Technical Note Overview The Occupational Employment and Wages in Green Goods and Services (GGS-OCC) program provides occupational employment and wage information for businesses that produce green goods or provide green services. The GGS-OCC data are based on a sample of approximately 93,000 business establishments classified in 333 industries in which establishments potentially produce green goods or provide green services as their primary activity. The GGS-OCC estimates are produced by linking data from two different surveys at the establishment level: the percent of the establishment's revenue received from green goods and services, from the Green Goods and Services (GGS) survey; and occupational employment and wage information, from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey. These data are used to produce occupational employment and wage estimates for three groups of establishments: those that receive none of their revenue from green goods and services, those that receive all of their revenue from green goods and services, and those with revenue from a mix of green and nongreen goods and services. This release covers only those establishments that receive 100 percent of their revenue from green goods and services. Data are available at the national level by industry sector for in-scope industries and for all in-scope industries combined. These data represent all employment at establishments in a given revenue category; not all jobs in establishments with mixed green and nongreen revenue are associated with production of green goods and services. The GGS-OCC estimates are based on the BLS output approach to measuring green jobs: jobs in businesses that produce goods or provide services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. More information about the BLS green jobs initiative is available from the green jobs homepage at www.bls.gov/green. Concepts Green goods and services are defined as goods and services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These goods and services are sold to customers and include research and development, installation, and maintenance services. Green goods and services fall into one or more of the following five categories: 1. Energy from renewable sources. Electricity, heat, or fuel generated from renewable sources. These energy sources include wind, biomass, geothermal, solar, ocean, hydropower, and landfill gas and municipal solid waste. 2. Energy efficiency. Products and services that improve energy efficiency. Included in this group are energy-efficient equipment, appliances, buildings, and vehicles, as well as products and services that improve the energy efficiency of buildings and the efficiency of energy storage and distribution, such as Smart Grid technologies. 3. Pollution reduction and removal, greenhouse gas reduction, and recycling and reuse. These are products and services that: --Reduce or eliminate the creation or release of pollutants or toxic compounds, or remove pollutants or hazardous waste from the environment. --Reduce greenhouse gas emissions through methods other than renewable energy generation and energy efficiency, such as electricity generated from nuclear sources. --Reduce or eliminate the creation of waste materials; collect, reuse, remanufacture, recycle, or compost waste materials or wastewater. 4. Natural resources conservation. Products and services that conserve natural resources. Included in this group are products and services related to organic agriculture and sustainable forestry; land management; soil, water, or wildlife conservation; and storm water management. 5. Environmental compliance, education and training, and public awareness. These are products and services that: --Enforce environmental regulations. --Provide education and training related to green technologies and practices. --Increase public awareness of environmental issues. An establishment is generally a single physical location at which economic activity occurs (e.g., store, factory, restaurant, etc.). When a single physical location encompasses two or more distinct economic activities, it is treated as two or more separate establishments if separate payroll records are available and certain other criteria are met. An industry is a group of establishments that produce similar products or provide similar services. For example, all establishments that manufacture automobiles are in the same industry. A given industry, or even a particular establishment in that industry, might have employees in dozens of occupations. In the GGS-OCC data, similar establishments are grouped into industries based on the 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). More information about the NAICS is available from www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm. An occupation is a set of activities or tasks that employees are paid to perform. Workers are classified into occupations based on their job duties and, in some cases, on the skills, education, and/or training required. Workers with similar job duties are classified in the same occupation, regardless of the industry in which they are employed. Employees are all part-time and full-time workers who are paid a wage or salary. The estimates do not cover the self-employed, owners and partners in unincorporated firms, household workers, or unpaid family workers. Industry coverage The GGS-OCC estimates are based on data for 333 of the nearly 1,200 detailed (6-digit) 2007 NAICS industries. BLS identified these 333 industries as those in which businesses potentially produced green goods or provided green services as their primary activity, based on the definition of green goods and services above. The GGS-OCC scope contains 20 percent of employment covered by state or federal unemployment insurance, or about 19 percent of total U.S. employment. A list of GGS-OCC in-scope industries is available in PDF format at www.bls.gov/green/final_green_def_8242010_pub.pdf or in Excel format at www.bls.gov/green/final_green_def_8242010_pub.xls. The occupational classification system The GGS-OCC occupational classifications are based on the Office of Management and Budgets Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system (www.bls.gov/soc/). The GGS-OCC estimates are based on data collected under both the 2000 SOC and the revised 2010 SOC systems. Almost all the occupations in this release are 2010 SOC occupations; however, some are not. In some cases an occupation is a combination of data reported for one or more occupations in the 2000 SOC and one or more 2010 SOC occupations. Some of these combination occupations match occupations in the 2000 SOC. In other cases, occupations from the two structures were combined into a hybrid occupation that is not found in either the 2000 or 2010 SOC. Some of these hybrid occupations have the same title as a 2010 SOC occupation, but not the same content. These occupations are marked with an asterisk (*) and given a temporary code for the GGS-OCC data. For more information on how data collected under the two structures were combined, including a downloadable concordance between the SOC and GGS-OCC structures, see www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm#Ques41. Survey sample The GGS-OCC estimates are based on a sample of approximately 93,000 private sector and federal, state, and local government establishments in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The GGS-OCC sample is restricted to the 333 in-scope NAICS industries, and is a subset of units in both the GGS sample and either the regular OES sample or a supplement to the OES sample. Both the GGS and OES samples are drawn primarily from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), which consists of businesses reporting to state unemployment insurance (UI) programs. The full GGS sample of 120,000 establishments was selected by stratifying the sampling frame by industry and state, and sampling larger employers with a higher probability than smaller employers. The GGS sample also includes an "environmental allocation" of approximately 6,500 units, selected from a list of 13,000 establishments that BLS had previously identified as being involved in green activity. The full OES sample consists of approximately 1.2 million business establishments, collected in 6 semiannual survey panels over a 3-year period. The GGS-OCC estimates are based on OES microdata collected with reference dates of November 2011, May 2011, November 2010, May 2010, November 2009, and May 2009. The OES sample is stratified by metropolitan or nonmetropolitan area, industry, and size. To provide the most occupational coverage, larger employers are more likely to be selected than smaller employers. Approximately 41,300 establishments in the initial GGS sample overlapped naturally with units in the 2009-2011 OES sample. In order to increase the overlap between the two surveys, a swapping algorithm was used to replace 23,400 nonoverlapping GGS units with similar units that were already part of the OES sample. The GGS-OCC sample also included 3,300 federal government units and a 25,000-unit supplement to the OES survey, designed to cover agricultural industries excluded from OES and to provide additional coverage of certain other industries. Data collection Establishments in the GGS-OCC sample received two mail survey forms, one for the GGS survey and one for the OES survey. Among GGS-OCC sample units, the overall national response rates for the GGS survey were 66.4 percent based on establishments and 59.9 percent based on weighted employment. Response rates for the OES survey were 66.7 percent based on establishments and 65.3 percent based on weighted employment. About 48.6 percent of sampled establishments, representing 42.6 percent of weighted sample employment, responded to both surveys. The GGS survey asked establishments to report the percent of their previous fiscal years revenue received from green goods and services. Survey forms listed examples of green goods and services meeting the BLS definition. Establishments that did not generate revenue, such as government establishments, nonprofits, or startups without positive revenue, were asked to provide the percent of employment associated with the production of green goods or provision of green services. The OES survey form asked respondents to provide total employment for the sampled establishment, as well as the number of workers, by occupation, in each of 12 specific wage intervals. The wage intervals were defined in terms of both hourly rates and the corresponding annual rates, where the annual rate for an occupation is calculated by multiplying the hourly wage rate by a typical work year of 2,080 hours. Full-time workers could be reported by either hourly rates or annual salaries, depending on how the worker was paid. Estimation methodology Wage updating The OES survey is designed to produce estimates at detailed levels of geography, industry, and occupation by combining 6 panels of data collected over a 3-year period. Wages for the most recent panel need no adjustment. Wages for earlier panels are updated to the reference period based on movements in the BLS Employment Cost Index (ECI) for the most closely corresponding occupational category. Nonresponse GGS-OCC nonrespondents fell into three categories: (1) units that responded to neither GGS nor OES; (2) units that responded to OES, but not GS; and (3) units that responded to GGS, but not OES. To compensate for nonrespondents in categories 1 and 2, the weights of responding units were adjusted through the use of nonresponse adjustment factors (NRAFs). For nonrespondents in category 3, a nearest neighbor hot deck procedure was used to impute occupational staffing patterns, and a variant of mean wage imputation was used to impute missing occupational wages. Weighting and benchmarking Sampled establishments were weighted to represent all establishments for the GGS-OCC scope and reference period. Each establishment was initially assigned a weight based on the reciprocal of its probability of selection into the GGS sample. For units in the OES supplemental sample, the GGS sampling weight was adjusted to account for its probability of being subsequently subsampled in the supplement. Weights were also modified by NRAFs in order to adjust for units that did not respond to the GGS survey. Finally, the GGS-OCC data were benchmarked to the average of QCEW employment levels for May and November 2011. Employment and wage estimation The share of green revenue from GGS was used to divide establishments into groups of businesses reporting no revenue from green goods and services, all revenue from green goods and services, and a mix of green and nongreen revenue. Occupational employment estimates were calculated by multiplying each establishment's reported employment in an occupation by the establishment's final weight, and summing the resulting weighted employment across all establishments reporting the occupation. Because GGS-OCC wage data were collected by wage range rather than by wage rate, additional information was required to estimate mean and median wages. Data from the BLS National Compensation Survey (NCS) were used to calculate interval means for employees in each of the 12 wage intervals; these interval means were used in combination with the reported data on occupational employment by wage interval to calculate the GGS-OCC wage estimates. GGS-OCC and GGS estimates Although the GGS-OCC data have some similarities to the green jobs estimates from the GGS survey, the two datasets also have important conceptual differences and are not designed to be compared. Both the GGS-OCC and GGS estimates are based on the BLS output approach to measuring green jobs, have the same industry scope, and have overlapping samples. Both datasets also use the percent of each sampled establishments revenue received from green goods and services, as reported to the GGS survey, to produce their estimates. However, the two sets of estimates use the green revenue percentage differently. The GGS survey multiplies each establishment's employment by its green revenue share in order to produce estimates of the total number of green jobs. For example, if an establishment that produces both green and nongreen products employs 100 people and obtains 40 percent of its revenue from the sale of its green products, the GGS survey would count 40 of that establishment's employees as green. Unlike the GGS survey, the GGS-OCC program does not provide explicit estimates of the number of green jobs. In particular, the GGS-OCC data do not represent occupational breakdowns of the green employment estimates from the GGS survey. Instead, the GGS-OCC program uses the green revenue shares from GGS to group establishments into categories based on the percent of their revenue received from green goods and services. For each revenue category, the GGS-OCC program provides occupational employment and wage estimates for all employees in establishments in that category. The two datasets also have different reference periods: the GGS data represent 2010 annual averages, and the GGS-OCC data have a November 2011 reference date. For more information about the GGS survey, see www.bls.gov/ggs/. Data available The GGS-OCC data consist of employment, mean wage, and median wage estimates by occupation, presented for three groups of establishments: those with none, all, or some, but not all, of their revenue from green goods and services. Estimates are available at the national level for 2-digit NAICS industries and for all industries combined. For more information Answers to frequently asked questions about the GGS-OCC data are available at www.bls.gov/ggsocc/faq.htm. Detailed technical information about the GGS-OCC estimates is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement at www.bls.gov/ggsocc/survey_methods.pdf. Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.