Technical Note This release presents statistics from the Green Goods and Services program (GGS). GGS employment level and rate estimates are published by state, ownership, and industry. Data for GGS are collected and compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a sample of business and government establishments in selected industries with workers covered by state and federal unemployment insurance (UI) legislation provided by State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). Collection In an annual survey of business establishments, data are collected for employment, fiscal year, and the share of revenue or employment associated with production of green goods or services at the establishment level. Data collection methods include mail, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, web, and fax. Coverage BLS sampled from 325 North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industries identified as potential producers or providers of green goods and services. The GGS survey covers all private establishments in these industries, such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Concepts Green Goods and Services. Green goods and services are defined as goods and services produced by an establishment that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. Green goods and services fall into one or more of the following five groups: (1) production of energy from renewable sources; (2) energy efficiency; (3) pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and reuse; (4) natural resources conservation; and (5) environmental compliance, education and training, and public awareness. Industry classification. The industry classifications in this release are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Only the 325 industries identified by BLS as producing green goods and providing green services are included in the scope of the GGS survey. To ensure the highest possible quality of data, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program verifies with employers and updates, if necessary, the NAICS code, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle. Changes in establishment characteristics resulting from the verification process are annually introduced into the GGS sampling frame. Green Goods and Services jobs. GGS jobs are those associated with producing green goods or providing green services. Some businesses produce multiple products and services where one or more may be included in the BLS definition. For these cases, BLS determined from prior research that businesses often have difficulty providing employment associated with the production of green goods and services, while information on the revenue from the sale of the green goods or services is more readily available and less burdensome for the respondent to provide. The percentage of the establishment's revenue related to sale of green goods and services is used to estimate GGS jobs, which are defined as employment related to the production of green goods and services at the establishment level. Sampled establishments that do not generate revenue are asked to report the share of their employment involved with the production of green goods and services. For example, employment related to research and development, non-profit organizations, government agencies, and new businesses may provide green goods and services without generating income. Employment. Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the twelfth day of the reference month. Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vacations or other paid leave. Proprietors or partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed. Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the establishment where they are working. The monthly employment figure provided by respondents will be compared to employment data BLS has on file as part of the QCEW program, which comprise BLS business register, in order to verify that data are being collected for the correct establishment. Estimates. Estimates of GGS employment and GGS percent of total QCEW employment are released with the annual GGS news release. Sample and estimation methodology Sample. BLS selects approximately 120,000 GGS establishments per year from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program. This program includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE). Most of these establishments are selected from the second quarter QCEW sample frame, while a small sample of new business establishments is selected from the fourth quarters. The sample is designed to estimate GGS employment at both national industry and state industry sector levels of detail. The GGS sample is divided into three panels, each containing approximately 40,000 sample units. Two of the three panel samples overlap with the previous year's sample to produce estimates of change in green employment. A new sample is allocated and selected from the panel that does not overlap. Estimation. A Horvitz-Thompson estimator is used to estimate GGS employment, based on an establishment's 12-month average employment over the reference period, percent of revenue or employment associated with green goods and services, and sampling weight. The 12-month average employment is obtained from corresponding QCEW files and is known for each sampled establishments. GGS percentage estimates are relative to the QCEW employment of all industries contained within a particular estimation cell's NAICS code, not only the 325 industries included in the GGS scope. For GGS employment percentages, the estimate of GGS employment is divided by the 12-month average of QCEW employment over the reference period. Reliability. GGS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. Sampling error arises from selecting a sample of establishments rather than the entire business population. To measure this error, GGS uses a balanced repeated replication technique to calculate standard errors. Given the standard error for an estimate, an approximate 90 percent confidence interval can be constructed by adding and subtracting 1.645 times the standard error from the estimate. The standard error of the estimated total GGS employment is approximately 34,000. The standard error of over the year change in total GGS employment is about 36,000. The standard error of the estimated rate of GGS employment is approximately 0.03 percent. The standard error of over the year change in rate of GGS employment is about 0.03 percent. Nonsampling error arises from various sources, such as establishments failing to respond or misreporting data, coding and data processing errors, and population coverage. Since GGS only samples establishments in 325 industries predetermined to potentially have GGS employment, any green goods and services produced or provided in other industries is not captured. GGS is also subject to errors in the sampling frame, in which some establishments industry codes may be misclassified. Specialized Procedures. GGS sampling methodology is coordinated with the Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Sampling overlap between the two surveys is maximized for additional inference to be made about green staffing patterns. Such inferences are not included as part of this GGS release. Methodological changes NAICS 2012 Conversion. The original survey estimates for 2010 were based on the 2007 NAICS classification. In that reference period, data were collected for industries defined in the GGS scope according to their NAICS classification at that time. The 2011 survey estimates are based on the 2012 NAICS classification, which impacted the scope of the GGS survey. Some private- ownership manufacturing industries that were not included in the 2010 GGS scope combined with in-scope industries. Thus, for 2011 estimates, some establishments that were previously out-of-scope are included in the survey. Revised 2010 estimates are based on the 2012 NAICS classification. Imputation. Establishments that are sampled in both survey years but only report usable data for one year are imputed. Three methods are used to impute missing green percent values: hot deck imputation; overlays; and mean imputation. Benchmarking. Benchmarking procedures were revised to incorporate ownership for both survey years. For more information. For more detailed information on these methodological changes, please visit the Technical Note section of the GGS web page at www.bls.gov\ggs. Other information Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.