Economic News Release

Green Goods and Services News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 19, 2013       USDL-13-0476

Technical information:  (202) 691-5185 • GGSInfo@bls.gov • www.bls.gov/ggs
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902 •  PressOffice@bls.gov


             EMPLOYMENT IN GREEN GOODS AND SERVICES – 2011


In 2011, the percentage of total employment associated with the
production of Green Goods and Services (GGS) increased by 0.1
percentage point to 2.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. The number of GGS jobs increased by 157,746 to
3,401,279. GGS employment accounted for 2.3 percent of private sector
jobs and 4.2 percent of public sector jobs in 2011. The private sector
had 2,515,200 GGS jobs, while the public sector had 886,080 GGS jobs.
Among private sector industries, construction had the largest
employment rate increase, from 7.0 to 8.9 percentage points, while
manufacturing had the most GGS jobs (507,168). (See table 1.) GGS jobs
are found in businesses that primarily produce goods and provide
services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources.

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|Green Goods and Services Industry Employment Data are Discontinued |
|                                                                   |
|On March 1, 2013, President Obama ordered into effect the across-  |
|the-board spending cuts (commonly referred to as sequestration)    |
|required by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control      |
|Act, as amended. Under the order, the Bureau of Labor Statistics   | 
|(BLS) must cut its current budget by more than $30 million, 5      |
|percent of the current 2013 appropriation, by September 30, 2013.  |
|In order to help achieve these savings and protect core programs,  |
|the BLS will eliminate two programs and all "measuring green jobs" |
|products.  These products include:  data on employment by          |
|industry and occupation for businesses that produce green goods    |
|and services; data on the occupations and wages of jobs related    | 
|to green technologies and practices; and green career information  |  
|publications. This is the last scheduled release of new data on    |
|employment by industry for businesses that produce green goods     |
|and services.                                                      |
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Among the states, California had the largest number of GGS jobs
(360,245), accounting for 2.5 percent of employment in the state. The
District of Columbia had the highest proportion of GGS employment, at
5.1 percent; Oregon had the second highest proportion, at 4.3 percent.
(See table 4.)

GGS employment data are compiled through the Green Goods and Services
survey under the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program. The QCEW includes nearly all businesses with employees
covered by state or federal unemployment insurance, which constitute
approximately 95.7 percent of civilian wage and salary employment in
the U.S. The GGS survey includes approximately 120,000 business and
government establishments within 325 industries identified as
potentially producing green goods or providing green services.
Establishments in the survey report whether they produced green goods
and services and the percentage of their revenue or employment
associated with that output. Those percentages are multiplied by their
employment to derive the number of GGS jobs for the establishment.
More information about the survey is provided in the Technical Note.

Private Industry

The private sector had 2,515,200 GGS jobs in 2011, or 2.3 percent of
private sector employment. (See tables A and 1.) Manufacturing had the
largest number of GGS jobs (507,168) among all private industry
sectors. These GGS jobs accounted for 4.3 percent of manufacturing
employment. Examples of green goods and services produced by
manufacturing industries include iron and steel from recycled inputs,
air conditioning and refrigeration equipment meeting selected
standards, hybrid cars and parts, and pollution mitigation equipment.
(See table 3.)


Table A. GGS employment by private industry sector,
2010-11 annual averages
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
       |                         |            |            |   Change   |
NAICS  |     Industry            |  2010 GGS  |  2011 GGS  |   in GGS   |
       |                         | employment | employment | employment,| 
       |                         |            |            |   2010-11  |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
10     |Total private,           |            |	           |            |
       | all industries......... |  2,342,562 |  2,515,200 |    172,638 |
11,21  |Natural resources        |  	      |     	   |            |
       |and mining.............. |     63,344 |     64,689 |      1,345 |
22     |Utilities............... |     69,031 |     71,129 |      2,098 |
23     |Construction............ |    385,777 |    487,709 |    101,932 |
31-33  |Manufacturing........... |    492,985 |    507,168 |     14,183 |
42,    |			 |  	      |  	   |            |
44-45  |Trade................... |    205,567 |    223,079 |     17,512 |
48-49  |Transportation 	         |  	      |  	   |            |
       |and warehousing......... |    242,137 |    238,755 |     -3,382 |
51     |Information............. |     33,321 |     29,412 |     -3,909 |
52,53  |Financial activities.... |        462 |        475 |         13 |
54     |Professional, scientific,|   	      |  	   |            |
       |and technical services.. |    355,386 |    381,981 |     26,595 |
55     |Management of companies  |  	      |  	   |            |
       |and enterprises......... |     62,630 |     69,310 |      6,680 |
56     |Administrative 	         |            |  	   |            |
       |and waste services...... |    330,650 |    335,417 |      4,767 |
61,62  |Education and 		 |  	      |  	   |            |
       |health services......... |     28,789 |     26,123 |     -2,666 |
71,72  |Leisure and hospitality. |     20,642 |     23,696 |      3,054 |
81     |Other services, except   |  	      |  	   |            |
       |public administration... |     51,841 |     56,257 |      4,416 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
  NOTE: Data may not add to total due to rounding.


Construction had 487,709 GGS jobs in 2011, comprising 8.9 percent of
the sector's employment. The sector had the largest increase in GGS
employment from 2010 to 2011, up 101,932, or 26.4 percent. Among the
GGS activities performed within the sector are the construction of
plants that produce energy from renewable sources and weatherizing and
retrofitting projects that reduce household energy consumption.

The trade sector had 223,079 GGS jobs in 2011, accounting for 1.1
percent of the industry's employment. This sector's increase of 17,512
GGS jobs, or 8.5 percent over the year, was the second largest
significant change in the private sector. Industries within the trade
sector that have GGS output include recyclable material merchant
wholesalers and used merchandise stores.

Leisure and hospitality services had 23,696 GGS jobs in 2011. GGS
employment in leisure and hospitality grew by 3,054, or 14.8 percent
over the year. Nature parks and botanical gardens are examples of GGS
services within leisure and hospitality services.

In the transportation and warehousing sector, the number of GGS jobs
decreased by 3,382 to 238,755, a decline of about 1.4 percent.
Commuter rail systems and charter bus services are examples of GGS
services within transportation and warehousing.

Utilities

Utilities had 71,129 GGS jobs in 2011, or 12.9 percent of total
private utilities employment. The private utilities sector added 2,098
GGS jobs in 2011, a 3.0 percent increase. Among the industries
involved in private sector electric power generation, nuclear electric
power generation had the highest GGS employment, with 44,054 jobs in
2011. Hydroelectric power generation had the second largest GGS
employment, with 3,780 GGS jobs. Wind electric power generation was
third with 2,724 GGS jobs, followed by biomass electric power
generation (1,166), geothermal electric power generation (1,017), and
solar electric power generation (522). Other electric power generation
had 525 GGS jobs in 2011. (See table 2 for public sector utilities
data and table 3 for private sector utilities data.)

Government

The public sector had 886,080 GGS jobs in 2011, accounting for 4.2
percent of employment in the sector. Over the year, government GGS
employment decreased by 14,890 (-1.7 percent). Local government had
424,201 GGS jobs in 2011, the most in the public sector, representing
3.1 percent of local government employment. The transportation and
warehousing sector had the largest GGS employment in local government
with 209,063 jobs. (See table 2.)

In 2011, state government had 248,539 GGS jobs, or 5.5 percent of
state government employment. Public administration led GGS employment
in state government with 164,952 GGS jobs. The enforcement of
environmental regulations and the administration of environmental
programs are examples of GGS services within public administration.

The federal government had 213,340 GGS jobs representing 7.5 percent
of federal government employment in 2011. The public administration
sector had 139,884 GGS jobs, the most within federal government. The
professional, scientific, and technical services sector followed with
39,714 GGS jobs.

Geographic Detail

Ten states had over 100,000 GGS jobs in 2011: California (360,245),
New York (266,308), Texas (227,532), Pennsylvania (167,397), Ohio
(137,143), Illinois (136,447), Florida (117,433), North Carolina
(108,094), Virginia (107,773), and Washington (101,593). (See table
4.)

The District of Columbia had the highest percentage of GGS total
employment of any jurisdiction (5.1 percent) in 2011. Oregon had the
next highest proportion of its employment in GGS jobs (4.3 percent).
California experienced the largest increase in GGS employment, with an
additional 17,366 GGS jobs, or 5.1 percent added, over the year.
Maryland had the second largest increase in GGS employment, with
14,143 GGS jobs, or 18.3 percent added between 2010 and 2011.

GGS employment by percentage of revenue or employment from green goods
and services

GGS employment is determined based on the percentage of revenue (or
percentage of employment, in the absence of revenue) associated with
the production of green goods and services. The GGS survey scope is
defined as 325 6-digit NAICS industries that potentially produce green
goods and services. Any establishment within that scope could fall
into one of three categories: no revenue or employment from green
goods or services, some revenue or employment from green goods or
services, or all revenue or employment from green goods and services.


Table B. Employment by frame, 2010-11 annual averages
---------------------------------------------------------------
                     |                   2010                 |
    Revenue or       |-----------------------------------------
    employment       | GGS in-scope |    GGS     |   Percent  |
     from GGS        |  employment* | employment |    of GGS  |
                     |              |            | employment |
---------------------------------------------------------------
0%                   |   17,696,984 |          0 |          0 |
between 0% and 100%  |    6,207,622 |  1,416,620 |       43.7 |
100%                 |    1,826,913 |  1,826,913 |       56.3 |
Total                |   25,731,519 |  3,243,533 |      100.0 |
---------------------------------------------------------------
                     |                      2011              |
    Revenue or       |-----------------------------------------
    employment       | GGS in-scope |    GGS     |   Percent  |
     from GGS        |  employment* | employment |    of GGS  |
                     |              |            | employment |
------------------------------------------------------------
0%                   |   17,497,369 |          0 |          0 |
between 0% and 100%  |    6,637,244 |  1,478,029 |       43.5 |
100%                 |    1,923,251 |  1,923,251 |       56.5 |
Total                |   26,057,864 |  3,401,279 |      100.0 |
---------------------------------------------------------------
  *GGS in-scope employment is the total employment within
    industries that potentially produce green goods or
    provide green services, based on the Quarterly Census of
    Employment and Wages.
  NOTE: GGS Data for 2010 have been revised to incorporate
    methodological changes as explained in the Technical
    Note. Please also note data may not add to total due to
    rounding.


In 2011, the majority (56.5 percent) of GGS employment was found in
establishments that exclusively produced green goods and services;
these establishments had 1,923,251 GGS jobs. Establishments that
produced a mix of green and non-green goods and services had 1,478,029
GGS jobs in the same time period. Establishments that produced no
green goods or services (i.e., no revenue or employment was associated
with green goods and services in those establishments) accounted for
67.1 percent of employment within the GGS scope. (See table B.)

For More Information

The tables and charts included in this release contain data for the
nation and for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data for
2011 green employment levels and percents for all states are provided
in tables 4, 5, and 6 of this release. For additional information
about the Green Goods and Services data, please read the Technical
Note. Further information about the GGS data may be obtained by
calling (202) 691-5185 or by accessing the GGS web page at
www.bls.gov/ggs.

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|        Revisions to the Green Goods and Services Data           |
|                                                                 |      
|Effective with this release, the Bureau of Labor Statistics made |
|improvements to the Green Goods and Services (GGS) estimation    |
|procedures. The estimates for 2010 have been revised to include  |
|these improvements. In addition, the 2010 GGS data have been     |
|revised to reflect the 2012 version of the North American        |
|Industry Classification System (NAICS). These revisions enable   |
|comparisons between GGS series from 2010 to those for 2011. For  |
|more information, please see the Technical Note and              |
|http://www.bls.gov/ggs/ggsoverview.htm#technote.                 |
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Technical Note

 This  release  presents  statistics from  the  Green  Goods  and
Services  program (GGS). GGS employment level and rate  estimates
are published by state, ownership, and industry. Data for GGS are
collected and compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics  from  a
sample  of  business  and government establishments  in  selected
industries with workers covered by state and federal unemployment
insurance  (UI) legislation provided by State Workforce  Agencies
(SWAs).
 
Collection
 In  an  annual  survey  of  business  establishments,  data  are
collected  for employment, fiscal year, and the share of  revenue
or  employment  associated  with production  of  green  goods  or
services  at  the  establishment level. Data  collection  methods
include mail, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, web,  and
fax.
 
Coverage
 BLS  sampled  from 325 North American Industrial  Classification
System  (NAICS) industries identified as potential  producers  or
providers of green goods and services. The GGS survey covers  all
private  establishments in these industries, such  as  factories,
offices,  and  stores,  as  well as  federal,  state,  and  local
government  entities  in  the  50  states  and  the  District  of
Columbia.
 
Concepts
 Green  Goods and Services. Green goods and services are  defined
as  goods and services produced by an establishment that  benefit
the  environment or conserve natural resources. Green  goods  and
services fall into one or more of the following five groups:  (1)
production   of  energy  from  renewable  sources;   (2)   energy
efficiency;  (3) pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse  gas
reduction,  and  recycling  and  reuse;  (4)  natural   resources
conservation;  and  (5) environmental compliance,  education  and
training, and public awareness.
 
 Industry  classification. The industry classifications  in  this
release  are  in accordance with the 2012 version  of  the  North
American  Industry Classification System (NAICS).  Only  the  325
industries  identified  by  BLS  as  producing  green  goods  and
providing  green services are included in the scope  of  the  GGS
survey.  To  ensure  the highest possible quality  of  data,  the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program  verifies
with  employers  and  updates,  if  necessary,  the  NAICS  code,
location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a
3-year  cycle. Changes in establishment characteristics resulting
from  the  verification process are annually introduced into  the
GGS sampling frame.
 
 Green  Goods  and  Services jobs. GGS jobs are those  associated
with  producing  green  goods or providing green  services.  Some
businesses  produce multiple products and services where  one  or
more may be included in the BLS definition. For these cases,  BLS
determined  from  prior  research  that  businesses  often   have
difficulty providing employment associated with the production of
green  goods and services, while information on the revenue  from
the sale of the green goods or services is more readily available
and less burdensome for the respondent to provide. The percentage
of the establishment's revenue related to sale of green goods and
services  is  used  to estimate GGS jobs, which  are  defined  as
employment related to the production of green goods and  services
at  the  establishment level. Sampled establishments that do  not
generate  revenue  are  asked  to  report  the  share  of   their
employment  involved  with  the production  of  green  goods  and
services.  For  example,  employment  related  to  research   and
development,  non-profit organizations, government agencies,  and
new  businesses  may  provide green goods  and  services  without
generating income.
 
 Employment.  Employment  includes persons  on  the  payroll  who
worked  or  received  pay for the pay period  that  includes  the
twelfth   day  of  the  reference  month.  Full-time,  part-time,
permanent,  short-term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly  employees
are  included, as are employees on paid vacations or  other  paid
leave.  Proprietors  or  partners of  unincorporated  businesses,
unpaid  family  workers, or persons on leave without  pay  or  on
strike  for  the entire pay period, are not counted as  employed.
Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies,
outside  contractors,  and  consultants  are  counted  by   their
employer  of  record,  not by the establishment  where  they  are
working.  The  monthly employment figure provided by  respondents
will  be  compared to employment data BLS has on file as part  of
the QCEW program, which comprise BLS’ business register, in order
to   verify  that  data  are  being  collected  for  the  correct
establishment.
 
 Estimates. Estimates of GGS employment and GGS percent of  total
QCEW employment are released with the annual GGS news release.
 
Sample and estimation methodology
 Sample.  BLS  selects approximately 120,000  GGS  establishments
per year from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program.  This  program includes all employers subject  to  state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject  to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).  Most  of
these  establishments are selected from the second  quarter  QCEW
sample frame, while a small sample of new business establishments
is  selected from the fourth quarters. The sample is designed  to
estimate  GGS  employment  at both national  industry  and  state
industry sector levels of detail.
 The  GGS  sample  is divided into three panels, each  containing
approximately 40,000 sample units. Two of the three panel samples
overlap  with the previous year's sample to produce estimates  of
change  in  green  employment.  A new  sample  is  allocated  and
selected from the panel that does not overlap.
 
 Estimation.  A  Horvitz-Thompson estimator is used  to  estimate
GGS  employment,  based  on an establishment's  12-month  average
employment  over  the  reference period, percent  of  revenue  or
employment associated with green goods and services, and sampling
weight.   The  12-month  average  employment  is  obtained   from
corresponding   QCEW  files  and  is  known  for   each   sampled
establishments.
 GGS percentage estimates are relative to the QCEW employment  of
all  industries  contained within a particular estimation  cell's
NAICS  code,  not  only the 325 industries included  in  the  GGS
scope.  For  GGS  employment percentages,  the  estimate  of  GGS
employment  is divided by the 12-month average of QCEW employment
over the reference period.
 
 Reliability.  GGS  estimates are subject to  both  sampling  and
nonsampling error. Sampling error arises from selecting a  sample
of  establishments rather than the entire business population. To
measure  this  error,  GGS uses a balanced  repeated  replication
technique to calculate standard errors. Given the standard  error
for  an  estimate, an approximate 90 percent confidence  interval
can  be  constructed by adding and subtracting  1.645  times  the
standard error from the estimate.
 The  standard  error of the estimated total  GGS  employment  is
approximately 34,000. The standard error of over the year  change
in total GGS employment is about 36,000.
 The  standard  error of the estimated rate of GGS employment  is
approximately 0.03 percent. The standard error of over  the  year
change in rate of GGS employment is about 0.03 percent.
 Nonsampling error arises from various sources, such as
establishments failing to respond or misreporting data, coding
and data processing errors, and population coverage. Since GGS
only samples establishments in 325 industries predetermined to
potentially have GGS employment, any green goods and services
produced or provided in other industries is not captured. GGS is
also subject to errors in the sampling frame, in which some
establishments’ industry codes may be misclassified.

 Specialized  Procedures. GGS sampling methodology is coordinated
with  the  Occupational  Employment Statistics  survey.  Sampling
overlap  between  the  two  surveys is maximized  for  additional
inference  to  be  made  about  green  staffing  patterns.   Such
inferences are not included as part of this GGS release.

Methodological changes
 NAICS  2012 Conversion. The original survey estimates  for  2010
were  based  on the 2007 NAICS classification. In that  reference
period,  data were collected for industries defined  in  the  GGS
scope  according to their NAICS classification at that time.  The
2011 survey estimates are based on the 2012 NAICS classification,
which  impacted  the  scope  of the  GGS  survey.  Some  private-
ownership manufacturing industries that were not included in  the
2010  GGS scope combined with in-scope industries. Thus, for 2011
estimates,  some establishments that were previously out-of-scope
are included in the survey.  Revised 2010 estimates are based  on
the 2012 NAICS classification.
 
 Imputation.   Establishments that are  sampled  in  both  survey
years but only report usable data for one year are imputed. Three
methods are used to impute missing green percent values: hot deck
imputation; overlays; and mean imputation.

 Benchmarking.    Benchmarking   procedures   were   revised   to
incorporate ownership for both survey years.

 For  more  information. For more detailed information  on  these
methodological changes, please visit the Technical  Note  section
of the GGS web page at www.bls.gov\ggs.
 
Other information
 Information  in this release will be made available  to  sensory
impaired  individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202)  691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.







Table 1. Green Goods and Services (GGS) employment by industry sector, annual averages
Industry NAICS(1) GGS employment(2) GGS percent(3) GGS employment change from:
2010 - 2011
2010 2011 2010 2011

Total, all industries

3,243,533 3,401,279 2.5 2.6 157,746

Total private

2,342,562 2,515,200 2.2 2.3 172,638

Natural resources and mining

11,21

63,344 64,689 3.5 3.4 1,345

Utilities

22

69,031 71,129 12.5 12.9 2,098

Construction

23

385,777 487,709 7.0 8.9 101,932

Manufacturing

31-33

492,985 507,168 4.3 4.3 14,183

Trade

42,44-45

205,567 223,079 1.0 1.1 17,512

Transportation and warehousing

48-49

242,137 238,755 6.1 5.9 -3,382

Information

51

33,321 29,412 1.2 1.1 -3,909

Financial activities

52,53

462 475 0.0 0.0 13

Professional, scientific, and technical services

54

355,386 381,981 4.8 5.0 26,595

Management of companies and enterprises

55

62,630 69,310 3.4 3.6 6,680

Administrative and waste services

56

330,650 335,417 4.5 4.3 4,767

Education and health services

61,62

28,789 26,123 0.2 0.1 -2,666

Leisure and hospitality

71,72

20,642 23,696 0.2 0.2 3,054

Other services, except public administration

81

51,841 56,257 1.2 1.3 4,416

Federal government

208,744 213,340 7.0 7.5 4,596

State government

256,224 248,539 5.6 5.5 -7,685

Local government

436,002 424,201 3.1 3.1 -11,801

Footnotes
(1) North American Industry Classification System, 2012.
(2) GGS employment is the number of jobs related to the production of Green Goods and Services.
(3) GGS percent is the percentage of the GGS employment compared to the total employment. This value is derived by dividing the GGS employment by the total employment.

NOTE: GGS data for 2010 have been revised to incorporate methodological changes explained in the Technical Note. Please also note data may not add to total due to rounding.