Economic News Release

Access to and Use of Leave - 2011 Data from the American Time Use Survey News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, August 16, 2012                       USDL-12-1648

Technical information:  (202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                              ACCESS TO AND USE OF LEAVE--2011
                          DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


In 2011, 90 percent of wage and salary workers had access to paid or unpaid leave
at their main jobs, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Twenty-one
percent of wage and salary workers took paid or unpaid leave during an average week.
Workers who took leave during an average week took an average of 15.6 hours of leave.
Fifty-six percent of wage and salary workers were able to adjust their work schedules
or location instead of taking leave or because they did not have access to leave in
2011. Seven percent of workers made such an adjustment in an average week.

These findings are from a supplementary set of questions asked as part of the 2011
American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS is a continuous household survey that
provides estimates on how people spend their time. The data on wage and salary
workers' access to leave, use of leave, and ability to adjust their work schedules 
were collected as part of the 2011 Leave Module sponsored by the Department of
Labor's Women's Bureau. These data on leave were collected directly from wage and
salary workers. The data thus represent only workers' knowledge on these topics.
Workers sometimes do not know whether they can use leave or adjust their work
schedules or location until they have a need to do so. For more information about
the ATUS Leave Module, see the Technical Note.

Access to paid or unpaid leave in 2011:

   --On average, 59 percent of wage and salary workers had access to paid leave.
     Seventy-seven percent of wage and salary workers had access to unpaid leave
     and an additional 7 percent of workers were unsure whether they had access
     to unpaid leave. Ninety percent of workers had access to either paid or
     unpaid leave. (See table 1.)

   --Men and women were about equally likely to have access to paid or unpaid
     leave at their main jobs in 2011. Ninety percent of men had access to paid
     or unpaid leave compared with 91 percent of women. Comparisons of access
     to leave in this news release are on a broad level and do not control for
     many factors that can be important in explaining differences in leave access,
     including differences in the distribution of workers by their full- or
     part-time work status, educational attainment, and occupation. (See
     table 1.)

   --By occupation, workers in management, business, and financial operations
     jobs were the most likely to have access to paid leave (77 percent). (See
     table 1.)

   --Seventy-six percent of workers in the public sector had access to paid
     leave, compared with 57 percent of private-sector workers. (See
     table 1.)

   --Among single jobholders, full-time wage and salary workers were more
     than 3 times as likely to have access to paid leave than were part-time
     workers--71 percent compared with 22 percent. (See table 1.)

   --Among single jobholders, 83 percent of full-time wage and salary workers
     in the highest earnings range had access to paid leave, compared with
     50 percent of full-time workers in the lowest earnings range. Each
     earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage
     and salary workers. (See table 1.)

   --Among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 72 percent of workers with
     a bachelor's degree or higher had access to paid leave, compared with 35
     percent of workers with less than a high school diploma. (See table 1.)

Use of paid or unpaid leave in 2011:

   --Twenty-one percent of wage and salary workers took paid or unpaid leave
     during an average week. Workers who took leave during an average week
     took an average of 15.6 hours of leave. (See tables 3 and 4.)

   --Women were slightly more likely than men to take leave from their jobs
     during an average week--23 percent compared with 20 percent. (See
     table 3.)

   --In an average week, 6 percent of wage and salary workers reported their
     main reason for taking leave was a vacation, 5 percent took leave because
     they were ill or needed medical care, and 4 percent took leave mainly to
     run errands or for personal reasons. (See table 4.)

   --Of those wage and salary workers who took leave from their main jobs during
     an average week, 57 percent used only paid leave and 40 percent used only
     unpaid leave. Three percent of these workers used a combination of paid and
     unpaid leave. (See table 3.)

Ability to adjust work schedule or location instead of taking time off from work
in 2011:

   --Fifty-six percent of wage and salary workers were able to adjust their work
     schedules or location of their main jobs instead of taking time off from
     work in 2011. This includes wage and salary workers who adjusted their work
     schedules or location instead of taking leave as well as those who did so
     because they did not have access to leave but needed time off from work.
     (See table 5.)

   --Men and women were equally likely to be able to adjust their work schedules
     or location instead of taking time off from work. (See table  5.)

   --Among wage and salary workers age 25 and over, 61 percent of those with a
     bachelor's degree or higher were able to adjust their work schedules or
     location instead of taking time off from work, compared with only 38
     percent of workers with less than a high school diploma. (See table 5.)

   --In an average week in 2011, 7 percent of wage and salary workers adjusted
     their work schedules or location of their main jobs instead of taking time
     off from work. (See table 6.)

·  --Parents of a household child under the age of 13 were more likely to adjust
     their work schedules or location instead of taking time off from work in an
     average week than workers who were not a parent of a household child under
     18--10 percent compared with 6 percent. (See table 6.)

Additional data

All ATUS 2011 data files, including the Leave Module data files, are available for
users to do their own tabulations and analyses. In accordance with BLS and Census
Bureau policies that protect survey respondents' privacy, identifying information 
was removed from the data files and some responses have been edited. The 2011 data
files are available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/tus/data.htm.




Technical Note

   The data in this release were collected through a supplementary set of questions,
the 2011 Leave Module, asked as part of the 2011 American Time Use Survey (ATUS).
The ATUS--a continuous survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics--focuses on obtaining information about how individuals age 15
and over spend their time. In 2011, there were approximately 12,500 respondents to
the survey. For more information about the survey, see the ATUS User’s Guide at
www.bls.gov/tus/atususersguide.pdf. The purpose of the 2011 ATUS Leave Module was
to obtain information about workers' access to leave, use of leave, and ability to
adjust their work schedules or location. The data in this release pertain to wage
and salary workers and their main job. Self-employed incorporated workers are
classified as wage and salary workers. The data exclude all unincorporated self-
employed workers. Respondents to the 2011 Leave Module answered questions about
access to paid and unpaid leave, reasons for taking leave, use of leave during the
past 7 days, ability to adjust work schedules or location, times when leave was
needed but not taken, and other related topics.

   These data on leave were collected directly from wage and salary workers. The
data thus represent only workers' knowledge on these topics. Workers sometimes do
not know whether they can use leave or adjust their work schedules or location
until they have a need to do so. Leave Module data were collected from January
through December 2011.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Leave questions and concepts

   In the 2011 Leave Module, questions about access to and use of leave were asked of
wage and salary workers. The survey was introduced as follows: "The next few questions
are about paid and unpaid leave from a job."

   Following the introduction, respondents were asked about access to paid leave at
their main job, reasons for which they can take paid leave, and types of paid leave
available.

   Respondents were then asked about access to unpaid leave and reasons for which they
can take unpaid leave from their main job.

   If respondents answered that they had access to paid or unpaid leave, they were
asked whether they had taken any leave during the past 7 days. If they took leave,
they were asked about how many hours they took, the main reason for taking leave, and
if available, what type of paid leave they used.

   In the next set of questions, respondents were asked about their ability to adjust
their work schedules or location instead of taking leave (asked of those with access
to leave), or because they needed time off from work (asked of those without access
to leave). If the respondents indicated they could adjust their work schedules or
location, they were asked additional questions about how they can adjust their
schedules or location and whether they adjusted their schedules or location during
the past 7 days. Respondents who adjusted their work schedules or location instead
of taking leave were asked about their reasons for doing so, and their reasons for
not using leave instead. Respondents without access to leave were asked about their
reasons for needing to adjust their work schedules or location.

   Respondents who worked during the 7 days prior to the interview were asked if there
were situations during the past 7 days in which they needed to take off from work but
did not. If so, respondents were asked their reasons for needing leave, and their
reasons for not using leave instead. Respondents without access to leave were asked
about their reasons for needing leave.

   The final two questions asked respondents about their health in general and their
average level of pain during the past 7 days. The Leave Module questionnaire is
available at www.bls.gov/tus/lvmquestionnaire.pdf.

Definitions

Employment and earnings

   --Employed. All persons who, at any time during the 7 days prior to the interview:

     1. Did any work at all as paid employees; worked in their own business,
        profession, or on their own farm; or usually worked 15 hours or more
        as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; or

     2. Were not working but had jobs or businesses from which they were
        temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare
        problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity leave,
        job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not
        they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs.

   --Employed full time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to leave,
     full-time workers are single jobholders who usually worked 35 hours or more
     per week.

   --Employed part time. For the purpose of producing estimates related to leave,
     part-time workers are single jobholders who usually worked fewer than 35 hours
     per week.
     
   --Main job. For persons holding more than one job, the questions in the Leave
     Module referred to the characteristics of their main job--the job in which
     they worked the most hours during the past 7 days.

   --Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, 
     commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes
     employees in both the private and public sectors and self-employed persons
     whose businesses are incorporated, but excludes self-employed persons whose
     businesses are unincorporated.

   --Usual weekly earnings. Estimates represent the earnings of full-time wage
     and salary workers with one job only, excluding incorporated self-employed
     workers, before taxes and other deductions.

   --Weekly earnings ranges. The ranges used for the quartiles represent approximately
     25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers (incorporated self-employed workers
     are excluded) who held only one job. For example, 25 percent of full-time wage and
     salary workers with one job only had weekly earnings of $540 or less.

     The ranges used for the median represent approximately 50 percent of the full-time
     wage and salary workers (incorporated self-employed workers are excluded) who held
     only one job. For example, 50 percent of full-time wage and salary workers with one
     job only had weekly earnings of $830 or less.

Leave related

   --Paid leave. Respondents were asked "Do you receive paid leave on your job?" or, for
     those with multiple jobs, "Thinking about the job where you worked the most hours
     last week, do you receive paid leave on your job?" Respondents were identified as
     having paid leave at their main job if they answered "yes" to one of these questions.

   --Unpaid leave. Respondents were asked "Are you allowed to take time off from work
     without pay?" or, for those with multiple jobs, "In your main job, are you allowed
     to take time off from work without pay?" Respondents were identified as having
     unpaid leave at their main job if they answered "yes" to one of these questions.

   --Reasons for taking leave. If respondents answered "yes" to having paid or unpaid
     leave, they were asked about specific reasons for which they could take paid and
     unpaid leave. The reasons are: own illness or medical care; illness or medical 
     care of another family member; childcare, other than for illness; eldercare, other
     than for illness; vacation; errands or personal reasons; and birth or adoption of
     a child.

Other

   --Average week. The average week reflects an average across all wage and salary
     workers in the population for the period of 7 days prior to the interview day.
     Interviews are conducted on nearly all days of the year. The sequence of days
     included in the average week differs for respondents whose interviews were
     conducted on different days of the week. For example, if the interview was
     conducted on a Friday, the average week refers to the previous Friday through
     Thursday (yesterday). If the interview was conducted on a Monday, the average
     week refers to the previous Monday through Sunday (yesterday).

   --Health. Respondents were asked "Would you say your health in general is excellent,
     very good, good, fair, or poor?" Answers to this question were used to categorize
     health status for the estimates in this release.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the ATUS Leave Module are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ
from the true population values they represent. The component of this difference that
occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate.

   Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the
estimates from all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population
value. In this case, the sample estimate and its standard error can be used to construct
approximate confidence intervals, or ranges of values that include the true population
value with known probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the population
were repeated many times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of
its standard error calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the
intervals from 1.645 standard errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above
the estimate would include the true population value. BLS analyses are generally
conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The ATUS Leave Module data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the
average difference between population and sample values for samples generated by a given
process. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample
a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Nonsampling error and leave. Data provided in the Leave Module may be affected by
nonsampling error for a variety of reasons. Access to paid or unpaid leave may be
misreported if respondents are unaware of their employers’ leave policies. For example,
newer employees may not yet know whether they can take paid or unpaid leave from their
jobs, under what circumstances or for which reasons they can take leave, or the different
types of paid leave available to them. Some employers may have formal or written leave
policies, while others may rely on employees’ supervisors to convey and implement leave
policies. Unless employees have inquired about the specific leave arrangements, they
may not know if the specific leave arrangements are possible. For example, workers with
paid leave, who have never used unpaid leave, may not know if they can use unpaid leave,
or under what circumstances they may use unpaid leave.

   Differences between employer- and employee-based surveys. Estimates of access to leave
that are derived from responses to household (or employee-based) surveys may differ from
estimates produced using establishment (or employer-based) surveys. In general, employer-
based surveys often provide more detailed and accurate data on employer leave policies,
while household surveys allow researchers to examine demographic factors such as sex, age,
ethnicity, education, race, and health status and how they relate to leave availability
and usage.




Table 1. Wage and salary workers with access to paid or unpaid leave at their main job by selected characteristics, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                         Percent of workers with access to:                           
                                          Total wage                                                                                                  
                                          and salary                                                                                                  
                                           workers            Paid leave (1)                   Unpaid leave (1)           Paid or unpaid leave (1) (2)
         Characteristic                   (in thou-                                                                                                   
                                            sands)                                                                                                    
                                                         Yes        No       Do not       Yes        No       Do not       Yes         No      Do not 
                                                                              know                             know                             know  
                                                                                                                                                      
                   Age                                                                                                                                
Total, 15 years and over.................. 139,058      59.0       39.7        1.1       76.6       15.9        7.3       90.2        7.8        1.8  
  15 to 24 years..........................  20,880      26.0       71.0        3.0       80.5       15.1        4.4       86.0       11.2        2.8  
  25 to 34 years..........................  30,901      63.0       35.9        0.9       79.0       13.4        7.3       92.7        5.4        1.7  
  35 to 44 years..........................  28,954      65.6       33.3         .8       72.3       19.1        8.2       89.4        8.7        1.6  
  45 to 54 years..........................  31,566      69.7       29.8         .5       77.3       14.7        8.0       92.2        6.3        1.5  
  55 to 64 years..........................  21,254      63.9       34.6        1.0       74.5       17.3        7.7       89.2        9.1        1.4  
  65 years and over.......................   5,503      45.5       52.6        1.7       74.3       17.5        7.5       88.5        8.3        2.4  
                                                                                                                                                      
                   Sex                                                                                                                                
 Men......................................  73,430      60.3       38.6        1.0       75.4       17.3        7.0       89.8        8.4        1.5  
 Women....................................  65,628      57.5       41.0        1.3       77.9       14.3        7.6       90.6        7.1        2.1  
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Race (3)                                                                                                                             
 White.................................... 116,125      58.9       39.8        1.2       76.9       15.4        7.5       90.5        7.7        1.7  
 Black or African American................  15,204      60.6       38.2        1.0       76.7       17.5        5.5       90.4        7.6        1.8  
 Asian....................................   5,188      62.2       36.8         .2       72.1       20.0        6.8       87.1        9.7        2.1  
                                                                                                                                                      
     Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (4)                                                                                                                 
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.............  18,511      43.0       55.1        1.9       71.2       23.3        5.6       81.8       15.6        2.6  
 Nonhispanic.............................. 120,548      61.4       37.3        1.0       77.4       14.8        7.5       91.5        6.6        1.7  
                                                                                                                                                      
   Educational attainment (25 years                                                                                                                   
     and over)                                                                                                                                        
 Less than a high school diploma..........   8,002      34.9       63.9        1.2       70.4       24.9        4.8       80.7       16.6        2.7  
 High school graduates, no college........  33,358      61.1       38.2         .4       75.8       18.0        5.9       88.6        9.1        2.1  
 Some college or associate degree.........  30,886      66.4       32.4         .9       78.2       14.6        6.9       92.8        6.1         .8  
 Bachelor's degree and higher.............  45,932      71.6       27.2         .9       75.3       14.1       10.3       93.1        5.0        1.6  
                                                                                                                                                      
       Parent of a household child                                                                                                                    
 Parent of a household child under                                                                                                                    
   18 years...............................  47,401      63.2       36.0         .7       76.6       16.6        6.6       90.2        7.9        1.8  
   Parent of a child 13 to 17 (none                                                                                                                   
     younger).............................   9,711      66.3       33.4         .3       71.6       18.7        9.7       87.8        9.4        2.9  
   Parent of a child under 13.............  37,690      62.4       36.7         .7       77.9       16.1        5.8       90.9        7.5        1.5  
 Not a parent of a household child                                                                                                                    
   under 18...............................  91,657      56.8       41.6        1.4       76.5       15.5        7.6       90.2        7.8        1.8  
                                                                                                                                                      
                Health (5)                                                                                                                            
 Excellent................................  38,052      58.6       39.6        1.2       75.0       17.5        7.0       89.3        8.8        1.4  
 Very good................................  52,725      62.0       36.9        1.0       79.9       13.0        7.0       92.8        5.3        1.8  
 Good.....................................  38,054      56.5       42.5        1.0       74.8       17.0        7.9       88.1        9.7        2.1  
 Fair or poor.............................  10,227      53.4       44.5        2.0       71.8       20.8        7.2       87.8       10.0        2.1  
                                                                                                                                                      
                Occupation                                                                                                                            
 Management, business, and financial                                                                                                                  
   operations.............................  21,246      77.2       21.5         .9       72.3       16.9       10.2       92.8        5.1        1.5  
 Professional and related.................  32,140      69.4       29.5         .8       76.2       13.2       10.2       93.0        5.2        1.5  
 Services.................................  24,004      35.7       62.4        2.0       79.7       15.5        4.7       87.3       10.9        1.8  
 Sales and related........................  14,042      44.6       52.2        3.1       75.3       18.1        6.5       85.4       10.5        3.9  
 Office and administrative support........  18,929      66.0       33.2         .6       78.6       14.6        6.5       91.7        6.5        1.5  
 Farming, fishing, and forestry...........     703      (8)         (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)  
 Construction and extraction..............   6,878      36.1       63.5         .4       71.3       24.2        4.5       84.7       13.7        1.6  
 Installation, maintenance, and repair....   4,972      71.3       28.6         .1       79.0       16.7        4.3       91.6        7.2        1.2  
 Production...............................   7,688      62.9       36.4         .7       81.5       14.7        3.8       90.4        8.1        1.4  
 Transportation and material moving.......   8,456      58.3       41.0         .5       75.6       17.7        6.5       89.0        9.3        1.6  
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Industry                                                                                                                             
 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and                                                                                                                  
   hunting................................   1,251      32.5       67.1         ~0        83.5      16.1         ~0       87.7       11.9         ~0  
 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                                                                                   
   extraction.............................   1,014       (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)        (8)  
 Construction.............................   8,684      38.5       60.9         .5       71.2       23.8        4.9       85.2       13.3        1.3  
 Manufacturing............................  14,272      73.2       25.9         .8       79.5       12.8        7.5       92.5        5.6        1.7  
 Wholesale and retail trade...............  19,279      53.5       43.7        2.8       77.6       16.1        6.2       88.8        8.3        2.8  
 Transportation and utilities.............   7,411      72.2       27.2         ~0       74.6       18.8        6.1       89.0       10.4         ~0  
 Information..............................   3,548      59.9       38.7        1.3       69.1       20.8        9.3       85.7       10.1        3.4  
 Financial activities.....................   8,096      79.0       20.3         .2       74.9       13.4       11.0       95.4        3.9         .2  
 Professional and business services.......  15,433      56.4       42.3        1.3       77.5       13.0        9.4       89.5        7.9        2.6  
 Education and health services............  34,912      65.3       33.8         .6       76.5       14.9        8.2       91.9        6.0        1.9  
 Leisure and hospitality..................  13,224      24.8       71.7        3.2       80.2       16.1        3.4       86.5       11.1        2.2  
 Other services...........................   5,066      42.2       57.6         .2       72.9       21.2        6.0       85.7       13.5         .8  
 Public administration....................   6,870      89.2       10.7         .2       76.0       14.6        9.4       98.2        1.7         .2  
                                                                                                                                                      
            Class of worker (6)                                                                                                                       
 Private sector........................... 111,092      56.8       41.7        1.3       77.3       15.4        7.0       90.4        7.5        1.8  
   Private, for profit.................... 100,795      56.2       42.2        1.4       77.7       15.3        6.7       90.2        7.7        1.8  
   Private, not for profit................  10,296      63.0       36.7         .3       73.2       16.4       10.0       92.3        6.3        1.4  
 Public sector............................  23,586      76.1       23.1         .7       75.5       15.2        9.2       92.9        5.1        1.9  
   Federal government.....................   3,878      86.3       12.0        1.7       79.2        9.1       11.7       95.7        2.6        1.7  
   State government.......................   8,627      75.3       24.2         .5       76.3       14.3        9.5       94.7        3.6        1.7  
   Local government.......................  11,082      73.1       26.0         .6       73.6       18.0        8.1       90.4        7.2        2.0  
                                                                                                                                                      
     Full- and part-time status                                                                                                                       
      (single jobholders only)                                                                                                                        
 Full-time workers........................  98,492      71.4       27.5         .8       76.3       15.5        7.8       92.6        6.0        1.1  
 Part-time workers........................  27,743      22.4       74.8        2.6       81.4       14.3        4.3       85.2       11.8        3.0  
                                                                                                                                                      
    Earnings of full-time workers                                                                                                                     
      (single jobholders only) (7)                                                                                                                    
 $0 - $540................................  24,229      50.1       48.2        1.5       78.0       16.5        5.1       88.4        9.6        1.6  
 $541 - $830..............................  23,989      77.1       21.9         .9       78.9       14.1        6.9       94.7        4.0        1.2  
 $831 - $1,230............................  23,260      81.2       17.8         .7       74.8       15.0        9.7       95.3        3.4        1.0  
 $1,231 and higher........................  24,195      82.8       16.4         .4       75.4       14.1       10.1       94.9        4.0         .7  

   1 The subcategories do not sum to 100 percent because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
   2 Some workers have access to both paid and unpaid leave.
   3 Estimates for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
   4 Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
   5 Health status was self-reported by individuals who participated in the survey.
   6 Class of worker estimates do not include self-employed incorporated workers.
   7 These values are based on usual weekly earnings. Each earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers
(except self-employed incorporated workers) who held only one job.
   8 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
  ~0 Estimate is approximately zero.
   NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose businesses are
incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers. 




Table 2. Wage and salary workers who took leave from their main job during an average week: percent of workers taking leave, hours of leave taken, and
main reason for taking leave, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                                                        
                                                            Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week for any reason                 
                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                        
                                    Total                                               Percent distribution by main reason for taking leave            
                                  wage and                                                                                                              
                                   salary    Number              Average                     Illness     Child-                                         
                                   workers  (in thou-  Percent    hours of            Own       or       care or             Errands   Birth or         
          Characteristic          (in thou-  sands)               leave            illness   medical     elder-                or     adoption          
                                   sands)                         taken    Total      or     care of      care    Vacation  personal    of a     Other  
                                                                                    medical  a family   (other              reasons     child           
                                                                                     care     member    than for                                        
                                                                                                        illness)                                        
              Age                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                        
Total, 15 years and over.........  139,058    29,653     21.3      15.61    100.0      21.9       5.6       2.3      29.5      16.5       1.7      22.5 
  15 to 24 years.................   20,880     4,253     20.4      13.81    100.0      22.6       0.5       1.1      21.3      23.4        ~0      31.0 
  25 to 34 years.................   30,901     6,252     20.2      13.94    100.0      17.0       7.7       3.7      25.6      20.3       5.7      20.1 
  35 to 44 years.................   28,954     5,972     20.6      17.49    100.0      18.8       6.1       3.5      32.8      14.6       2.4      21.7 
  45 to 54 years.................   31,566     7,674     24.3      16.23    100.0      24.6       7.0       2.2      32.7      12.1        ~0      21.4 
  55 to 64 years.................   21,254     4,742     22.3      16.09    100.0      27.3       4.3       0.4      31.8      14.3        ~0      21.8 
  65 years and over..............    5,503       760     13.8       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
                                                                                                                                                        
              Sex                                                                                                                                       
 Men.............................   73,430    14,456     19.7      15.73    100.0      16.9       5.1       2.6      30.8      19.5       0.1      25.0 
 Women...........................   65,628    15,198     23.2      15.50    100.0      26.8       6.1       1.9      28.3      13.7       3.2      20.1 
                                                                                                                                                        
            Race (1)                                                                                                                                    
 White...........................  116,125    25,228     21.7      15.45    100.0      20.8       5.7       2.4      29.8      16.6       1.4      23.3 
 Black or African American.......   15,204     3,219     21.2      16.25    100.0      31.1       4.9       1.0      26.0      14.9       2.7      19.5 
 Asian...........................    5,188       822     15.8       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
                                                                                                                                                        
  Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (2)                                                                                                                      
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....   18,511     2,564     13.9      15.93    100.0      22.8       6.2       6.2      23.1      18.0        .9      22.8 
 Nonhispanic.....................  120,548    27,089     22.5      15.58    100.0      21.8       5.5       1.9      30.1      16.4       1.7      22.5 
                                                                                                                                                        
   Educational attainment (25                                                                                                                     
     years and over)                                                                                                                                         
 Less than a high school diploma.    8,002     1,050     13.1       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 High school graduates, no                                                                                                                              
   college.......................   33,358     7,170     21.5      17.29    100.0      24.8       7.3       2.3      26.7      17.2       1.4      20.4 
 Some college or associate                                                                                                                              
   degree........................   30,886     6,538     21.2      15.06    100.0      20.7       7.7       2.0      31.2      15.2       2.1      21.1 
 Bachelor's degree and higher....   45,932    10,642     23.2      15.42    100.0      19.7       4.5       2.2      36.0      14.0       2.2      21.3 
                                                                                                                                                        
      Parent of a household child                                                                                                                          
 Parent of a household child                                                                                                                            
   under 18 years................   47,401    10,260     21.6      16.21    100.0      18.2       8.6       6.0      26.5      15.2       3.8      21.8 
   Parent of a child 13 to 17                                                                                                                           
   (none younger)................    9,711     1,865     19.2      16.48    100.0      21.8       7.6       7.5      38.2      11.6        ~0      13.3 
   Parent of a child under 13....   37,690     8,396     22.3      16.15    100.0      17.4       8.8       5.6      23.9      16.0       4.6      23.6 
 Not a parent of a household                                                                                                                            
   child under 18................   91,657    19,393     21.2      15.29    100.0      23.9       4.0        .3      31.1      17.2        .6      22.9 
                                                                                                                                                        
           Health (3)                                                                                                                                   
 Excellent.......................   38,052     8,253     21.7      16.00    100.0      12.8       4.4       1.2      39.5      17.5       2.0      22.6 
 Very good.......................   52,725    10,855     20.6      15.31    100.0      17.8       4.9       2.6      30.6      15.9       1.1      27.1 
 Good............................   38,054     8,596     22.6      15.46    100.0      32.2       6.7       2.3      21.7      17.2       2.0      17.8 
 Fair or poor....................   10,227     1,950     19.1      16.37    100.0      38.2       9.9       4.7      15.5      12.1       2.3      17.2 
                                                                                                                                                        
           Occupation                                                                                                                                   
 Management, business, and                                                                                                                              
   financial operations..........   21,246     4,465     21.0      15.88    100.0      17.6       5.6       2.9      36.9      13.5        .3      23.3 
 Professional and related........   32,140     8,110     25.2      15.97    100.0      19.4       4.6       2.2      36.3      14.4       2.8      20.3 
 Services........................   24,004     4,369     18.2      14.00    100.0      27.6       9.0       1.1      20.2      20.5       1.1      20.6 
 Sales and related...............   14,042     2,480     17.7      14.73    100.0      21.1       1.9       3.7      35.5      15.8       3.1      18.9 
 Office and administrative                                                                                                                              
   support.......................   18,929     4,633     24.5      12.68    100.0      24.5       4.6       1.5      25.2      17.6       1.6      25.0 
 Farming, fishing, and forestry..      703      (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 Construction and extraction.....    6,878     1,141     16.6       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 Installation, maintenance, and                                                                                                                         
   repair........................    4,972     1,141     23.0       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 Production......................    7,688     1,527     19.9      20.33    100.0      22.4       2.2       2.7      33.0      19.2        ~0      20.5 
 Transportation and material                                                                                                                            
   moving........................    8,456     1,541     18.2      16.92    100.0      30.0       3.6       3.9      12.8      21.5       1.5      26.6 
                                                                                                                                                        
            Industry                                                                                                                                    
Agriculture, forestry, fishing,                                                                                                                         
  and hunting....................    1,251       423     33.8       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 Mining, quarrying, and oil and                                                                                                                         
   gas extraction................    1,014      (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 Construction....................    8,684     1,517     17.5      16.14    100.0      12.1       9.9       5.6      19.6      13.9       2.5      36.3 
 Manufacturing...................   14,272     3,037     21.3      17.95    100.0      16.1       4.2       3.3      37.5      18.2        .6      20.2 
 Wholesale and retail trade......   19,279     3,179     16.5      14.89    100.0      23.1       4.4       3.3      27.6      11.0       2.5      28.1 
 Transportation and utilities....    7,411     1,763     23.8      20.32    100.0      35.2       4.5       1.8      23.5      13.1       1.7      20.2 
 Information....................    3,548       871     24.6       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)  
 Financial activities............    8,096     1,780     22.0      16.49    100.0      17.2       6.0       3.4      42.0      18.2        ~0      13.2 
 Professional and business     .                                                                                                                        
   services......................   15,433     4,246     27.5      13.60    100.0      12.3       6.4        .4      26.3      26.8       1.7      26.1 
 Education and health services...   34,912     7,076     20.3      16.75    100.0      26.8       4.8       2.2      29.5      12.4       3.1      21.2 
 Leisure and hospitality.........   13,224     2,556     19.3      15.75    100.0      22.5       6.5       3.1      32.0      20.1       1.3      14.5 
 Other services..................    5,066       652     12.9       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6)       (6) 
 Public administration...........    6,870     2,395     34.9      10.99    100.0      30.8       7.4       1.1      32.2      11.3        ~0      17.1 
                                                                                                                                                        
       Class of worker (4)                                                                                                                              
 Private sector..................  111,092    21,788     19.6      15.37    100.0      21.4       5.7       2.2      28.6      16.8       1.8      23.5 
   Private, for profit...........  100,795    19,854     19.7      15.40    100.0      20.7       5.7       2.2      28.2      17.4       1.5      24.4 
   Private, not for profit.......   10,296     1,935     18.8      15.06    100.0      28.5       5.7       2.4      33.1      11.0       5.0      14.3 
 Public sector...................   23,586     6,792     28.8      16.12    100.0      25.7       5.4       2.3      32.6      14.4       1.6      18.1 
   Federal government............    3,878     1,419     36.6      11.02    100.0      34.7       4.2        .3      28.8      17.4        .5      14.2 
   State government..............    8,627     2,122     24.6      14.64    100.0      25.8       7.6       1.9      26.3      14.1       2.6      21.7 
   Local government..............   11,082     3,251     29.3      19.31    100.0      21.7       4.5       3.4      38.3      13.4       1.4      17.4 
                                                                                                                                                        
     Full- and part-time status                                                                                                                         
      (single jobholders only)                                                                                                                          
 Full-time workers...............   98,492    21,628     22.0      16.26    100.0      22.9       5.4       2.4      30.7      14.6       2.2      21.9 
 Part-time workers...............   27,743     5,477     19.7      13.72    100.0      17.8       6.5       1.3      27.2      20.5        .4      26.4 
                                                                                                                                                        
     Earnings of full-time workers                                                                                                                      
      (single jobholders only) (5)                                                                                                                     
 $0 - $540.......................   24,229     4,208     17.4      14.14    100.0      30.1       5.2       4.3      19.9      17.7       2.5      20.3 
 $541 - $830.....................   23,989     5,241     21.8      15.77    100.0      26.5       6.0       2.1      27.8      10.0       1.1      26.4 
 $831 - $1,230...................   23,260     5,527     23.8      17.84    100.0      21.4       5.3        .9      31.9      16.4       1.5      22.6 
 $1,231 and higher...............   24,195     6,083     25.1      16.47    100.0      17.1       5.3       2.0      39.4      15.0       3.8      17.3 
                                                                                                                                                        
   1 Estimates for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
   2 Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
   3 Health status was self-reported by individuals who participated in the survey.
   4 Class of worker estimates do not include self-employed incorporated workers.
   5 These values are based on usual weekly earnings. Each earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers
(except self-employed incorporated workers) who held only one job.
   6 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
  ~0 Estimate is approximately zero.
   NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose businesses are
incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.




Table 3. Wage and salary workers who took leave from their main job during an average week: percent of workers taking leave and
type of leave used, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                                  
                                                   Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week for any reason    
                                    Total wage                                                                                    
                                    and salary                                                                                    
                                      workers                                       Percent distribution by type of leave used    
         Characteristic             (in thou-       Number                                                                        
                                      sands)      (in thou-      Percent                                                          
                                                    sands)                      Total       Paid leave   Unpaid leave     Paid and
                                                                                              only          only      unpaid leave
            Age                                                                                                                   
Total, 15 years and over.........    139,058        29,653         21.3         100.0          57.1          40.0           2.9   
  15 to 24 years.................     20,880         4,253         20.4         100.0          19.8          78.3           2.0   
  25 to 34 years.................     30,901         6,252         20.2         100.0          57.7          38.4           3.9   
  35 to 44 years.................     28,954         5,972         20.6         100.0          63.1          33.9           2.9   
  45 to 54 years.................     31,566         7,674         24.3         100.0          68.9          27.2           3.9   
  55 to 64 years.................     21,254         4,742         22.3         100.0          65.8          32.9           1.3   
  65 years and over..............      5,503           760         13.8           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
                                                                                                                                  
              Sex                                                                                                                 
 Men.............................     73,430        14,456         19.7         100.0          58.7          38.0           3.3   
 Women...........................     65,628        15,198         23.2         100.0          55.6          41.9           2.5   
                                                                                                                                  
            Race (1)                                                                                                              
 White...........................    116,125        25,228         21.7         100.0          57.7          39.5           2.8   
 Black or African American.......     15,204         3,219         21.2         100.0          54.6          43.8           1.6   
 Asian...........................      5,188           822         15.8           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
                                                                                                                                  
   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (2)                                                                                               
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity....     18,511         2,564         13.9         100.0          41.6          54.7           3.7   
 Nonhispanic.....................    120,548        27,089         22.5         100.0          58.6          38.6           2.8   
                                                                                                                                  
    Educational attainment (25                                                                                               
      years and over)                                                                                                                   
 Less than a high school diploma.      8,002         1,050         13.1           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 High school graduates, no                                                                                                        
   college.......................     33,358         7,170         21.5         100.0          57.4          40.4           2.1   
 Some college or associate                                                                                                        
   degree........................     30,886         6,538         21.2         100.0          61.4          33.8           4.9   
 Bachelor's degree and higher....     45,932        10,642         23.2         100.0          72.2          25.3           2.5   
                                                                                                                                  
      Parent of a household child                                                                                                
 Parent of a household child                                                                                                      
   under 18 years................     47,401        10,260         21.6         100.0          63.1          33.5           3.5   
   Parent of a child 13 to 17                                                                                                     
   (none younger)................      9,711         1,865         19.2         100.0          67.8          31.5            .7   
   Parent of a child under 13....     37,690         8,396         22.3         100.0          62.0          33.9           4.1   
 Not a parent of a household                                                                                                      
   child under 18................     91,657        19,393         21.2         100.0          53.9          43.5           2.6   
                                                                                                                                  
           Health (3)                                                                                                             
 Excellent.......................     38,052         8,253         21.7         100.0          57.4          38.9           3.7   
 Very good.......................     52,725        10,855         20.6         100.0          58.9          38.1           3.0   
 Good............................     38,054         8,596         22.6         100.0          58.7          39.0           2.3   
 Fair or poor....................     10,227         1,950         19.1         100.0          38.8          59.7           1.5   
                                                                                                                                  
           Occupation                                                                                                             
 Management, business, and                                                                                                        
   financial operations..........     21,246         4,465         21.0         100.0          77.2          20.2           2.5   
 Professional and related........     32,140         8,110         25.2         100.0          68.3          28.8           2.8   
 Services........................     24,004         4,369         18.2         100.0          33.2          65.8           1.0   
 Sales and related...............     14,042         2,480         17.7         100.0          34.6          64.1           1.2   
 Office and administrative                                                                                                        
   support.......................     18,929         4,633         24.5         100.0          59.6          36.9           3.6   
 Farming, fishing, and forestry .        703          (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Construction and extraction.....      6,878         1,141         16.6           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Installation, maintenance, and                                                                                                   
   repair........................      4,972         1,141         23.0           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Production......................      7,688         1,527         19.9         100.0          51.2          41.3           7.5   
 Transportation and material                                                                                                      
   moving........................      8,456         1,541         18.2         100.0          46.6          49.4           4.0   
                                                                                                                                  
            Industry                                                                                                              
 Agriculture, forestry, fishing,                                                                                                  
   and hunting...................      1,251           423         33.8           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Mining, quarrying, and oil and                                                                                                   
   gas extraction................      1,014          (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Construction....................      8,684         1,517         17.5         100.0          43.1          56.2            .6   
 Manufacturing...................     14,272         3,037         21.3         100.0          67.9          27.8           4.4   
 Wholesale and retail trade......     19,279         3,179         16.5         100.0          48.9          46.0           5.1   
 Transportation and utilities....      7,411         1,763         23.8         100.0          71.4          25.0           3.5   
 Information.....................      3,548           871         24.6           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Financial activities............      8,096         1,780         22.0         100.0          68.3          28.5           3.2   
 Professional and business                                                                                                        
   services......................     15,433         4,246         27.5         100.0          46.4          50.0           3.5   
 Education and health services...     34,912         7,076         20.3         100.0          66.7          30.2           3.2   
 Leisure and hospitality.........     13,224         2,556         19.3         100.0          12.8          86.0           1.2   
 Other services..................      5,066           652         12.9           (6)           (6)           (6)           (6)   
 Public administration...........      6,870         2,395         34.9         100.0          91.2           8.8            ~0   
                                                                                                                                  
       Class of worker (4)                                                                                                        
 Private sector..................    111,092        21,788         19.6         100.0          53.5          43.3           3.2   
   Private, for profit...........    100,795        19,854         19.7         100.0          51.3          45.2           3.5   
   Private, not for profit.......     10,296         1,935         18.8         100.0          76.5          23.5            ~0   
 Public sector...................     23,586         6,792         28.8         100.0          74.9          22.8           2.3   
   Federal government............      3,878         1,419         36.6         100.0          94.4           5.0            .6   
   State government..............      8,627         2,122         24.6         100.0          77.5          19.8           2.7   
   Local government..............     11,082         3,251         29.3         100.0          64.8          32.4           2.8   
                                                                                                                                  
     Full- and part-time status                                                                                                   
       (single jobholders only)                                                                                                   
 Full-time workers...............     98,492        21,628         22.0         100.0          67.6          29.0           3.3   
 Part-time workers...............     27,743         5,477         19.7         100.0          10.6          86.9           2.4   
                                                                                                                                  
     Earnings of full-time workers                                                                                                
      (single jobholders only) (5)                                                                                               
 $0 - $540.......................     24,229         4,208         17.4         100.0          39.8          55.3           5.0   
 $541 - $830.....................     23,989         5,241         21.8         100.0          68.8          26.9           4.3   
 $831 - $1,230...................     23,260         5,527         23.8         100.0          76.2          20.5           3.3   
 $1,231 and higher...............     24,195         6,083         25.1         100.0          82.3          16.0           1.7   
                                                                                                                                  
   1 Estimates for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races.
   2 Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
   3 Health status was self-reported by individuals who participated in the survey.
   4 Class of worker estimates do not include self-employed incorporated workers.
   5 These values are based on usual weekly earnings. Each earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage
and salary workers (except self-employed incorporated workers) who held only one job.
   6 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
  ~0 Estimate is approximately zero.
   NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose
businesses are incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.




Table 4. Wage and salary workers who took leave from their main job during an average week: percent of workers taking leave,
hours of leave taken, and type of leave used by main reason for taking leave, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                              
                                                       Workers who took paid or unpaid leave during an average week           
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                    Percent distribution by type of leave     
                                              Number                 Average                                                  
      Main reason for taking leave           (in thou-    Percent    hours of                                                 
                                              sands)               leave taken              Paid leave    Unpaid     Paid and 
                                                                                  Total        only     leave only    unpaid  
                                                                                                                      leave   
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
Total.....................................    29,653       21.3        15.61      100.0        57.1        40.0         2.9   
  Own illness or medical care.............     6,502        4.7        13.79      100.0        62.6        34.8         2.7   
  Illness or medical care of another                                                                                          
    family member.........................     1,656        1.2        11.52      100.0        65.0        30.7         4.2   
  Childcare or eldercare (other than for                                                                                      
    illness)..............................       677        0.5          (1)        (1)         (1)         (1)         (1)   
  Vacation................................     8,758        6.3        21.53      100.0        68.3        28.9         2.7   
  Errands or personal reasons.............     4,890        3.5         8.79      100.0        47.1        51.3         1.6   
  Birth or adoption of a child............       497         .4          (1)        (1)         (1)         (1)         (1)   
  Other...................................     6,673        4.8        14.29      100.0        44.8        51.4         3.8   

   1 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
   NOTE: Data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated
are classified as wage and salary workers.




Table 5. Wage and salary workers who can adjust their schedule or location (1) at their main job by selected characteristics, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                                                    
                                           Wage and salary workers                      Percent of workers who can adjust their:                    
                                               (in thousands)                                                                                       
                                                                             Schedule                   Location             Schedule or Location   
          Characteristic                                                                                                                            
                                           Total     Men     Women    Total     Men     Women    Total     Men     Women    Total     Men     Women 
                                                                                                                                                    
                  Age                                                                                                                               
Total, 15 years and over................  139,058   73,430   65,628    53.1     52.5     53.8     22.1     23.3     20.7     55.9     55.6     56.3 
  15 to 24 years........................   20,880   10,535   10,346    62.6     59.8     65.6     16.0     16.6     15.3     65.4     61.4     69.4 
  25 to 34 years........................   30,901   16,712   14,189    55.3     53.1     57.9     23.8     24.0     23.6     57.9     56.0     60.2 
  35 to 44 years........................   28,954   15,939   13,015    51.8     51.2     52.5     25.0     25.0     24.9     55.4     55.6     55.0 
  45 to 54 years........................   31,566   16,297   15,268    49.0     49.0     49.1     23.5     25.7     21.2     51.7     51.8     51.5 
  55 to 64 years........................   21,254   11,264    9,990    48.9     51.9     45.6     20.4     23.0     17.6     51.5     55.0     47.6 
  65 years and over.....................    5,503    2,684    2,819    51.2     52.4     50.2     18.5     22.1     15.0     53.0     53.9     52.2 
                                                                                                                                                    
                Race (2)                                                                                                                            
 White..................................  116,125   62,571   53,554    53.7     53.3     54.1     22.3     23.8     20.6     56.6     56.5     56.7 
 Black or African American..............   15,204    6,809    8,395    47.9     41.2     53.4     18.2     17.5     18.8     49.8     43.2     55.2 
 Asian..................................    5,188    2,565    2,623    57.6     60.7     54.6     30.5     35.9     25.3     59.8     64.9     54.8 
                                                                                                                                                    
    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (3)                                                                                                                
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...........   18,511   10,938    7,573    44.1     40.8     48.9     14.9     12.3     18.6     48.2     45.7     51.9 
 Nonhispanic............................  120,548   62,492   58,055    54.5     54.6     54.4     23.2     25.2     21.0     57.1     57.3     56.9 
                                                                                                                                                    
   Educational attainment (25 years                                                                                                                 
      and over)                                                                                                                                     
 Less than a high school diploma........    8,002    5,286    2,716    32.0     29.8     36.1     11.7     11.2     12.5     37.6     35.8     41.3 
 High school graduates, no college......   33,358   19,044   14,313    44.4     40.2     50.1     13.3     11.1     16.2     48.2     45.1     52.5 
 Some college or associate degree.......   30,886   15,043   15,843    53.8     52.6     55.0     18.8     18.8     18.8     55.8     54.6     56.9 
 Bachelor's degree and higher...........   45,932   23,522   22,410    58.3     64.3     52.0     35.3     41.9     28.4     60.5     66.5     54.2 
                                                                                                                                                    
       Parent of a household child                                                                                                                  
 Parent of a household child under                                                                                                                  
   18 years.............................   47,401   24,631   22,770    52.5     51.2     54.0     24.6     26.8     22.3     55.1     54.5     55.7 
   Parent of a child 13 to 17 (none                                                                                                                 
     younger)...........................    9,711    4,937    4,774    46.4     48.1     44.6     21.6     23.9     19.2     50.3     53.8     46.8 
   Parent of a child under 13..........    37,690   19,695   17,996    54.1     52.0     56.5     25.4     27.5     23.1     56.3     54.7     58.1 
 Not a parent of a household child                                                                                                                  
   under 18.............................   91,657   48,799   42,858    53.4     53.2     53.7     20.8     21.6     19.9     56.3     56.1     56.7 
                                                                                                                                                    
               Health (4)                                                                                                                           
 Excellent..............................   38,052   19,423   18,629    56.7     59.4     53.9     25.4     28.8     21.9     59.1     61.7     56.3 
 Very good..............................   52,725   28,664   24,061    56.1     55.3     57.1     24.4     25.4     23.2     58.3     57.6     59.1 
 Good...................................   38,054   20,092   17,962    48.7     45.1     52.6     17.2     17.6     16.8     52.7     49.7     56.1 
 Fair or poor...........................   10,227    5,252    4,975    40.8     40.0     41.6     16.0     13.7     18.4     43.8     44.0     43.6 
                                                                                                                                                    
               Occupation                                                                                                                           
 Management, business, and financial                                                                                                                
   operations...........................   21,246   12,324    8,922    64.7     65.5     63.5     38.6     39.5     37.3     67.1     68.2     65.5 
 Professional and related...............   32,140   13,599   18,540    51.3     59.9     45.1     28.4     36.7     22.3     53.5     62.7     46.7 
 Services...............................   24,004   10,660   13,343    55.5     55.5     55.4     12.3     12.4     12.2     58.7     58.6     58.7 
 Sales and related......................   14,042    6,857    7,185    68.5     68.2     68.7     27.2     32.5     22.2     71.1     69.2     72.8 
 Office and administrative support.......  18,929    5,166   13,762    55.7     59.4     54.3     17.1     18.1     16.8     57.0     60.4     55.7 
 Farming, fishing, and forestry.........      703      430      273     (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7) 
 Construction and extraction............    6,878    6,629      249    31.1     30.9      (7)     14.8     15.1      (7)     38.7     37.2      (7) 
 Installation, maintenance, and repair..    4,972    4,819      153    44.1     43.2      (7)     13.0     11.9      (7)     45.5     44.7      (7) 
 Production.............................    7,688    5,661    2,027    35.5     34.0     39.8      8.7      7.2     12.8     40.4     39.3     43.2 
 Transportation and material moving.....    8,456    7,285    1,171    32.7     32.9      (7)     12.0     10.5      (7)     36.5     36.4      (7) 
                                                                                                                                                    
                Industry                                                                                                                            
 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and                                                                                                                
   hunting..............................    1,251      981      270    55.2      (7)      (7)      17.2     (7)      (7)     58.1      (7)      (7) 
 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                                                                                 
   extraction...........................    1,014      925       90     (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7)      (7) 
 Construction...........................    8,684    7,924      760    33.5     30.9      (7)     20.4     18.0      (7)     38.1     34.6      (7) 
 Manufacturing..........................   14,272   10,735    3,537    48.1     47.6     49.7     20.9     19.3     25.5     52.1     52.0     52.5 
 Wholesale and retail trade.............   19,279   10,295    8,983    63.1     63.6     62.5     22.8     25.4     19.8     66.2     65.3     67.2 
 Transportation and utilities...........    7,411    5,633    1,778    34.3     30.5     46.1     14.1     11.3     23.2     38.2     34.7     49.2 
 Information............................    3,548    1,789    1,759    67.8     67.0     68.5     42.4     41.5     43.4     69.0     68.3     69.6 
 Financial activities...................    8,096    3,321    4,775    58.4     62.9     55.4     31.4     45.1     21.9     60.9     67.9     56.1 
 Professional and business services.....   15,433    9,814    5,619    61.2     60.9     61.9     36.8     38.8     33.2     65.1     64.8     65.6 
 Education and health services..........   34,912    9,458   25,453    44.6     48.2     43.2     16.6     19.5     15.5     46.5     50.9     44.9 
 Leisure and hospitality................   13,224    6,276    6,948    69.1     69.3     68.9     14.7     12.7     16.5     70.5     69.8     71.2 
 Other services.........................    5,066    2,269    2,797    58.6     53.9     62.4     25.5     23.8     26.8     60.9     54.9     65.8 
 Public administration..................    6,870    4,011    2,859    58.0     57.5     58.7     21.4     21.1     21.8     59.6     59.6     59.6 
                                                                                                                                                    
           Class of worker (5)                                                                                                                      
 Private sector.........................  111,092   59,928   51,164    54.9     52.4     57.9     22.6     22.9     22.2     58.0     55.6     60.8 
   Private, for profit..................  100,795   56,456   44,339    54.4     52.0     57.3     22.0     22.3     21.7     57.6     55.3     60.5 
   Private, not for profit..............   10,296    3,472    6,825    60.4     58.6     61.4     28.2     33.7     25.3     62.2     61.1     62.8 
 Public sector..........................   23,586   10,474   13,112    39.6     45.4     35.0     14.9     18.3     12.1     40.8     46.8     36.0 
   Federal government...................    3,878    2,404    1,473    49.5     49.0     50.4     20.6     20.9     20.3     52.7     53.3     51.7 
   State government.....................    8,627    3,587    5,039    45.4     53.0     40.0     20.1     29.3     13.4     46.3     54.0     40.8 
   Local government.....................   11,082    4,482    6,599    31.7     37.4     27.9      8.8      8.0      9.3     32.4     37.5     28.9 
                                                                                                                                                    
     Full- and part-time status                                                                                                                     
       (single jobholders only)                                                                                                                     
 Full-time workers......................   98,492   56,935   41,557    50.0     50.3     49.6     22.5     23.9     20.7     52.8     53.4     52.0 
 Part-time workers......................   27,743   10,021   17,722    63.0     62.3     63.4     19.2     17.5     20.2     65.7     64.9     66.2 
                                                                                                                                                    
     Earnings of full-time workers                                                                                                                  
      (single jobholders only) (6)                                                                                                                  
 $0 - $540..............................   24,229   11,941   12,287    43.9     41.9     45.8     11.7     11.6     11.8     47.2     45.1     49.3 
 $541 - $830............................   23,989   12,260   11,729    46.3     44.1     48.5     14.4     13.5     15.5     48.8     47.4     50.3 
 $831 - $1,230..........................   23,260   14,367    8,892    48.6     47.3     50.8     22.4     20.3     25.8     51.5     51.1     52.1 
 $1,231 and higher......................   24,195   16,243    7,952    58.1     60.0     54.1     39.3     41.5     34.7     60.2     62.1     56.4 
                                                                                                                                                    
   1 Data refer to workers who can adjust their schedule or location instead of taking leave or because they need to take time off from work.
   2 Estimates for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
   3 Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
   4 Health status was self-reported by individuals who participated in the survey.
   5 Class of worker estimates do not include self-employed incorporated workers.
   6 These values are based on usual weekly earnings.  Each earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage and salary workers
(except self-employed incorporated workers) who held only one job.
   7 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
   NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose businesses are
incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.




Table 6. Wage and salary workers who adjusted their schedule or location (1) at their main job during an average week by selected
characteristics, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 Percent of workers who adjusted 
                                              Wage and salary workers (in thousands)         their schedule or location during 
                                                                                                     an average week           
         Characteristic                                                                                                        
                                                Total          Men          Women         Total          Men          Women    
                                                                                                                               
                     Age                                                                                                       
Total, 15 years and over.....................  139,058        73,430        65,628          6.8           6.4           7.2    
  15 to 24 years.............................   20,880        10,535        10,346          5.5           4.6           6.3    
  25 to 34 years.............................   30,901        16,712        14,189          8.0           7.6           8.6    
  35 to 44 years.............................   28,954        15,939        13,015          8.4           6.7          10.5    
  45 to 54 years.............................   31,566        16,297        15,268          6.3           5.9           6.7    
  55 to 64 years.............................   21,254        11,264         9,990          4.6           5.4           3.7    
  65 years and over..........................    5,503         2,684         2,819          7.4          11.4           3.5    
                                                                                                                               
                   Race (2)                                                                                                    
 White.......................................  116,125        62,571        53,554          7.0           6.4           7.6    
 Black or African American...................   15,204         6,809         8,395          3.9           3.0           4.6    
 Asian.......................................    5,188         2,565         2,623          8.8          12.2           5.5    
                                                                                                                               
       Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (3)                                                                                        
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity................   18,511        10,938         7,573          3.3           2.8           4.1    
 Nonhispanic.................................  120,548        62,492        58,055          7.3           7.0           7.6    
                                                                                                                               
    Educational attainment (25 years                                                                                           
      and over)                                                                                                                
 Less than a high school diploma.............    8,002         5,286         2,716          1.6           2.1            .7    
 High school graduates, no college...........   33,358        19,044        14,313          3.7           3.4           4.0    
 Some college or associate degree............   30,886        15,043        15,843          6.9           6.7           7.1    
 Bachelor's degree and higher................   45,932        23,522        22,410         10.4          10.4          10.5    
                                                                                                                               
       Parent of a household child                                                                                             
 Parent of a household child under                                                                                             
   18 years..................................   47,401        24,631        22,770          9.1           8.9           9.4    
   Parent of a child 13 to 17 (none                                                                                            
     younger)................................    9,711         4,937         4,774          7.2           8.2           6.1    
 Parent of a child under 13..................   37,690        19,695        17,996          9.6           9.1          10.3    
 Not a parent of a household child                                                                                             
   under 18...................................  91,657        48,799        42,858          5.6           5.1           6.0    
                                                                                                                               
                  Health (4)                                                                                                   
 Excellent...................................   38,052        19,423        18,629          6.7           6.1           7.3    
 Very good...................................   52,725        28,664        24,061          7.8           7.8           7.9    
 Good........................................   38,054        20,092        17,962          5.9           5.1           6.7    
 Fair or poor................................   10,227         5,252         4,975          5.2           5.0           5.3    
                                                                                                                               
                 Occupation                                                                                                    
 Management, business, and financial                                                                                           
   operations................................   21,246        12,324         8,922         12.0          11.4          12.9    
 Professional and related....................   32,140        13,599        18,540          9.9          11.1           9.0    
 Services....................................   24,004        10,660        13,343          4.4           4.4           4.4    
 Sales and related...........................   14,042         6,857         7,185          5.3           5.6           5.0    
 Office and administrative support...........   18,929         5,166        13,762          6.2           5.3           6.6    
 Farming, fishing, and forestry..............      703           430           273          (7)           (7)           (7)    
 Construction and extraction.................    6,878         6,629           249          2.4           2.5           (7)    
 Installation, maintenance, and repair.......    4,972         4,819           153          4.7           4.8           (7)    
 Production..................................    7,688         5,661         2,027          2.8           2.9           2.5    
 Transportation and material moving..........    8,456         7,285         1,171          1.1           1.3           (7)    
                                                                                                                               
                  Industry                                                                                                     
 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting.    1,251           981           270          2.8           (7)           (7)    
 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas                                                                                            
   extraction................................    1,014           925            90          (7)           (7)           (7)    
 Construction................................    8,684         7,924           760          3.4           2.9           (7)    
 Manufacturing...............................   14,272        10,735         3,537          7.4           6.2          11.2    
 Wholesale and retail trade..................   19,279        10,295         8,983          4.2           4.0           4.5    
 Transportation and utilities................    7,411         5,633         1,778          2.8           1.8           5.9    
 Information.................................    3,548         1,789         1,759         12.8           9.5          16.2    
 Financial activities........................    8,096         3,321         4,775         10.3           9.5          10.9    
 Professional and business services..........   15,433         9,814         5,619         12.6          12.3          13.2    
 Education and health services...............   34,912         9,458        25,453          6.1           8.0           5.4    
 Leisure and hospitality.....................   13,224         6,276         6,948          5.7           4.9           6.3    
 Other services..............................    5,066         2,269         2,797          8.4           8.7           8.2    
 Public administration.......................    6,870         4,011         2,859          6.6           6.9           6.1    
                                                                                                                               
             Class of worker (5)                                                                                               
 Private sector..............................  111,092        59,928        51,164          6.9           6.2           7.7    
   Private, for profit.......................  100,795        56,456        44,339          6.9           6.0           8.0    
   Private, not for profit...................   10,296         3,472         6,825          7.6          10.4           6.1    
 Public sector...............................   23,586        10,474        13,112          5.1           4.8           5.2    
   Federal government........................    3,878         2,404         1,473          5.3           4.6           6.4    
   State government..........................    8,627         3,587         5,039          7.0           7.7           6.4    
   Local government..........................   11,082         4,482         6,599          3.5           2.7           4.1    
                                                                                                                               
      Full- and part-time status                                                                                               
        (single jobholders only)                                                                                               
 Full-time workers...........................   98,492        56,935        41,557          6.8           6.3           7.4    
 Part-time workers...........................   27,743        10,021        17,722          6.4           5.7           6.8    
                                                                                                                               
      Earnings of full-time workers                                                                                            
        (single jobholders only) (6)                                                                                           
 $0 - $540...................................   24,229        11,941        12,287          3.9           3.3           4.6    
 $541 - $830.................................   23,989        12,260        11,729          4.4           4.8           3.9    
 $831 - $1,230...............................   23,260        14,367         8,892          7.4           4.4          12.3    
 $1,231 and higher...........................   24,195        16,243         7,952         10.8          10.6          11.2    

   1 Data refer to workers who can adjust their schedule or location instead of taking leave or because they need to take time
off from work.
   2 Estimates for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races.
   3 Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
   4 Health status was self-reported by individuals who participated in the survey.
   5 Class of worker estimates do not include self-employed incorporated workers.
   6 These values are based on usual weekly earnings. Each earnings range represents approximately 25 percent of full-time wage
and salary workers (except self-employed incorporated workers) who held only one job.
   7 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
   NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose
businesses are incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.




Table 7. Wage and salary workers who adjusted their schedule or location (1) at their main job:  reasons for not taking leave by selected
characteristics, 2011 annual averages
                                                                                                                                          
                                                        Workers who adjusted their schedule or location during an average week            
                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                          
                                                                     Percent distribution by reasons for not taking leave (2)             
                                                                                                                                          
            Characteristic                                                                                Feared                          
                                                                                                         negative     Did not             
                                                                                                        employment     have               
                                                                                  Did not    Could not     conse-     access      Other   
                                              Number        Too        Wanted      have       afford     quences     to paid              
                                            (in thou-      much      to save      enough     loss in    or leave    or unpaid             
                                              sands)       work       leave        leave      income     denied       leave               
                                                                                                                                          
Total.....................................     9,426       16.6        26.3         2.7        12.9         0.7         9.5        32.0   
 Men......................................     4,699       17.2        20.3         2.3        12.1         1.3         7.5        39.0   
 Women....................................     4,727       15.9        32.4         3.1        13.6          .1        11.5        25.1   
                                                                                                                                          
                 Race (3)                                                                                                                 
 White....................................     8,074       15.2        26.2         3.0        14.4          .8         8.7        32.5   
 Black or African American................       596        (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)   
 Asian....................................       458        (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)   
                                                                                                                                          
     Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (4)                                                                                                     
 Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.............       616        (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)   
 Nonhispanic..............................     8,810       17.6        27.1         2.0        12.5          .8         9.0        32.0   
                                                                                                                                          
    Educational attainment (25 years                                                                                                      
      and over)                                                                                                                           
 High school graduate or less (5).........     1,363       10.1        32.0         5.0        18.5         2.9         8.5        23.3   
 Some college or associate degree.........     2,125       18.5        22.0          .4        16.5         1.3         8.5        32.9   
 Bachelor's degree and higher.............     4,797       19.9        27.5         3.3         5.0          ~0         9.0        36.6   
                                                                                                                                          
       Parent of a household child                                                                                                        
 Parent of a household child under                                                                                                        
   18 years...............................     4,332       17.8        24.6         3.2        12.1          .5         8.5        34.5   
   Parent of a child 13 to 17 (none                                                                                                       
     younger).............................       697        (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)   
   Parent of a child under 13.............     3,635       18.5        25.6         1.6        13.8          .2         7.9        33.6   
 Not a parent of a household child                                                                                                        
   under 18...............................     5,095       15.5        27.8         2.4        13.5          .9        10.3        29.9   
                                                                                                                                          
                Health (6)                                                                                                                
 Excellent................................     2,541       13.6        35.0         1.4         4.8          ~0         9.2        36.0   
 Very good................................     4,128       17.4        25.4         1.1        19.8          .8         6.5        31.6   
 Good.....................................     2,230       20.2        19.1         4.4         7.0         1.5        16.6        30.9   
 Fair or poor.............................       528        (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)         (8)   
                                                                                                                                          
     Full- and part-time status                                                                                                           
       (single jobholders only)                                                                                                           
 Full-time workers........................     6,658       19.4        30.3         2.4         9.9         1.0         4.8        33.2   
 Part-time workers........................     1,773        8.5        11.6         5.4        20.0          ~0        24.7        29.9   
                                                                                                                                          
     Earnings of full-time workers                                                                                                        
      (single jobholders only) (7)                                                                                                        
 $0 - $830................................     2,001        7.0        26.6         5.8        19.6         3.4         3.2        32.9   
 $831 and higher..........................     4,332       25.0        33.8         1.1         5.8          ~0         4.4        32.5   

   1 Data refer to workers who can adjust their schedule or location instead of taking leave or because they need to take time off from
work.
   2 Estimates for reasons may sum to more than 100 percent because some people had multiple reasons for not taking leave.
   3 Estimates for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for
all races.
   4 Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
   5 The categories for persons with a high school diploma only and those with less than a high school diploma are combined because there
were insufficient data to produce estimates for each category.
   6 Health status was self-reported by individuals who participated in the survey.
   7 These values are based on usual weekly earnings. Each earnings range represents approximately 50 percent of full-time wage and salary
workers (except self-employed incorporated workers) who held only one job.
   8 Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
  ~0  Estimate is approximately zero.
   NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, data refer to wage and salary workers age 15 years and over. Self-employed workers whose businesses
are incorporated are classified as wage and salary workers.




Last Modified Date: August 16, 2012
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