Economic News Release

Employment Projections: 2012-22 News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, December 19, 2013          USDL-13-2393

Technical information:  (202) 691-5700  *  ep-info@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/emp
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                   EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS -- 2012-2022


Occupations and industries related to healthcare are projected to add
the most new jobs between 2012 and 2022, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS) reported today. Total employment is projected to increase 
10.8 percent, or 15.6 million, during the decade. 

In addition to projecting employment for each detailed occupation, BLS
depicts the education, related work experience, and on-the-job training 
typically needed for occupations. Occupations that typically require 
postsecondary education for entry are expected, on average, to grow faster 
than occupations that require a high school diploma or less.

This news release focuses on several areas of projections data: labor
force and the aggregate economy, industry employment, occupation employment, 
education and training, and replacement needs.

Labor force and the aggregate economy

Projections of the labor force and the aggregate economy serve as the
basis for employment projections. Slower projected growth in the civilian 
noninstitutional population and declining labor force participation rates 
limit growth in the labor force, which in turn limits economic growth.

  --The labor force is projected to grow 0.5 percent per year from
    2012 to 2022, compared with an annual growth rate of 0.7 percent
    during the 2002-12 decade. Due to the aging baby-boom generation,
    workers ages 55 and older are expected to make up over one-quarter 
    of the labor force in 2022. (See table 1.)

  --Projected declines in the labor force participation rates for
    both men and women are expected to slow labor force growth. The
    overall labor force participation rate is projected to decline from
    63.7 percent in 2012 to 61.6 percent in 2022, continuing the trend
    from the past decade. (See table 2.)

  --Slower labor force growth is expected to limit potential economic
    growth. Gross domestic product (GDP) is projected to increase by 2.6
    percent annually from 2012 to 2022, slower than the 3 percent or
    higher rate often posted from the mid-1990s through mid-2000s.

Industry employment

BLS analyzes future demand for different types of goods and services,
and then projects the employment necessary to produce them. Most of
the 10.8 percent employment growth is projected to be in service-
providing industries.

  --The health care and social assistance sector is projected to grow at
    an annual rate of 2.6 percent, adding 5.0 million jobs between 2012
    and 2022. This accounts for nearly one-third of the total projected
    increase in jobs. The growth reflects, in part, the demand for
    healthcare workers to address the needs of an aging population. (See
    table 3.)

  --Employment in the construction sector is projected to grow 2.6 percent
    annually. This equates to 1.6 million new jobs over the 2012-22
    decade, the most among goods-producing sectors and third most
    among all major industry sectors. (See table 3.) Despite expected 
    fast growth, construction sector employment in 2022 is  projected 
    to be below the peak level (7.7 million; 2006).

  --Five industry sectors are projected to have decreases in employment: 
    manufacturing (-549,500); federal government (-407,500); agriculture, 
    forestry, fishing, and hunting (-223,500); information (-65,200); and 
    utilities (-56,400). (See table 3.)

Occupation employment

Projected industry employment is distributed among occupations based
on how industries are expected to use those occupations.

  --Of the 30 occupations projected to have the largest percentage
    increase between 2012 and 2022, 14 are related to healthcare and 5 
    are related to construction. (See table 4.)

  --The 30 occupations with the largest projected increase in employ-
    ment from 2012 to 2022 will account for 7.4 million new jobs, almost
    half of the total projected employment growth. (See table 5.)

  --Four major occupational groups are projected to grow more than 20 
    percent--nearly double the overall growth--from 2012 to 2022: health-
    care support occupations (28.1 percent), healthcare practitioners and
    technical occupations (21.5 percent), construction and extraction
    occupations (21.4 percent), and personal care and service occupations
    (20.9 percent). (See table 6.)

  --Every major occupational group except farming, fishing, and
    forestry occupations is projected to gain jobs between 2012 and 2022.
    (See table 6.)

Education and training

In addition to projecting employment for each detailed occupation, BLS
depicts the education, related work experience, and on-the-job training 
typically needed for occupations.

  --Nineteen of the 30 occupations projected to grow fastest from
    2012 to 2022 typically require some form of postsecondary education
    for entry. (See table 4.)

  --Two-thirds of the 30 occupations with the largest projected
    employment increase from 2012 to 2022 typically do not require
    postsecondary education for entry. (See table 5.)

  --Occupations typically requiring postsecondary education for entry
    generally had higher median wages ($57,770) in 2012 and are projected
    to grow faster (14.0 percent) between 2012 and 2022 than occupations
    that typically require a high school diploma or less ($27,670 and 9.1
    percent). (See table 7.)

  --Occupations that do not typically require postsecondary education
    are projected to add 8.8 million jobs between 2012 and 2022,
    accounting for more than half of all new jobs. These occupations
    employed nearly two-thirds of workers in 2012. (See table 7.)

  --Occupations that typically require an apprenticeship are projected 
    to grow 22.2 percent from 2012 to 2022, faster than any other on-the-
    job training assignment. (See table 7.)

Replacement needs

Employment growth is not the only source of job openings. BLS also
projects job openings resulting from the need to replace workers who
retire or otherwise permanently leave an occupation. Job openings due
to replacement needs are expected in every occupation, even in those
projected to decline in employment.
 
  --Over the 2012-22 decade, 50.6 million total job openings are
    expected. While growth will lead to many openings, more than two-
    thirds--67.2 percent--are projected to come from replacement needs.

  --In more than 4 out of 5 occupations, openings from replacement 
    needs are projected to exceed openings from growth.

  --Nearly two-thirds of all job openings are expected to be in
    occupations that typically do not require postsecondary education for
    entry. (See table 7.)

  --Twenty-two of the 30 occupations with the largest number of
    projected job openings are classified as not typically requiring
    postsecondary education. (See table 8.)

More information

The BLS projections are used by high school students and their teachers 
and parents, college students, career changers, and career development 
and guidance specialists. The projections are the foundation of the 
BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook, one of the nation's most widely used 
career information resources. The projections are also used by state 
workforce agencies to prepare state and area projections that, together 
with the national projections, are widely used by policymakers and 
education and training officials to make decisions about education and 
training policy, funding, and program offerings. In addition, other 
federal agencies, researchers, and academics use the projections to 
understand trends in the economy and labor market. New projections are 
released every 2 years.

More detailed information on the 2012-22 projections appears in five
articles in the Monthly Labor Review. Links to these articles are
available at www.bls.gov/emp/publications.htm.

Tables with projections data, including but not limited to what was
highlighted in this release, are available online at
www.bls.gov/emp/tables.htm. Detailed information about the projections
methods is available at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.
More information about the education and training system is available 
at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm.

A graphic representation of projections highlights appears in the
Winter 2013-14 issue of the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, available
online at www.bls.gov/ooq.

The 2014-15 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) will
feature the 2012-22 projections. The OOH includes information about 
work activities, wages, education and training requirements, the job 
outlook, and more for 580 detailed occupations in 334 profiles. The 
updated OOH will be available online on January 8, 2014, at www.bls.gov/ooh.

Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay 
Services: (800) 877-8339.




Table 1. Civilian labor force by age, sex, race, and ethnicity, 1992, 2002, 2012, and projected 2022

(In thousands]                                                                                                                                            


            Group                             Level                      Change                Percent change        Percent distribution    Annual growth rate
																	          (percent)      
                                                                                                                                           
                                1992      2002      2012      2022   1992-   2002-  2012-   1992-  2002-  2012-    1992  2002  2012  2022   1992-  2002-  2012-
                                                                     2002    2012   2022    2002   2012   2022                              2002   2012   2022

Total, 16 years and older     128,105   144,863   154,975   163,450  16,758  10,112  8,475    13.1    7.0    5.5   100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0     1.2    0.7    0.5
                                                                                                                                            
Age, years:                                                                                                                                            
   16 to 24.................   21,617    22,366    21,285    18,462     749  -1,081 -2,823     3.5   -4.8  -13.3    16.9  15.4  13.7  11.3     0.3   -0.5   -1.4
   25 to 54.................   91,429   101,720   101,253   103,195  10,292    -467  1,942    11.3   -0.5    1.9    71.4  70.2  65.3  63.1     1.1   -0.0    0.2
   55 and older.............   15,060    20,777    32,437    41,793   5,717  11,660  9,356    38.0   56.1   28.8    11.8  14.3  20.9  25.6     3.3    4.6    2.6
                                                                                                                                            
Sex:                                                                                                                                            
   Men......................   69,964    77,500    82,327    86,913   7,536   4,827  4,586    10.8    6.2    5.6    54.6  53.5  53.1  53.2     1.0    0.6    0.5
   Women....................   58,141    67,364    72,648    76,537   9,223   5,284  3,889    15.9    7.8    5.4    45.4  46.5  46.9  46.8     1.5    0.8    0.5
                                                                                                                                            
Race:                                                                                                                                            
   White..................... 108,837   120,150   123,684   126,923  11,313   3,534  3,239    10.4    2.9    2.6    85.0  82.9  79.8  77.7     1.0    0.3    0.3
   Black.....................  14,162    16,565    18,400    20,247   2,403   1,835  1,847    17.0   11.1   10.0    11.1  11.4  11.9  12.4     1.6    1.1    1.0
   Asian.....................   5,106     6,604     8,188    10,135   1,498   1,584  1,947    29.3   24.0   23.8     4.0   4.6   5.3   6.2     2.6    2.2    2.2
   All other groups (1)......      -      1,544     4,703     6,145      -    3,159  1,442      -   204.6   30.7      -    1.1   3.0   3.8      -    11.8    2.7
                                                                                                                                            
Ethnicity:                                                                                                                                            
   Hispanic origin...........  11,338    17,943    24,391    31,179   6,605   6,448  6,788    58.3   35.9   27.8     8.9  12.4  15.7  19.1     4.7    3.1    2.5
   Other than Hispanic origin 116,767   126,920   130,584   132,271  10,153   3,664  1,687     8.7    2.9    1.3    91.1  87.6  84.3  80.9     0.8    0.3    0.1
   White non-Hispanic........  98,724   103,349   101,892    99,431   4,625  -1,457 -2,461     4.7   -1.4   -2.4    77.1  71.3  65.7  60.8     0.5   -0.1   -0.2
                                                                                                                                            
Age of baby boomers.......... 28 to 46  38 to 56  48 to 66  58 to 76

   1 The "all other groups" category includes (1) those classified as being of multiple racial origin and (2) the race categories of (2a) American Indian and 
Alaska Native and (2b) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders.
   Note: Dash indicates no data collected for category. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.




Table 2. Civilian labor force participation rates by age, sex, race, and ethnicity, 1992, 2002, 2012, and projected 2022

(In percent)

                                       Participation rate             Percentage-point change      Annual growth rate

       Group                     1992     2002     2012     2022      1992-    2002-    2012-    1992-    2002-    2012-
                                                                      2002     2012     2022     2002     2012     2022
                                                        
Total, 16 years and older....... 66.4     66.6     63.7     61.6       0.2     -2.9     -2.1      0.0     -0.4     -0.3
                                                        
Age, years:                                                        
   16 to 24..................... 66.1     63.3     54.9     49.6      -2.9     -8.4     -5.3     -0.4     -1.4     -1.0
   25 to 54..................... 83.6     83.3     81.4     81.0      -0.3     -1.9     -0.4     -0.0     -0.2     -0.1
   55 and older................. 29.7     34.5     40.5     41.5       4.9      6.0      1.0      1.5      1.6      0.3
                                                        
Sex:                                                        
   Men.......................... 75.8     74.1     70.2     67.6      -1.7     -3.9     -2.6     -0.2     -0.5     -0.4
   Women........................ 57.8     59.6     57.7     56.0       1.8     -1.9     -1.7      0.3     -0.3     -0.3
                                                        
Race:                                                        
   White........................ 66.8     66.8     64.0     61.7       0.0     -2.8     -2.3      0.0     -0.4     -0.4
   Black........................ 63.9     64.8     61.5     59.8       0.9     -3.3     -1.7      0.1     -0.5     -0.3
   Asian........................ 66.5     67.2     63.9     63.2       0.7     -3.3     -0.7      0.1     -0.5     -0.1
   All other groups (1).........   -        -      63.9     63.2        -        -      -0.7       -        -        - 
                                                       
Ethnicity:                                                        
   Hispanic origin.............. 66.8     69.1     66.4     65.9       2.3     -2.7     -0.5      0.3     -0.4     -0.1
   Other than Hispanic origin... 66.4     66.2     63.2     60.7      -0.2     -3.0     -2.5     -0.0     -0.5     -0.4
   White non-Hispanic........... 66.7     66.5     63.5     60.8      -0.2     -3.0     -2.7     -0.0     -0.5     -0.4

   (1) The "all other groups" category includes (1) those classified as being of multiple racial origin and (2) the race 
categories of (2a) American Indian and Alaska Native and (2b) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders.
   Note: Dash indicates no data collected for category. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.




Table 3. Employment by major industry sector, 2002, 2012, and projected 2022                                                                                    


Industry sector
                                                           Thousands of jobs             Change        Percent distribution    Annual growth rate
                                                                                                                                  (percent)                                                
                                                   2002       2012       2022       2002-     2012-    2002    2012    2022     2002-    2012-                                            
                                                                                    2012      2022                              2012     2022 

Total (1)...................................... 142,294.9  145,355.8  160,983.7   3,060.9  15,627.9   100.0   100.0   100.0      0.2      1.0                                             
                                                                                      
Nonagriculture wage and salary (2)............. 131,028.3  134,427.6  149,751.3   3,399.3  15,323.7    92.1    92.5    93.0      0.3      1.1                                             
                                                                                       
Goods-producing, excluding agriculture.........  22,486.7   18,360.3   19,554.2   -4126.4   1,193.9    15.8    12.6    12.1     -2.0      0.6                                             
   Mining......................................     512.3      800.5      921.7     288.2     121.2     0.4     0.6     0.6      4.6      1.4                                             
   Construction................................   6,715.7    5,640.9    7,263.0   -1074.8   1,622.1     4.7     3.9     4.5     -1.7      2.6                                             
   Manufacturing...............................  15,258.7   11,918.9   11,369.4   -3339.8    -549.5    10.7     8.2     7.1     -2.4     -0.5                                             
                                                                                      
Services-providing............................. 108,541.6  116,067.3  130,197.1   7,525.7  14,129.8    76.3    79.9    80.9      0.7      1.2                                             
   Utilities...................................     596.3      554.2      497.8     -42.1     -56.4     0.4     0.4     0.3     -0.7     -1.1                                             
   Wholesale trade.............................   5,652.4    5,672.8    6,143.2      20.4     470.4     4.0     3.9     3.8      0.0      0.8                                             
   Retail trade................................  15,025.1   14,875.3   15,966.2    -149.8   1,090.9    10.6    10.2     9.9     -0.1      0.7                                             
   Transportation and warehousing..............   4,223.8    4,414.7    4,742.0     190.9     327.3     3.0     3.0     2.9      0.4      0.7                                             
   Information.................................   3,394.6    2,677.6    2,612.4    -717.0     -65.2     2.4     1.8     1.6     -2.3     -0.2                                             
   Financial activities........................   7,847.1    7,786.3    8,537.3     -60.8     751.0     5.5     5.4     5.3     -0.1      0.9                                             
   Professional and business services..........  15,976.2   17,930.2   21,413.0   1,954.0   3,482.8    11.2    12.3    13.3      1.2      1.8                                             
   Educational services........................   2,642.8    3,346.9    4,022.2     704.1     675.3     1.9     2.3     2.5      2.4      1.9                                             
   Health care and social assistance...........  13,555.6   16,971.8   21,965.9   3,416.2   4,994.1     9.5    11.7    13.6      2.3      2.6                                             
   Leisure and hospitality.....................  11,986.0   13,745.8   15,035.0   1,759.8   1,289.2     8.4     9.5     9.3      1.4      0.9                                             
   Other services..............................   6,129.0    6,174.5    6,823.4      45.5     648.9     4.3     4.2     4.2      0.1      1.0                                             
   Federal government..........................   2,766.0    2,814.0    2,406.5      48.0    -407.5     1.9     1.9     1.5      0.2     -1.6                                             
   State and local government..................  18,746.7   19,103.2   20,032.2     356.5     929.0    13.2    13.1    12.4      0.2      0.5                                             
                                                                                      
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting (3)   2,245.4    2,112.7    1,889.2    -132.7    -223.5     1.6     1.5     1.2     -0.6     -1.1                                             
   Agriculture wage and salary.................   1,217.4    1,306.9    1,281.8      89.5     -25.1     0.9     0.9     0.8      0.7     -0.2                                             
   Agriculture self-employed and  
     unpaid family workers.....................   1,028.0      805.8      607.4    -222.2    -198.4     0.7     0.6     0.4     -2.4     -2.8                                             
                                                                                      
Nonagriculture self-employed and 
  unpaid family workers........................   9,021.2    8,815.5    9,343.2    -205.7     527.7     6.3     6.1     5.8     -0.2      0.6                                             
                                                                                    


   (1) Employment data for wage and salary workers are from the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey, which counts jobs, 
whereas self-employed, unpaid family workers, and agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting are from the Current Population Survey (household survey),
which counts workers.                                                                                    
   (2) Includes wage and salary data from the Current Employment Statistics survey, except private households, which is from the 
Current Population Survey. Logging workers are excluded.                                                                                    
   (3) Includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting data from the Current Population Survey, except logging, which is from 
Current Employment Statistics survey. Government wage and salary workers are excluded.                                                                                    




Table 4. Fastest growing occupations, 2012 and projected 2022

(Employment in thousands)


2012 National Employment Matrix title         Employment             Change, 2012-22    Median annual   Typical education          Work experience in a                 Typical on-the-job training
                                          2012         2022          Number  Percent    wage, 2012 (1)  needed for entry           related occupation                   needed to attain competency
                                                                                                                                                                           in the occupation

Total, all occupations................ 145,355.8     160,983.7      15,628.0    10.8      $34,750       N/A                             N/A                             N/A
Industrial-organizational.............       1.6           2.5           0.9    53.4       83,580       Master's degree                 None                            Internship/residency
   psychologists			
Personal care aides...................   1,190.6       1,771.4         580.8    48.8       19,910       Less than high school           None                            Short-term on-the-job training
Home health aides.....................     875.1       1,299.3         424.2    48.5       20,820       Less than high school           None                            Short-term on-the-job training
Insulation workers, mechanical........      28.9          42.4          13.5    46.7       39,170       High school diploma 
                                                                                                           or equivalent                None                            Apprenticeship		
Interpreters and translators..........      63.6          92.9          29.3    46.1       45,430       Bachelor's degree               None                            Short-term on-the-job training
Diagnostic medical sonographers.......      58.8          85.9          27.0    46.0       65,860       Associate's degree              None                            None		
Helpers--brickmasons, blockmasons,....      24.4          34.9          10.5    43.0       28,220       Less than high school           None                            Short-term on-the-job training
   stonemasons, and tile and 		
   marble setters			
Occupational therapy assistants.......      30.3          43.2          12.9    42.6       53,240       Associate's degree              None                            None
Genetic counselors....................       2.1           3.0           0.9    41.2       56,800       Master's degree                 None                            None
Physical therapist assistants.........      71.4         100.7          29.3    41.0       52,160       Associate's degree              None                            None
Physical therapist aides..............      50.0          70.1          20.1    40.1       23,880       High school diploma             None                            Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                           or equivalent
Skincare specialists..................      44.4          62.0          17.7    39.8       28,640       Postsecondary non-degree        None                            None
                                                                                                           award
Physician assistants..................      86.7         120.0          33.3    38.4       90,930       Master's degree                 None                            None
Segmental pavers......................       1.8           2.4           0.7    38.1       33,720       High school diploma             None                            Moderate-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                           or equivalent
Helpers--electricians.................      60.8          83.3          22.4    36.9       27,670       High school diploma             None                            Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                           or equivalent
Information security analysts.........      75.1         102.5          27.4    36.5       86,170       Bachelor's degree               Less than 5 years               None
Occupational therapy aides............       8.4          11.4           3.0    36.2       26,850       High school diploma             None                            Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                           or equivalent
Health specialties teachers,..........     190.0         258.6          68.6    36.1       81,140       Doctoral or professional        Less than 5 years               None
   postsecondary                                                                                           degree
Medical secretaries...................     525.6         714.9         189.2    36.0       31,350       High school diploma             None                            Moderate-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                           or equivalent
Physical therapists...................     204.2         277.7          73.5    36.0       79,860       Doctoral or professional        None                            None
                                                                                                           degree
Orthotists and prosthetists...........       8.5          11.5           3.0    35.5       62,670       Master's degree                 None                            Internship/residency
Brickmasons and blockmasons...........      71.0          96.2          25.2    35.5       46,440       High school diploma             None                            Apprenticeship
                                                                                                           or equivalent
Nursing instructors and teachers,.....      67.8          91.8          24.0    35.4       64,850       Master's degree                 Less than 5 years               None
   postsecondary			
Nurse practitioners...................     110.2         147.3          37.1    33.7       89,960       Master's degree                 None                            None
Audiologists                                13.0          17.3           4.3    33.6       69,720       Doctoral or professional        None                            None
                                                                                                           degree
Dental hygienists.....................     192.8         256.9          64.2    33.3       70,210       Associate's degree              None                            None
Meeting, convention, and..............      94.2         125.4          31.3    33.2       45,810       Bachelor's degree               None                            None
   event planners			
Therapists, all other.................      28.8          37.9           9.1    31.7       53,210       Bachelor's degree               None                            None
Market research analysts and..........     415.7         547.2         131.5    31.6       60,300       Bachelor's degree               None                            None
   marketing specialists		
Substance abuse and behavioral........      89.6         117.7          28.2    31.4       38,520       High school diploma             None                            Moderate-term on-the-job training
   disorder counselors                                                                                     or equivalent

   (1) Data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics program, U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Table 5. Occupations with the most job growth, 2012 and projected 2022

(Employment in thousands)


2012 National Employment Matrix title          Employment        Change, 2012-22  Median annual    Typical education       Work experience in a               Typical on-the-job training 
                                             2012      2022      Number  Percent  wage, 2012(1)    needed for entry        related occupation                 needed to attain competency 
                                                                                                                                                                 in the occupation
Total, all occupations................   145,355.8  160,983.7  15,628.0     10.8     $34,750       N/A                             N/A                        N/A
Personal care aides...................     1,190.6    1,771.4     580.8     48.8      19,910       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
Registered nurses.....................     2,711.5    3,238.4     526.8     19.4      65,470       Associate's degree              None                       None
Retail salespersons...................     4,447.0    4,881.7     434.7      9.8      21,110       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
Home health aides.....................       875.1    1,299.3     424.2     48.5      20,820       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
Combined food preparation and.........     2,969.3    3,391.2     421.9     14.2      18,260       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   serving workers, including 		
   fast food                                                                                                                                                                                 
Nursing assistants....................     1,479.8    1,792.0     312.2     21.1      24,420       Postsecondary non-degree        None                       None
                                                                                                      award
Secretaries and administrative........     2,324.4    2,632.3     307.8     13.2      32,410       High school diploma             None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   assistants, except legal,                                                                          or equivalent
   medical, and executive		
Customer service representatives......     2,362.8    2,661.4     298.7     12.6      30,580       High school diploma             None                       Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                      or equivalent
Janitors and cleaners, except maids...     2,324.0    2,604.0     280.0     12.1      22,320       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   and housekeeping cleaners		
Construction laborers.................     1,071.1    1,331.0     259.8     24.3      29,990       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
General and operations managers.......     1,972.7    2,216.8     244.1     12.4      95,440       Bachelor's degree               Less than 5 years          None
Laborers and freight, stock, and......     2,197.3    2,439.2     241.9     11.0      23,890       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   material movers, hand		
Carpenters............................       901.2    1,119.4     218.2     24.2      39,940       High school diploma             None                       Apprenticeship
                                                                                                      or equivalent
Bookkeeping, accounting, and..........     1,799.8    2,004.5     204.6     11.4      35,170       High school diploma             None                       Moderate-term on-the-job training
   auditing clerks                                                                                    or equivalent
Heavy and tractor-trailer truck.......     1,701.5    1,894.1     192.6     11.3      38,200       Postsecondary non-degree        None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   drivers                                                                                            award
Medical secretaries...................       525.6      714.9     189.2     36.0      31,350       High school diploma             None                       Moderate-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                      or equivalent
Childcare workers.....................     1,312.7    1,496.8     184.1     14.0      19,510       High school diploma             None                       Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                      or equivalent
Office clerks, general................     2,983.5    3,167.6     184.1      6.2      27,470       High school diploma             None                       Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                      or equivalent
Maids and housekeeping cleaners.......     1,434.6    1,618.0     183.4     12.8      19,570       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
Licensed practical and licensed.......       738.4      921.3     182.9     24.8      41,540       Postsecondary non-degree        None                       None
   vocational nurses                                                                                  award
First-line supervisors of office......     1,418.1    1,589.6     171.5     12.1      49,330       High school diploma             Less than 5 years          None
   and administrative support                                                                         or equivalent
   workers				
Elementary school teachers,...........     1,361.2    1,529.1     167.9     12.3      53,400       Bachelor's degree               None                       Internship/residency
   except special education		
Accountants and auditors..............     1,275.4    1,442.2     166.7     13.1      63,550       Bachelor's degree               None                       None
Medical assistants....................       560.8      723.7     162.9     29.0      29,370       Postsecondary non-degree        None                       None
                                                                                                      award
Cooks, restaurant.....................     1,024.1    1,174.2     150.1     14.7      22,030       Less than high school           Less than 5 years          Moderate-term on-the-job training	
Software developers, applications.....       613.0      752.9     139.9     22.8      90,060       Bachelor's degree               None                       None
Landscaping and groundskeeping........     1,124.9    1,264.0     139.2     12.4      23,570       Less than high school           None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   workers				
Receptionists and information.........     1,006.7    1,142.6     135.9     13.5      25,990       High school diploma             None                       Short-term on-the-job training
   clerks                                                                                             or equivalent
Management analysts...................       718.7      852.5     133.8     18.6      78,600       Bachelor's degree               Less than 5 years          None
Sales representatives, wholesale......     1,480.7    1,612.8     132.0      8.9      54,230       High school diploma             None                       Moderate-term on-the-job training
   and manufacturing, except                                                                                    or equivalent
   technical and scientific 
   products 

   1 Data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics program, U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Table 6. Employment by major occupational group, 2012 and projected 2022

(Employment in thousands)


2012 National Employment Matrix title and code
                                                                                 Employment                  Change, 2012-22

                                                                           2012            2022           Number       Percent

Total, all occupations.....................................  00-0000    145,355.8       160,983.7       15,628.0         10.8

Management occupations.....................................  11-0000      8,861.5         9,498.0          636.6          7.2
Business and financial operations occupations..............  13-0000      7,167.6         8,065.7          898.1         12.5
Computer and mathematical occupations......................  15-0000      3,814.7         4,500.5          685.8         18.0
Architecture and engineering occupations...................  17-0000      2,474.5         2,654.0          179.6          7.3
Life, physical, and social science occupations.............  19-0000      1,249.1         1,374.8          125.7         10.1
Community and social service occupations...................  21-0000      2,374.7         2,783.4          408.8         17.2
Legal occupations..........................................  23-0000      1,247.0         1,379.9          132.9         10.7
Education, training, and library occupations...............  25-0000      9,115.9        10,131.7        1,015.8         11.1
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations.  27-0000      2,570.9         2,751.6          180.6          7.0
Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations.........  29-0000      8,049.7         9,782.6        1,732.9         21.5
Healthcare support occupations.............................  31-0000      4,110.2         5,266.0        1,155.8         28.1
Protective service occupations.............................  33-0000      3,325.3         3,588.3          263.0          7.9
Food preparation and serving related occupations...........  35-0000     11,780.1        12,882.0        1,101.8          9.4
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations..  37-0000      5,522.3         6,213.3          691.0         12.5
Personal care and service occupations......................  39-0000      5,375.6         6,498.5        1,122.9         20.9
Sales and related occupations..............................  41-0000     15,105.0        16,200.5        1,095.5          7.3
Office and administrative support occupations..............  43-0000     22,470.1        24,004.1        1,534.0          6.8
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.................  45-0000        947.2           915.0          -32.2         -3.4
Construction and extraction occupations....................  47-0000      6,092.2         7,394.1        1,301.9         21.4
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations..........  49-0000      5,514.8         6,046.0          531.2          9.6
Production occupations.....................................  51-0000      8,941.9         9,017.5           75.6          0.8
Transportation and material moving occupations.............  53-0000      9,245.7        10,036.4          790.6          8.6




Table 7. Employment by summary education and training assignment, 2012 and projected 2022

(Employment and job openings in thousands)


Education, work experience, and on-the-job training

                                                                    Employment               Change, 2012-22      Job openings            Median 
                                                               2012          2022          Number       Percent   due to growth and       annual
                                                                                                                  replacement needs,      wage,
                                                                                                                       2012-22            2012 (1)
                                                               
Typical education needed for entry                               
                                                              
Total, all occupations                                    145,355.8       160,983.7       15,628.0        10.8          50,557.3         $34,750
                                                            
   Postsecondary education..............................   48,963.8        55,802.6        6,838.7        14.0          16,975.6          57,770
      Doctoral or professional degree...................    4,002.4         4,640.8          638.4        16.0           1,426.8          96,420
      Master's degree...................................    2,432.2         2,880.7          448.5        18.4             950.8          63,400
      Bachelor's degree.................................   26,033.0        29,176.7        3,143.6        12.1           8,618.7          67,140
      Associate's degree................................    5,954.9         7,000.9        1,046.0        17.6           2,269.5          57,590
      Postsecondary non-degree award....................    8,554.2         9,891.2        1,337.1        15.6           3,067.2          34,760
      Some college, no degree...........................    1,987.2         2,212.2          225.0        11.3             642.6          28,730
   No postsecondary education...........................   96,392.0       105,181.2        8,789.2         9.1          33,581.7          27,670
      High school diploma or equivalent.................   58,264.4        62,895.2        4,630.8         7.9          17,667.4          35,170
      Less than high school.............................   38,127.6        42,286.0        4,158.4        10.9          15,914.3          20,110
                                                             
Work experience in a related occupation              
                                                            
Total, all occupations..................................  145,355.8       160,983.7       15,628.0        10.8          50,557.3          34,750
   5 years or more......................................    4,831.9         5,091.8          259.9         5.4           1,330.9          90,760
   Less than 5 years....................................   16,167.7        17,663.5        1,495.9         9.3           4,863.4          52,270
   None.................................................  124,356.2       138,228.4       13,872.2        11.2          44,363.0          32,260
                                                             
Typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency     
                                                           
Total, all occupations..................................  145,355.8       160,983.7       15,628.0        10.8          50,557.3          34,750
   Internship/residency.................................    5,989.1         6,658.9          669.8        11.2           1,997.8          53,570
   Apprenticeship.......................................    2,336.9         2,855.2          518.3        22.2             879.8          45,440
   Long-term on-the-job training........................    6,876.5         7,448.7          572.2         8.3           2,163.7          41,810
   Moderate-term on-the-job training....................   23,057.8        24,968.5        1,910.8         8.3           6,841.0          36,950
   Short-term on-the-job training.......................   58,928.4        64,673.7        5,745.3         9.7          22,273.7          22,960
   None.................................................   48,167.2        54,378.8        6,211.6        12.9          16,401.3          56,970
                                                             
   (1) Data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics program, U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Table 8. Occupations with the largest projected number of job openings due to growth and replacement needs, 2012 and projected 2022

(Employment and job openings in thousands)


2012 National Employment Matrix title                                       Employment         Change, 2012-22     Job openings due to     Median annual   Typical education          Work experience in      Typical on-the-job training needed 
                                                                                                                  growth and replacement   wage, 2012(1)   needed for entry           a related occupation    to attain competency in the occupation
                                                                          2012      2022       Number   Percent      needs, 2012-22

Total, all occupations...........................................     145,355.8  160,983.7    15,628.0    10.8          50,557.3             $34,750       N/A                        N/A                     N/A
								
Retail salespersons..............................................       4,447.0    4,881.7       434.7     9.8           1,955.7              21,110       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Combined food preparation and serving workers,...................       2,969.3    3,391.2       421.9    14.2           1,555.7              18,260       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
   including fast food						
Cashiers.........................................................       3,338.9    3,425.4        86.5     2.6           1,530.0              18,970       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Waiters and waitresses...........................................       2,362.2    2,494.0       131.8     5.6           1,268.3              18,540       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Registered nurses................................................       2,711.5    3,238.4       526.8    19.4           1,052.6              65,470       Associate's degree         None                    None
Customer service representatives.................................       2,362.8    2,661.4       298.7    12.6             941.6              30,580       High school diploma        None                    Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand...........       2,197.3    2,439.2       241.9    11.0             922.5              23,890       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Office clerks, general...........................................       2,983.5    3,167.6       184.1     6.2             810.9              27,470       High school diploma        None                    Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping cleaners....       2,324.0    2,604.0       280.0    12.1             717.3              22,320       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Personal care aides..............................................       1,190.6    1,771.4       580.8    48.8             666.0              19,910       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
General and operations managers..................................       1,972.7    2,216.8       244.1    12.4             613.1              95,440       Bachelor's degree          Less than 5 years       None
Nursing assistants...............................................       1,479.8    1,792.0       312.2    21.1             593.6              24,420       Postsecondary non-degree   None                    None
                                                                                                                                                              award
Home health aides................................................         875.1    1,299.3       424.2    48.5             590.7              20,820       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Secretaries and administrative assistants,.......................       2,324.4    2,632.3       307.8    13.2             587.6              32,410       High school diploma        None                    Short-term on-the-job training
   except legal, medical, and executive                                                                                                                       or equivalent
Childcare workers................................................       1,312.7    1,496.8       184.1    14.0             570.0              19,510       High school diploma        None                    Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Stock clerks and order fillers...................................       1,807.2    1,801.2        -6.0    -0.3             546.0              22,050       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Accountants and auditors.........................................       1,275.4    1,442.2       166.7    13.1             544.2              63,550       Bachelor's degree          None                    None
First-line supervisors of office and administrative..............       1,418.1    1,589.6       171.5    12.1             508.0              49,330       High school diploma        Less than 5 years       None
   support workers                                                                                                                                            or equivalent
Construction laborers............................................       1,071.1    1,331.0       259.8    24.3             489.1              29,990       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Maids and housekeeping cleaners..................................       1,434.6    1,618.0       183.4    12.8             467.7              19,570       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Elementary school teachers, except special education.............       1,361.2    1,529.1       167.9    12.3             467.4              53,400       Bachelor's degree          None                    Internship/residency
Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers..........................       1,701.5    1,894.1       192.6    11.3             464.7              38,200       Postsecondary non-degree   None                    Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              award
Landscaping and groundskeeping workers...........................       1,124.9    1,264.0       139.2    12.4             422.7              23,570       Less than high school      None                    Short-term on-the-job training
Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing,..............       1,480.7    1,612.8       132.0     8.9             420.7              54,230       High school diploma        None                    Moderate-term on-the-job training
   except technical and scientific products                                                                                                                   or equivalent
First-line supervisors of retail sales workers...................       1,603.3    1,674.2        70.9     4.4             419.8              36,820       High school diploma        Less than 5 years       None
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Receptionists and information clerks.............................       1,006.7    1,142.6       135.9    13.5             406.9              25,990       High school diploma        None                    Short-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Teacher assistants...............................................       1,223.4    1,328.5       105.0     8.6             382.6              23,640       Some college, no degree    None                    None
Maintenance and repair workers, general..........................       1,325.1    1,450.3       125.2     9.4             379.7              35,210       High school diploma        None                    Long-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.....................       1,799.8    2,004.5       204.6    11.4             370.0              35,170       High school diploma        None                    Moderate-term on-the-job training
                                                                                                                                                              or equivalent
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses................         738.4      921.3       182.9    24.8             363.1              41,540       Postsecondary non-degree   None                    None
                                                                                                                                                                                award

   1 Data are from the Occupational Employment Statistics program, U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Last Modified Date: December 19, 2013
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