Economic News Release

Occupational Pay Comparisons Among Metropolitan Areas News Release


For release 10:00 A.M. (EDT)                                                              USDL-11-0761
            WEDNESDAY, MAY 25, 2011

Technical information:
     (202) 691-6199  NCSinfo@bls.gov   http://www.bls.gov/ncs
Media contact:
     (202) 691-5902  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       OCCUPATIONAL PAY COMPARISONS AMONG METROPOLITAN AREAS, 2010

     Average pay for civilian workers in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA metropolitan area
was 20 percent above the national average in 2010, one of 77 metropolitan areas studied by the
National Compensation Survey (NCS), the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  The
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX metropolitan area had a pay relative of 80, meaning workers earned an
average of 80 cents for every dollar earned by workers nationwide.  Using data from the NCS, pay
relatives—a means of assessing pay differences—are available for each of the nine major
occupational groups within surveyed metropolitan areas, as well as averaged across all occupations
for each area.  The average pay relative nationally for all occupations and for each occupational
group equals 100. (See table 1.)

     A pay relative is a calculation of pay—wages, salaries, commissions, and production
bonuses—for a given metropolitan area relative to the nation as a whole.  The calculation
controls for differences among areas in occupational composition, establishment and occupational
characteristics, and the fact that data are collected for areas at different times during the year.
Simple pay comparisons calculating the ratio of the average pay for an area to the entire United
States in percentage terms would not control for interarea differences in occupational composition
and other factors, which may impact pay relatives.

     Chart 1 above lists selected metropolitan area pay relatives compared to average pay nationally
among those studied in the NCS.  Table A provides selected metropolitan area pay relatives for each
of five major occupational groups.  In addition, area-to-area comparisons have been calculated for
all 77 metropolitan areas and are available on the BLS website at
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/payrel.htm.


Table A. Selected metropolitan area-to-national pay relatives and major occupational groups, July 2010
(of 77 metropolitan areas surveyed)

          Major Occupational Group                        Metropolitan Area                Pay Relative
Management, business, and financial            New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA           120
                                               Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA              108
                                               Reno-Sparks, NV                                   108
                                               Salinas, CA                                       108
                                               San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA                108

Office and administrative support              San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA                120
                                               New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA           115
                                               Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH                114
                                               Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT            114
                                               Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia,           112
                                               DC-MD-VA-WV

Service                                        San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA                126
                                               Salinas, CA                                       123
                                               Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA                        123
                                               Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT            119
                                               Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI             115
                                               San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA                 115

Production                                     Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI                          117
                                               Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV            117
                                               Bloomington-Normal, IL                            116
                                               Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA                        115
                                               Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA          113

Transportation and material moving             Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA                        117
                                               Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI             114
                                               Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH                111
                                               Kansas City, MO-KS                                110
                                               Salinas, CA                                       109
                                               San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA                109

     The pay relative for production occupations in the Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI and
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV areas was 117, meaning the pay in these two metropolitan
areas averaged 17 percent more than the national average pay for that occupational group.  By
contrast, the pay relative for production workers in the Brownsville-Harlingen, Texas area was 80,
meaning pay for workers in those occupations averaged 20 percent less than the national average.
(See table 1.)

Statistical significance measures are not available for news release and area-to-area comparison tables.


______________________________________________________________________________________________________

                                     NOTICE OF FINAL NEWS RELEASE

     This is the final Occupational Pay Comparisons Among Metropolitan Areas news release.  Funding
for the Locality Pay Survey program is ending.  However, the other programs of the National
Compensation Survey, such as the Employment Cost Index, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, and
benefit publications will continue to be produced.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________



                                          TECHNICAL NOTE

Pay relative controls and calculations

     Pay relatives control for differences among areas in occupational composition as well as
establishment and occupational characteristics.  Metropolitan areas often differ greatly in the
composition of establishments and occupations that are available to the local workforce.  For
example, in Brownsville-Harlingen, Texas, the ratio of workers in the high-paying management,
business, and financial occupational group to the number of workers in all occupations is under 6
percent, whereas nationally this ratio is nearly 10 percent.1  In addition to these factors, the NCS
collects compensation data for metropolitan areas at different times during the year.  Payroll
reference dates differ between areas, which makes direct comparisons between areas difficult.

     The pay relative approach controls for these differences to isolate the geographic effect on
wages.  To illustrate the importance of controlling for these effects, consider the following example
.  The average pay for construction and extraction workers in the New York-Newark-Bridgeport,
NY-NJ-CT-PA metropolitan area in 2010 was $32.54 and in the United States, $21.18.2  A simple pay
comparison can be calculated from the ratio of the two average pay levels, multiplied by 100 to
express the comparison as a percentage.  The pay comparison in the example is calculated as:

($32.54 ÷ $21.18) × 100 ≅ 154

     This comparison does not control for differences between New York and the nation in the mix of
occupations, industries, and other factors.  A more accurate estimate of the geographic effect of
wages in New York can be obtained by taking these differences into account.  Controlling for
differences in occupational composition, establishment and occupational characteristics, and the
payroll reference date in New York relative to the nation as a whole, the pay relative for
construction and extraction occupations in New York is 129.

Survey methodology

     Pay relatives were estimated using a multivariate regression technique designed to control for
interarea differences.  This technique controls for the following ten characteristics:

     - Occupational type
     - Industry type
     - Work level
     - Full-time / part-time status
     - Time / incentive status
     - Union / nonunion status
     - Ownership type
     - Profit / non-profit status
     - Establishment employment
     - Payroll reference date

     Even accounting for the characteristics used in the current regression analysis, there is still
wage variation across the areas.  The variation is due to differences in wage determinants that were
not included in the model.  Examples of these determinants include price levels, environmental
amenities such as a pleasant climate, and cultural amenities.

     Historical pay relatives data are available for the survey years 1992-1996, 1998, 2002,
2004-2009.  There are several differences between the recent pay relatives and the pay relatives for
earlier years, including different industry and occupation classification systems, varying
methodology, and different survey designs.  These differences limit comparability.  The pay relatives
since 2004 have been calculated using the same industry and occupation classification systems,
methodology, and survey design.  Nonetheless, comparisons between the estimates for these years
should be made only with caution.

     For more details on survey design, methodology, classification systems, recent changes in the
survey, and appropriate uses and limitations of the data, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 8,
“National Compensation Measures,” available on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/homch8_a.htm, especially the major section “Area-to-Nation and
Area-to-Area Pay Comparisons.”

Obtaining information

     Articles, bulletins, and other information from the National Compensation Survey may be obtained
by calling (202) 691-6199, sending email to NCSinfo@bls.gov, or visiting the Internet site
http://www.bls.gov/ncs.  Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service Number: 1-800-877-8339.



______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Footnotes


   (1)  Data for this example are based on the May 2010 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area
Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates, on the Internet at
http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm.

   (2)  Average pay for construction and extraction workers in New York and for the United States
are based on wage estimates published in New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA National
Compensation Survey, May 2010 and National Compensation Survey: Occupational Earnings in the United
States, 2010, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/compub.htm.



Table 1. Pay relatives for major occupational groups in
metropolitan areas, National Compensation Survey, July 2010

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                     Management,
         Metropolitan area(1)               All       business, 
                                        occupations      and    
                                                      financial 
                                                                
                                                                
United States.........................          100          100
                                                                
Amarillo, TX..........................           88           94
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville,                              
GA-AL.................................           98          101
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX......           94           92
Birmingham-Hoover, AL.................           94           93
Bloomington, IN.......................           91           94
Bloomington-Normal, IL................          100           91
                                                                
Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH....          111          102
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX.............           80           84
Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY.......           97           95
Charleston-North                                                
Charleston-Summerville,                                         
SC....................................           94           91
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC...           99          101
Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City,                               
IL-IN-WI..............................          106          105
                                                                
Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington,                               
OH-KY-IN..............................          100          103
Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH............          100          102
Columbus-Marion-Chillicothe, OH.......          100           96
Corpus Christi, TX....................           90           80
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX.................           98           98
Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH.....           96           99
                                                                
Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO.............          102           97
Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI..............          102           98
Elkhart-Goshen, IN....................           93           97
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO.............          101           96
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI..............          100           90
Great Falls, MT.......................           91           96
                                                                
Greensboro-High Point, NC.............           95          100
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC.........           95           99
Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT          111          107
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC..........           95           93
Honolulu, HI..........................          105          104
Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX........           99          101
                                                                
Huntsville-Decatur, AL................           98          104
Indianapolis-Anderson-Columbus, IN....           95           86


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
         Metropolitan area(1)          Professional    Service  
                                        and related             
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
United States.........................          100          100
                                                                
Amarillo, TX..........................           79           90
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville,                              
GA-AL.................................          101           94
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX......           92           91
Birmingham-Hoover, AL.................           98           98
Bloomington, IN.......................           88           86
Bloomington-Normal, IL................          103           99
                                                                
Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH....          111          112
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX.............           88           88
Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY.......           90          101
Charleston-North                                                
Charleston-Summerville,                                         
SC....................................           98           88
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC...           97           98
Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City,                               
IL-IN-WI..............................          107          106
                                                                
Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington,                               
OH-KY-IN..............................           97           99
Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH............           98           99
Columbus-Marion-Chillicothe, OH.......           96          102
Corpus Christi, TX....................           91           88
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX.................          100           93
Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH.....           92          101
                                                                
Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO.............          101          106
Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI..............          105           95
Elkhart-Goshen, IN....................           90          100
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO.............           98          102
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI..............           98          101
Great Falls, MT.......................           77          103
                                                                
Greensboro-High Point, NC.............           98           92
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC.........           93           96
Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT          109          119
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC..........           84           94
Honolulu, HI..........................          101          114
Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX........          105           91
                                                                
Huntsville-Decatur, AL................          102           93
Indianapolis-Anderson-Columbus, IN....           96           94


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                     Office and 
         Metropolitan area(1)            Sales and  administra- 
                                          related   tive support
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
United States.........................          100          100
                                                                
Amarillo, TX..........................           96           90
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville,                              
GA-AL.................................           95          101
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX......          102           95
Birmingham-Hoover, AL.................           89           97
Bloomington, IN.......................           86           92
Bloomington-Normal, IL................          103           97
                                                                
Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH....          107          114
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX.............           71           80
Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY.......           92           94
Charleston-North                                                
Charleston-Summerville,                                         
SC....................................          105           92
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC...          103          101
Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City,                               
IL-IN-WI..............................          103          107
                                                                
Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington,                               
OH-KY-IN..............................          110          100
Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH............           98          102
Columbus-Marion-Chillicothe, OH.......          104          102
Corpus Christi, TX....................           90           87
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX.................          102           99
Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH.....           95           92
                                                                
Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO.............          106          104
Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI..............           99          100
Elkhart-Goshen, IN....................           95           94
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO.............           98           97
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI..............          114          101
Great Falls, MT.......................           92           83
                                                                
Greensboro-High Point, NC.............           93           96
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC.........           93           95
Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT          107          114
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC..........           91           91
Honolulu, HI..........................          104           98
Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX........          102          101
                                                                
Huntsville-Decatur, AL................           99           95
Indianapolis-Anderson-Columbus, IN....           82           97


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                       Construction Installation,
         Metropolitan area(1)               and     maintenance,
                                        extraction    and repair
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
United States.........................          100          100
                                                                
Amarillo, TX..........................           88           97
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville,                              
GA-AL.................................           86           94
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX......           84          108
Birmingham-Hoover, AL.................           80           97
Bloomington, IN.......................           83           93
Bloomington-Normal, IL................          118           86
                                                                
Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH....          115          113
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX.............           68           79
Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY.......          107           97
Charleston-North                                                
Charleston-Summerville,                                         
SC....................................           83           95
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC...           87          104
Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City,                               
IL-IN-WI..............................          129          109
                                                                
Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington,                               
OH-KY-IN..............................           80          100
Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH............          109          112
Columbus-Marion-Chillicothe, OH.......          108          102
Corpus Christi, TX....................           96          108
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX.................           89           98
Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH.....           92           98
                                                                
Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO.............           94          111
Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI..............          103           98
Elkhart-Goshen, IN....................          103           86
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO.............          100          133
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI..............          104           91
Great Falls, MT.......................           96           95
                                                                
Greensboro-High Point, NC.............           87           91
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC.........           77           82
Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT          112          112
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC..........           95           93
Honolulu, HI..........................          115          109
Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX........           90           97
                                                                
Huntsville-Decatur, AL................           91           94
Indianapolis-Anderson-Columbus, IN....           98          103


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                    Transporta- 
         Metropolitan area(1)           Production    tion and  
                                                      material  
                                                       moving   
                                                                
                                                                
United States.........................          100          100
                                                                
Amarillo, TX..........................           88           92
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Gainesville,                              
GA-AL.................................           97          105
Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX......           90           97
Birmingham-Hoover, AL.................           94           99
Bloomington, IN.......................          104          100
Bloomington-Normal, IL................          116          100
                                                                
Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-NH....          108          111
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX.............           80           77
Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY.......          110          101
Charleston-North                                                
Charleston-Summerville,                                         
SC....................................          108           98
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC...          100           95
Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City,                               
IL-IN-WI..............................          103          104
                                                                
Cincinnati-Middletown-Wilmington,                               
OH-KY-IN..............................          102          105
Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH............          101          101
Columbus-Marion-Chillicothe, OH.......          104           99
Corpus Christi, TX....................           96           91
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX.................           93          100
Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH.....           99           99
                                                                
Denver-Aurora-Boulder, CO.............          100          101
Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI..............          117          104
Elkhart-Goshen, IN....................           93          100
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO.............          107          107
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI..............          102           96
Great Falls, MT.......................           83          100
                                                                
Greensboro-High Point, NC.............           99          103
Greenville-Mauldin-Easley, SC.........          110           98
Hartford-West Hartford-Willimantic, CT          109          107
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC..........          104          102
Honolulu, HI..........................          112           95
Houston-Baytown-Huntsville, TX........           98           95
                                                                
Huntsville-Decatur, AL................           99           96
Indianapolis-Anderson-Columbus, IN....          104           97


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                     Management,
         Metropolitan area(1)               All       business, 
                                        occupations      and    
                                                      financial 
                                                                
                                                                
Iowa City, IA.........................           98           98
Johnstown, PA.........................           88           86
Kansas City, MO-KS....................           99           93
Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA..........          105          103
                                                                
Knoxville, TN.........................           90           97
Lincoln, NE...........................           87           78
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA..          108          108
Louisville/Jefferson                                            
County-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN           96           89
Memphis, TN-MS-AR.....................           95           96
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach,                            
FL....................................           97          104
                                                                
Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI.........          102           99
Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI           107          102
Mobile, AL............................           90           98
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA.......           98           94
New York-Newark-Bridgeport,                                     
NY-NJ-CT-PA...........................          114          120
Ocala, FL.............................           87           84
                                                                
Oklahoma City, OK.....................           92           97
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL.........           91           89
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL.....           92           81
Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland,                                   
PA-NJ-DE-MD...........................          104          103
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ.............           99          105
Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA.............           95           88
                                                                
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA...          105          101
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River,                              
RI-MA.................................          104           95
Reading, PA...........................          101          104
Reno-Sparks, NV.......................          101          108
Richmond, VA..........................           98           96
Rochester, NY.........................          101          103
                                                                
Rockford, IL..........................           98           88
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV          108          104
Salinas, CA...........................          113          108
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX.........           92           91
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA.....          107          105
San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA....          120          108


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
         Metropolitan area(1)          Professional    Service  
                                        and related             
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Iowa City, IA.........................           94           99
Johnstown, PA.........................           85           94
Kansas City, MO-KS....................          100           96
Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA..........           99          109
                                                                
Knoxville, TN.........................           98           78
Lincoln, NE...........................           84           91
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA..          107          111
Louisville/Jefferson                                            
County-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN           96           99
Memphis, TN-MS-AR.....................           95           88
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach,                            
FL....................................           89           98
                                                                
Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI.........           96           99
Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI           102          115
Mobile, AL............................           91           90
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA.......          103           90
New York-Newark-Bridgeport,                                     
NY-NJ-CT-PA...........................          114          114
Ocala, FL.............................           85           88
                                                                
Oklahoma City, OK.....................           90           95
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL.........           84           93
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL.....           87           94
Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland,                                   
PA-NJ-DE-MD...........................          104          101
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ.............          103           98
Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA.............           95           93
                                                                
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA...          103          110
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River,                              
RI-MA.................................          105          105
Reading, PA...........................          106           97
Reno-Sparks, NV.......................           98           99
Richmond, VA..........................           96           94
Rochester, NY.........................          101          103
                                                                
Rockford, IL..........................           93          101
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV          110          111
Salinas, CA...........................          115          123
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX.........           96           92
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA.....          106          115
San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA....          120          126


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                     Office and 
         Metropolitan area(1)            Sales and  administra- 
                                          related   tive support
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Iowa City, IA.........................           98          103
Johnstown, PA.........................           91           90
Kansas City, MO-KS....................          101           97
Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA..........          107          104
                                                                
Knoxville, TN.........................           94           90
Lincoln, NE...........................           82           90
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA..          108          107
Louisville/Jefferson                                            
County-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN          101           98
Memphis, TN-MS-AR.....................           99           97
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach,                            
FL....................................           99           99
                                                                
Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI.........          109          100
Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI           107          105
Mobile, AL............................           87           92
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA.......          102           99
New York-Newark-Bridgeport,                                     
NY-NJ-CT-PA...........................          108          115
Ocala, FL.............................           89           95
                                                                
Oklahoma City, OK.....................           99           87
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL.........           94           92
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL.....           96           89
Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland,                                   
PA-NJ-DE-MD...........................           98          109
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ.............          101           99
Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA.............           94           95
                                                                
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA...          106          106
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River,                              
RI-MA.................................          103          107
Reading, PA...........................          102          102
Reno-Sparks, NV.......................          103          102
Richmond, VA..........................           97          102
Rochester, NY.........................          105          100
                                                                
Rockford, IL..........................          100           97
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV          109          103
Salinas, CA...........................          124          107
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX.........           90           94
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA.....          108          104
San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA....          124          120


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                       Construction Installation,
         Metropolitan area(1)               and     maintenance,
                                        extraction   and repair 
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Iowa City, IA.........................          118           93
Johnstown, PA.........................           95           78
Kansas City, MO-KS....................           95          101
Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA..........          107          102
                                                                
Knoxville, TN.........................           86           92
Lincoln, NE...........................           82           88
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA..          108          109
Louisville/Jefferson                                            
County-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN          100           92
Memphis, TN-MS-AR.....................           92           96
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach,                            
FL....................................           96           98
                                                                
Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI.........          115          100
Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI           111          108
Mobile, AL............................          102           82
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA.......           90          106
New York-Newark-Bridgeport,                                     
NY-NJ-CT-PA...........................          129          110
Ocala, FL.............................           81           91
                                                                
Oklahoma City, OK.....................          115           84
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL.........           95           95
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL.....           97           95
Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland,                                   
PA-NJ-DE-MD...........................          108          107
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ.............           86           98
Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA.............           95           96
                                                                
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA...          106          114
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River,                              
RI-MA.................................          114          110
Reading, PA...........................          101           96
Reno-Sparks, NV.......................           98          104
Richmond, VA..........................           90          102
Rochester, NY.........................          101           96
                                                                
Rockford, IL..........................          116           95
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV          117          110
Salinas, CA...........................          116          119
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX.........           97           97
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA.....          106          107
San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA....          128          124


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                    Transporta- 
         Metropolitan area(1)           Production    tion and  
                                                      material  
                                                       moving   
                                                                
                                                                
Iowa City, IA.........................           98          105
Johnstown, PA.........................           88           86
Kansas City, MO-KS....................          106          110
Kennewick-Pasco-Richland, WA..........           96          108
                                                                
Knoxville, TN.........................           91           94
Lincoln, NE...........................           92           94
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA..          100          105
Louisville/Jefferson                                            
County-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN          103           89
Memphis, TN-MS-AR.....................           93           92
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach,                            
FL....................................           96          100
                                                                
Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI.........          108          104
Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI           109          114
Mobile, AL............................           96          103
New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA.......          111          104
New York-Newark-Bridgeport,                                     
NY-NJ-CT-PA...........................          106          103
Ocala, FL.............................           85           93
                                                                
Oklahoma City, OK.....................           81          104
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL.........          100          105
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL.....           98          102
Philadelphia-Camden-Vineland,                                   
PA-NJ-DE-MD...........................           99          105
Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ.............           95           99
Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA.............          101           97
                                                                
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA...          104          101
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River,                              
RI-MA.................................          113          104
Reading, PA...........................          102          100
Reno-Sparks, NV.......................          102          101
Richmond, VA..........................          100           98
Rochester, NY.........................          106          107
                                                                
Rockford, IL..........................           99          104
Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Truckee, CA-NV          117          108
Salinas, CA...........................           93          109
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX.........           90           91
San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA.....          101          102
San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA....          109          109


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                     Management,
         Metropolitan area(1)               All       business, 
                                        occupations      and    
                                                      financial 
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA............          112          105
Springfield, MA.......................          107           97
Springfield, MO.......................           89           93
St. Louis, MO-IL......................          100           96
Tallahassee, FL.......................           88           78
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL...           93           95
                                                                
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News,                            
VA-NC.................................           92           88
Visalia-Porterville, CA...............           99           87
Washington-Baltimore-Northern                                   
Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV.................          109          105
York-Hanover, PA......................           97          101
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA.....           91           98


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
         Metropolitan area(1)          Professional    Service  
                                        and related             
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA............          109          123
Springfield, MA.......................          110          111
Springfield, MO.......................           85           89
St. Louis, MO-IL......................          101           97
Tallahassee, FL.......................           82           92
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL...           88           96
                                                                
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News,                            
VA-NC.................................           92           90
Visalia-Porterville, CA...............          105          107
Washington-Baltimore-Northern                                   
Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV.................          111          106
York-Hanover, PA......................          100           96
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA.....           89           90


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                     Office and 
         Metropolitan area(1)            Sales and  administra- 
                                          related   tive support
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA............          109          108
Springfield, MA.......................           99          106
Springfield, MO.......................           92           88
St. Louis, MO-IL......................           99          102
Tallahassee, FL.......................           92           90
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL...           92           96
                                                                
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News,                            
VA-NC.................................           93           95
Visalia-Porterville, CA...............          102           93
Washington-Baltimore-Northern                                   
Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV.................          109          112
York-Hanover, PA......................           98           95
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA.....           92           92


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                       Construction Installation,
         Metropolitan area(1)               and     maintenance,
                                        extraction   and repair 
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA............          115          103
Springfield, MA.......................          114           97
Springfield, MO.......................           83           86
St. Louis, MO-IL......................          107          111
Tallahassee, FL.......................           97           90
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL...           93           90
                                                                
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News,                            
VA-NC.................................           87           97
Visalia-Porterville, CA...............           95           99
Washington-Baltimore-Northern                                   
Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV.................          106          112
York-Hanover, PA......................          101           93
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA.....           90           96


(Continued)

(Average pay nationally for all occupations and for each
occupational group shown = 100.)
                                                                
                                                                
                                                    Transporta- 
         Metropolitan area(1)           Production    tion and  
                                                      material  
                                                       moving   
                                                                
                                                                
                                                                
Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia, WA............          115          117
Springfield, MA.......................          105          106
Springfield, MO.......................           97           92
St. Louis, MO-IL......................           98           97
Tallahassee, FL.......................           85           92
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL...           89           93
                                                                
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News,                            
VA-NC.................................           91           89
Visalia-Porterville, CA...............          103           99
Washington-Baltimore-Northern                                   
Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV.................          107          105
York-Hanover, PA......................          103          102
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA.....          100           87

  (1) A metropolitan area can be a Metropolitan Statistical Area
(MSA) or Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as defined by the
Office of Management and Budget, December 2003.


Last Modified Date: May 25, 2011
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