

In January 2014, the reemployment rates for long-tenured displaced Hispanics 
(65 percent), whites (62 percent), and blacks (55 percent) were higher than in 
January 2012. The reemployment rate for Asians, at 59 percent, changed little 
from the prior survey.

Reason for Job Loss and Receipt of Advance Notice

Of the 4.3 million long-tenured workers displaced during the January 2011 through 
December 2013 period, 35 percent lost or left their jobs due to plant or company 
closings or moves, 33 percent were displaced due to insufficient work, and 32 
percent were displaced because their position or shift was abolished. (See 
table 2.)

Forty percent of long-tenured displaced workers in the January 2014 survey 
received written advance notice that their jobs would be terminated, about the 
same proportion as in the January 2012 survey. Workers who lost jobs during the 
2011-13 period due to plant or company closings or moves continued to be most 
likely to receive written advance notice. Of this group, 57 percent received 
such notice. In contrast, 35 percent of workers who were displaced because 
their position or shift was abolished and 28 percent of those who lost jobs 
due to insufficient work were notified in advance. For each of these groups, 
reemployment rates were not statistically different for those who received 
written advanced notice and those who did not. (See table 3.)

Industry and Occupation

During the 2011-13 period, 765,000 long-tenured manufacturing workers were 
displaced from their jobs--18 percent of all long-tenured displaced workers. 
Manufacturing displacements occurred mostly in the durable goods component 
(462,000). Workers in wholesale and retail trade and in professional and 
business services each accounted for 14 percent of all long-tenured displaced. 
(See table 4.)

Among the major industry groups, reemployment rates were higher than the
overall reemployment rate for displaced workers (61 percent) for the following:
transportation and utilities (69 percent), leisure and hospitality (69 percent),
construction (68 percent), and information (67 percent). Workers displaced from
wholesale and retail trade and from other services were the least likely to be
reemployed (58 percent each). (Workers were not necessarily reemployed in the
same industries from which they were displaced.)
 
Reemployment rates differed by major occupation, but were highest for those 
displaced from management, professional, and related occupations (67 percent) 
and from natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (66 
percent). The rates were lower for those displaced from sales and office 
occupations (56 percent) and production, transportation, and material moving 
occupations (54 percent). Compared with the January 2012 survey, reemployment 
rates were higher in January 2014 for displaced workers from management, 
professional, and related occupations; service occupations; and sales and 
office occupations. Reemployment rates for workers displaced from the two 
other major occupational groups were similar across the 2014 and 2012 surveys. 
(See table 5.)

Geographic Divisions

The number of long-tenured workers displaced during the 2011-13 period declined
from the 2009-11 period in all geographic divisions of the United States. In
January 2014, reemployment rates ranged from 74 percent for the New England
division to 53 percent for the Middle Atlantic division. (See table 6.)

Earnings

Of the 2.2 million displaced workers who lost full-time wage and salary jobs 
during the 2011-13 period and were reemployed, 1.8 million had full-time wage 
and salary jobs in January 2014. Of these reemployed full-time workers who 
reported earnings on their lost job, the proportion that were earning as much 
or more than they did at their lost job was 52 percent in January 2014, up 
from 46 percent in January 2012. The proportion who reported earnings losses 
of 20 percent or more fell to 27 percent in January 2014. (See table 7.)

Total Displaced Workers (With No Tenure Restriction)

The total number of workers displaced between January 2011 and December 2013 
(regardless of how long they had held their jobs) was 9.5 million, down by 3.3 
million from the 2009-11 survey period. Of the total number of workers who 
lost jobs over the 2011-13 period, 61 percent were reemployed, up from 57 
percent in the prior survey. The proportion unemployed fell by 4 percentage 
points to 24 percent in January 2014. (See table 8.)




Technical Note

   The data presented in this release were collected through a supplement to the
January 2014 Current Population Survey (CPS), the monthly survey of about 60,000
eligible households that provides basic data on employment and unemployment for 
the nation. The CPS is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS). The purpose of this supplement was to obtain information on the
number and characteristics of persons who had been displaced (as defined below)
from their jobs over the prior 3 calendar years. The collection of these data is 
sponsored by the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration. 
Additional information, reports, and archived news releases, including the Worker 
Displacement 2009-2011 news release, are available online at 
www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#displaced.

   Data presented in this release are based on Census 2010 population con-
trols that are updated annually in January. For additional information, see
"Population control adjustments to the CPS" available on the Internet at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the true population values they re-
present. The component of this difference that occurs because samples differ by 
chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by the standard 
error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, 
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors
from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the popula-
tion, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inabil-
ity or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors
made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on 
estimating standard errors is available at 
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Concepts and questions

   Displaced workers are wage and salary workers 20 years of age and older who
lost or left jobs because their plant or company closed or moved, there was in-
sufficient work for them to do, or their position or shift was abolished. Data
are often presented for long-tenured displaced workers--those who had worked for
their employer for 3 or more years at the time of displacement.

   Wage and salary workers receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment
in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and
public sectors but excludes all self-employed persons, both those with incor-
porated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Data discussed in this release on displaced workers were obtained from the
following questions:

   (This question was asked of all persons 20 years and over.) During the last
3 calendar years, that is, January 2011 through December 2013, did (you/name)
lose a job or leave one because: (your/his/her) plant or company closed or
moved, (your/his/her) position or shift was abolished, insufficient work, or
another similar reason?

   (If the respondent answered "yes" to the above question on job loss, the
following question was then asked.) Which of these specific reasons describes
why (name/you) (is/are) no longer working at that job?

   Plant or company closed down or moved
   Plant or company operating but lost or left job because of:
     Insufficient work
     Position or shift abolished
     Seasonal job completed
   Self-operated business failed
   Some other reason

   Respondents who provided one of the first three reasons--plant or company
closed or moved, insufficient work, or position or shift abolished--were clas-
sified as displaced and asked additional questions about the lost job, including
how many years they had worked for their employer; the year the job was lost;
the earnings, industry, and occupation of the lost job; and whether health insur-
ance had been provided. Other questions were asked to determine what occurred
before and after the job loss, such as: Was the respondent notified of the up-
coming dismissal?  How long did he/she go without work? Did he/she receive un-
employment benefits? And, if so, were the benefits used up? Did the person move
to another location after the job loss to take or look for another job? Informa-
tion also was collected about current health insurance coverage (other than Medi-
care and Medicaid) and current earnings for those employed at the time of the 
survey.




Table 1. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and
employment status in January 2014

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
                                                         Percent distribution by employment status       
   Age, sex, race, and Hispanic                                                                          
        or Latino ethnicity             Total                                                            
                                                      Total        Employed     Unemployed    Not in the 
                                                                                             labor force 
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
               TOTAL                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      4,292        100.0          61.3          20.8          17.9    
20 to 24 years.....................         91        100.0          58.7          24.6          16.7    
25 to 54 years.....................      2,897        100.0          68.2          20.2          11.6    
55 to 64 years.....................      1,004        100.0          53.2          24.3          22.5    
65 years and over..................        301        100.0          22.5          13.7          63.7    
                                                                                                         
                Men                                                                                      
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      2,390        100.0          64.1          21.6          14.3    
20 to 24 years.....................         42        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years.....................      1,659        100.0          69.8          21.5           8.7    
55 to 64 years.....................        525        100.0          57.6          26.2          16.3    
65 years and over..................        164        100.0          23.9           8.5          67.6    
                                                                                                         
               Women                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      1,902        100.0          57.7          19.9          22.4    
20 to 24 years.....................         49        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years.....................      1,237        100.0          66.0          18.6          15.4    
55 to 64 years.....................        479        100.0          48.4          22.3          29.3    
65 years and over..................        137        100.0          20.9          20.0          59.1    
                                                                                                         
               White                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......      3,499        100.0          62.2          20.1          17.6    
Men................................      1,966        100.0          64.4          21.5          14.1    
Women..............................      1,533        100.0          59.4          18.5          22.1    
                                                                                                         
     Black or African American                                                                           
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......        465        100.0          54.6          30.6          14.8    
Men................................        209        100.0          63.0          26.7          10.3    
Women..............................        256        100.0          47.7          33.7          18.5    
                                                                                                         
               Asian                                                                                     
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......        192        100.0          58.7          15.1          26.2    
Men................................        120        100.0          61.9          18.7          19.5    
Women..............................         71        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
                                                                                                         
   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                          
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over.......        685        100.0          64.5          20.7          14.8    
Men................................        413        100.0          70.8          20.6           8.6    
Women..............................        273        100.0          54.9          20.9          24.2    

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between
January 2011 and December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the
abolishment of their positions or shifts.
   2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum
to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as
Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.




Table 2. Long-tenured displaced workers(1) by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and reason for job
loss, January 2014

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                  
                                                                  Percent distribution by reason for job loss     
                                                                                                                  
        Age, sex, race, and Hispanic                                                                              
            or Latino ethnicity                  Total                      Plant or                  Position or 
                                                               Total        company     Insufficient     shift    
                                                                          closed down       work       abolished  
                                                                            or moved                              
                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                  
                   TOTAL                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      4,292        100.0          35.3          32.6          32.1    
20 to 24 years..............................         91        100.0          45.6          33.1          21.3    
25 to 54 years..............................      2,897        100.0          35.1          34.6          30.3    
55 to 64 years..............................      1,004        100.0          34.2          28.8          37.0    
65 years and over...........................        301        100.0          37.1          25.8          37.1    
                                                                                                                  
                    Men                                                                                           
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      2,390        100.0          35.0          37.8          27.2    
20 to 24 years..............................         42        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years..............................      1,659        100.0          35.4          39.7          24.9    
55 to 64 years..............................        525        100.0          34.5          31.0          34.5    
65 years and over...........................        164        100.0          32.8          39.0          28.3    
                                                                                                                  
                   Women                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      1,902        100.0          35.5          26.1          38.4    
20 to 24 years..............................         49        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
25 to 54 years..............................      1,237        100.0          34.7          27.8          37.5    
55 to 64 years..............................        479        100.0          33.8          26.4          39.8    
65 years and over...........................        137        100.0          42.2          10.1          47.7    
                                                                                                                  
                   White                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................      3,499        100.0          35.4          31.1          33.6    
Men.........................................      1,966        100.0          36.0          36.3          27.8    
Women.......................................      1,533        100.0          34.6          24.4          41.0    
                                                                                                                  
         Black or African American                                                                                
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................        465        100.0          40.1          38.0          21.8    
Men.........................................        209        100.0          41.9          41.7          16.4    
Women.......................................        256        100.0          38.7          35.0          26.3    
                                                                                                                  
                   Asian                                                                                          
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................        192        100.0          36.2          28.4          35.4    
Men.........................................        120        100.0          28.0          39.5          32.5    
Women.......................................         71        100.0          (2)           (2)           (2)     
                                                                                                                  
        Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                              
                                                                                                                  
    Total, 20 years and over................        685        100.0          41.5          40.0          18.4    
Men.........................................        413        100.0          46.8          39.6          13.6    
Women.......................................        273        100.0          33.7          40.6          25.7    
 
   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2011
and December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their
positions or shifts.
   2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals
because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be
of any race.




Table 3. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by whether they received written advance notice, reason for job loss, and
employment status in January 2014

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                                                                         Percent distribution by employment status   
                                                                                                                     
                     Characteristic                           Total                                                  
                                                                         Total      Employed   Unemployed  Not in the
                                                                                                          labor force
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                          TOTAL                                                                                      
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     4,292      100.0        61.3        20.8        17.9   
Received written advance notice..........................     1,725      100.0        64.1        18.9        17.0   
Did not receive written advance notice...................     2,492      100.0        59.3        22.0        18.7   
                                                                                                                     
          Plant or company closed down or moved                                                                      
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     1,513      100.0        62.3        19.3        18.4   
Received written advance notice..........................       857      100.0        63.5        19.3        17.2   
Did not receive written advance notice...................       625      100.0        61.1        18.9        20.0   
                                                                                                                     
                    Insufficient work                                                                                
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     1,399      100.0        60.0        23.2        16.8   
Received written advance notice..........................       387      100.0        64.3        19.4        16.3   
Did not receive written advance notice...................       983      100.0        58.0        24.9        17.1   
                                                                                                                     
               Position or shift abolished                                                                           
                                                                                                                     
    Total, 20 years and over (2).........................     1,380      100.0        61.5        20.1        18.5   
Received written advance notice..........................       482      100.0        65.0        17.8        17.2   
Did not receive written advance notice...................       883      100.0        59.6        21.0        19.5   

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2011 and
December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Includes a small number who did not report information on advance notice.




Table 4. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by industry and class of worker of lost job and employment status in
January 2014
          
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                                                                         Percent distribution by employment status   
                                                                                                                     
        Industry and class of worker of lost job             Total                                                   
                                                                         Total      Employed   Unemployed  Not in the
                                                                                                          labor force
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
     Total, 20 years and over (2)........................     4,292      100.0        61.3        20.8        17.9   
Agriculture and related industries wage and salary                                                                   
   workers...............................................        38      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
Nonagricultural industries wage and salary workers.......     4,162      100.0        61.9        20.6        17.5   
                                                                                                                     
  Private nonagricultural wage and salary workers........     3,906      100.0        61.8        20.7        17.5   
        Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction....        62      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
        Construction.....................................       393      100.0        68.4        16.3        15.3   
        Manufacturing....................................       765      100.0        59.3        22.5        18.2   
             Durable goods manufacturing ................       462      100.0        63.5        22.1        14.3   
                 Primary metals and fabricated metal                                                                 
                  products...............................        59      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
                 Machinery manufacturing.................        67      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
                 Computers and electronic products.......        91      100.0        66.6        20.1        13.2   
                 Electrical equipment and appliances.....        27      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
                 Transportation equipment................        99      100.0        63.6         9.5        26.9   
                 Miscellaneous manufacturing.............        47      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
                 Other durable goods industries..........        72      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
             Nondurable goods manufacturing .............       304      100.0        52.7        23.1        24.2   
                 Food manufacturing......................        82      100.0        39.4        39.0        21.6   
                 Textiles, apparel, and leather..........        44      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
                 Paper and printing......................        53      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
                 Other nondurable goods industries.......       124      100.0        61.4        14.2        24.5   
        Wholesale and retail trade.......................       593      100.0        57.6        22.8        19.7   
             Wholesale trade.............................       146      100.0        55.3        34.8         9.9   
             Retail trade................................       446      100.0        58.3        18.8        22.9   
        Transportation and utilities (4).................       147      100.0        69.4        19.9        10.7   
             Transportation and warehousing..............       119      100.0        66.5        23.4        10.1   
        Information (4)..................................       137      100.0        66.6        19.7        13.7   
             Telecommunications..........................        39      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
        Financial activities.............................       289      100.0        61.0        18.7        20.2   
             Finance and insurance.......................       234      100.0        64.1        19.6        16.3   
                 Finance.................................       148      100.0        60.1        22.2        17.7   
                 Insurance...............................        87      100.0        70.9        15.1        14.0   
             Real estate and rental and leasing..........        55      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
        Professional and business services...............       580      100.0        60.0        19.9        20.1   
             Professional and technical services.........       389      100.0        60.8        21.3        17.9   
             Management, administrative, and waste                                                                   
              services...................................       190      100.0        58.3        17.0        24.8   
        Education and health services....................       482      100.0        59.9        24.7        15.4   
             Educational services........................        95      100.0        72.5         9.1        18.4   
             Health care and social assistance (4).......       387      100.0        56.8        28.5        14.7   
                 Hospitals...............................       106      100.0        52.8        32.0        15.2   
                 Health services, except hospitals.......       225      100.0        57.3        26.0        16.7   
        Leisure and hospitality (4)......................       304      100.0        69.4        17.5        13.2   
             Accommodation and food services (4).........       237      100.0        71.2        16.0        12.8   
                 Food services and drinking places.......       219      100.0        72.1        15.9        12.0   
        Other services...................................       146      100.0        57.7        19.6        22.7   
                                                                                                                     
  Government wage and salary workers.....................       257      100.0        63.5        19.2        17.3   

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2011 and
December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers and persons who did not report industry or class of
worker, not shown separately.
   3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   4 Includes other industries, not shown separately.




Table 5. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by occupation of lost job and employment status in January 2014
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                                  Percent distribution by employment status   
                                                                                                              
              Occupation of lost job                  Total                                                   
                                                                  Total      Employed   Unemployed  Not in the
                                                                                                   labor force
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
     Total, 20 years and over (2).................     4,292      100.0        61.3        20.8        17.9   
                                                                                                              
 Management, professional, and related occupations     1,449      100.0        66.6        16.9        16.5   
   Management, business, and financial operations                                                             
   occupations....................................       669      100.0        66.2        17.9        15.9   
   Professional and related occupations...........       781      100.0        66.9        16.0        17.0   
                                                                                                              
 Service occupations..............................       521      100.0        63.8        21.4        14.8   
                                                                                                              
 Sales and office occupations.....................     1,055      100.0        56.1        24.7        19.1   
   Sales and related occupations..................       408      100.0        60.4        19.7        19.9   
   Office and administrative support occupations..       647      100.0        53.4        27.9        18.7   
                                                                                                              
 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                             
   occupations....................................       499      100.0        65.6        19.1        15.3   
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.....        27      100.0        (3)         (3)         (3)    
   Construction and extraction occupations........       321      100.0        66.1        17.4        16.5   
   Installation, maintenance, and repair                                                                      
   occupations....................................       151      100.0        68.2        23.6         8.2   
                                                                                                              
 Production, transportation, and material moving                                                              
   occupations....................................       685      100.0        53.9        22.5        23.6   
   Production occupations.........................       440      100.0        54.0        24.9        21.1   
   Transportation and material moving occupations        245      100.0        53.8        18.1        28.1   
     
   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January
2011 and December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of
their positions or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number who did not report occupation.
   3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Beginning with displacement data for January 2012, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010
Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey. This classification system is
derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data
for 2012 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.




Table 6. Long-tenured displaced workers (1) by selected characteristics and area of residence in January 2014
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                New    Middle   East    West   South    East    West                   
           Characteristic              Total  England Atlant-  North   North  Atlant-  South   South   Mountain Pacific
                                                         ic   Central Central    ic   Central Central                  
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
       Workers who lost jobs                                                                                           
                                                                                                                       
    Total, 20 years and over........   4,292      221     681     668     296     737     206     418      258      807
Men.................................   2,390      122     349     368     130     444     122     236      158      462
Women...............................   1,902       99     332     300     165     294      85     182      100      345
                                                                                                                       
        Reason for job loss                                                                                            
                                                                                                                       
Plant or company closed down or                                                                                        
   moved............................   1,513       68     212     234     114     270      85     147      106      277
Insufficient work...................   1,399       83     218     208      46     256      83     146       72      289
Position or shift abolished.........   1,380       70     251     226     136     212      39     125       80      241
                                                                                                                       
Industry and class of worker of lost                                                                                   
              job (2)                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
Agriculture and related industries                                                                                     
   wage and salary workers..........      38        2      -        9       2       2      10      -         3       10
Nonagricultural industries wage and                                                                                    
   salary workers...................   4,162      216     661     653     293     719     197     410      250      764
                                                                                                                       
  Private nonagricultural wage and                                                                                     
   salary workers...................   3,906      206     615     617     272     672     193     389      237      705
        Mining, quarrying, and oil                                                                                     
         and gas extraction.........      62       -       -        3      -        9      13      31        4        2
        Construction................     393       24      32      54      27      79      26      37       27       88
        Manufacturing...............     765       42      91     142      49     134      28      98       26      155
             Durable goods..........     462       25      23      99      25      84      19      65       15      105
             Nondurable goods.......     304       17      68      42      24      50       9      33       11       50
        Wholesale and retail trade..     593       26      93      95      44     102      38      44       43      107
        Transportation and utilities     147        9      15      19       6      49      11      24        3       14
        Information.................     137        5      28      28       9      26       4       4       11       21
        Financial activities........     289       16      41      51      35      45      11      11       19       60
        Professional and business                                                                                      
         services...................     580       27     122      73      30      96      22      48       51      111
        Education and health                                                                                           
         services...................     482       23     104      93      40      76      18      44       18       67
        Leisure and hospitality.....     304       31      73      38      19      32      11      30       22       49
        Other services..............     146        4      17      21      12      21      10      20       12       31
                                                                                                                       
  Government wage and salary workers     257       10      47      36      21      46       4      21       13       59
                                                                                                                       
         Employment status                                                                                             
          in January 2014                                                                                              
                                                                                                                       
Employed............................   2,630      163     358     416     205     489     122     249      167      460
Unemployed..........................     894       32     178     152      57     113      59      99       49      155
Not in the labor force..............     768       26     145      99      34     135      25      70       42      191

   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2011 and
December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers and persons who did not report industry or class of worker,
not shown separately.
   NOTE: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont compose the New England
Division; New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania compose the Middle Atlantic Division; Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Ohio, and Wisconsin compose the East North Central Division; Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
and South Dakota compose the West North Central Division; Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia compose the South Atlantic Division; Alabama, Kentucky,
Mississippi, and Tennessee compose the East South Central Division; Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas compose
the West South Central Division; Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming compose the
Mountain Division; Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington compose the Pacific Division. Dash represents or
rounds to zero.




Table 7. Long-tenured displaced workers(1) who lost full-time wage and salary jobs and were reemployed in January
2014 by industry of lost job and characteristics of new job
(In thousands)
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
                                                                     Reemployed in January 2014                       
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
                                                                     Wage and salary workers                          
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                Full time                             
                                                                                                               Self-  
  Industry and class of worker of lost job                                                                    employed
                                               Total                  Earnings relative to those of lost job    and   
                                                       Part                                                    unpaid 
                                                       time                                                    family 
                                                              Total      20      Below,   Equal or     20     workers 
                                                               (2)    percent     but      above,   percent           
                                                                      or more  within 20    but     or more           
                                                                       below    percent  within 20   above            
                                                                                          percent                     
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
    Total who lost full-time wage and salary                                                                          
     jobs (3)...............................   2,220     259   1,783      392       299       468       294       178 
Agriculture and related industries wage and                                                                           
   salary workers...........................       8       2       6        -         2         1         -         - 
Nonagricultural industries wage and salary                                                                            
   workers..................................   2,185     254   1,753      392       292       464       288       178 
                                                                                                                      
  Private nonagricultural wage and salary                                                                             
   workers..................................   2,077     236   1,673      367       278       453       268       167 
        Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                                            
         extraction.........................      43       -      36       10         2        11         9         6 
        Construction........................     244      14     205       56        19        55        44        24 
        Manufacturing.......................     418      36     356       82        78        70        49        26 
             Durable goods..................     279      25     240       44        62        51        35        13 
             Nondurable goods...............     139      10     116       37        16        19        13        13 
        Wholesale and retail trade..........     258      28     200       52        35        49        28        30 
        Transportation and utilities........      99       5      86       32        12        12        11         8 
        Information.........................      87      17      65        8         5        27         9         4 
        Financial activities................     164       5     141       32        40        35        18        18 
        Professional and business services..     324      44     263       45        32        91        44        17 
        Education and health services.......     236      44     173       23        32        59        38        19 
        Leisure and hospitality.............     139      34      98       26         8        26        17         8 
        Other services......................      65       7      51        2        15        18         2         6 
                                                                                                                      
  Government wage and salary workers........     108      18      79       25        15        11        20        10 
     
   1 Data refer to persons who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2011 and
December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions
or shifts.
   2 Includes about 330,000 persons who did not report earnings on lost job.
   3 Includes a small number who did not report industry.
   NOTE: Dash represents or rounds to zero.




Table 8. Total displaced workers (1) by selected characteristics and employment status in January 2014
(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
                                                                Percent distribution by employment status
                                                                                                         
                  Characteristic                      Total                                              
                                                                 Total  Employed  Unemployed   Not in the
                                                                                              labor force
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                         
              Workers who lost jobs                                                                      
                                                                                                         
    Total, 20 years and over......................     9,529     100.0     60.8       23.5        15.7   
20 to 24 years....................................       912     100.0     58.5       30.3        11.1   
25 to 54 years....................................     6,661     100.0     65.7       22.1        12.2   
55 to 64 years....................................     1,530     100.0     50.1       27.2        22.7   
65 years and over.................................       426     100.0     27.1       18.2        54.7   
                                                                                                         
    Men, 20 years and over........................     5,496     100.0     62.8       25.0        12.2   
20 to 24 years....................................       548     100.0     59.3       33.1         7.6   
25 to 54 years....................................     3,862     100.0     67.4       23.6         9.0   
55 to 64 years....................................       831     100.0     53.1       29.5        17.4   
65 years and over.................................       255     100.0     32.9       13.4        53.7   
                                                                                                         
    Women, 20 years and over......................     4,033     100.0     58.1       21.6        20.3   
20 to 24 years....................................       364     100.0     57.3       26.2        16.5   
25 to 54 years....................................     2,798     100.0     63.5       20.1        16.5   
55 to 64 years....................................       699     100.0     46.6       24.5        29.0   
65 years and over.................................       171     100.0     18.6       25.2        56.2   
                                                                                                         
White.............................................     7,483     100.0     62.2       21.9        15.9   
Black or African American.........................     1,260     100.0     53.9       34.2        12.0   
Asian.............................................       425     100.0     56.6       22.4        21.0   
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity......................     1,768     100.0     62.0       24.2        13.8   
                                                                                                         
               Reason for job loss                                                                       
                                                                                                         
Plant or company closed down or moved.............     2,845     100.0     63.4       20.6        16.0   
Insufficient work.................................     4,169     100.0     58.0       26.5        15.5   
Position or shift abolished.......................     2,515     100.0     62.4       22.0        15.6   
                                                                                                         
            Occupation of lost job (2)                                                                   
                                                                                                         
 Management, professional, and related occupations     2,706     100.0     69.6       17.2        13.2   
   Management, business, and financial operations                                                        
   occupations....................................     1,265     100.0     67.6       19.2        13.3   
   Professional and related occupations...........     1,441     100.0     71.4       15.5        13.1   
 Service occupations..............................     1,339     100.0     60.4       22.4        17.2   
 Sales and office occupations.....................     2,366     100.0     56.0       27.7        16.3   
   Sales and related occupations..................     1,047     100.0     58.4       25.7        15.9   
   Office and administrative support occupations..     1,319     100.0     54.1       29.4        16.6   
 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                        
   occupations....................................     1,250     100.0     62.6       23.8        13.6   
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.....        74     100.0     (3)        (3)         (3)    
   Construction and extraction occupations........       872     100.0     63.1       23.0        13.9   
   Installation, maintenance, and repair                                                                 
   occupations....................................       304     100.0     62.5       28.2         9.3   
 Production, transportation, and material moving                                                         
   occupations....................................     1,487     100.0     55.2       27.3        17.5   
   Production occupations.........................       830     100.0     55.0       27.2        17.8   
   Transportation and material moving occupations        656     100.0     55.4       27.4        17.2   
                                                                                                         
   Industry and class of worker of lost job (2)                                                          
                                                                                                         
Agriculture and related industries wage and salary                                                       
   workers........................................        87     100.0     51.8       23.4        24.8   
Nonagricultural industries wage and salary workers     9,043     100.0     61.7       23.1        15.2   
                                                                                                         
  Private nonagricultural wage and salary workers      8,540     100.0     61.5       23.3        15.2   
        Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                               
         extraction...............................       127     100.0     59.5       25.4        15.1   
        Construction..............................     1,034     100.0     63.3       22.1        14.7   
        Manufacturing.............................     1,364     100.0     61.9       23.3        14.7   
             Durable goods........................       872     100.0     64.2       22.3        13.5   
             Nondurable goods.....................       492     100.0     57.8       25.2        17.0   
        Wholesale and retail trade................     1,309     100.0     57.6       27.5        14.8   
        Transportation and utilities..............       377     100.0     66.9       19.0        14.1   
        Information...............................       249     100.0     66.8       23.2         9.9   
        Financial activities......................       617     100.0     62.1       21.2        16.6   
        Professional and business services........     1,249     100.0     59.4       24.4        16.2   
        Education and health services.............     1,017     100.0     63.0       22.2        14.7   
        Leisure and hospitality...................       858     100.0     64.5       20.0        15.5   
        Other services............................       332     100.0     52.9       27.1        20.0   
                                                                                                         
  Government wage and salary workers..............       503     100.0     65.1       20.1        14.8   

   1 Data refer to all persons (regardless of years of tenure on lost job) who had lost or left a job
between January 2011 and December 2013 because of plant or company closings or moves, insufficient work,
or the abolishment of their positions or shifts.
   2 Total includes a small number of unpaid family workers and persons who did not report occupation,
industry, or class of worker, not shown separately.
   3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
   NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum
to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as
Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Beginning with displacement data for January 2012, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010
Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey. This classification system
is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been
revised. Data for 2012 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.




Last Modified Date: August 26, 2014
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