Economic News Release

Number of Jobs, Labor Market Experience, and Earnings Growth: Results from a National Longitudinal Survey News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, March 31, 2015                          USDL-15-0528

Technical information: (202) 691-7410  •  nls_info@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/nls
Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


                      NUMBER OF JOBS HELD, LABOR MARKET ACTIVITY, AND
                     EARNINGS GROWTH AMONG THE YOUNGEST BABY BOOMERS:
                           RESULTS FROM A LONGITUDINAL SURVEY


   Note: This news release was reissued on April 1, 2015, to correctly refer to the 
   latter years of the baby boom as 1957-1964 under the Percent Growth in Real
   Earnings section. No other data were affected.



The average person born in the latter years of the baby boom (1957-1964) held 11.7 jobs from
age 18 to age 48, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Nearly half of these jobs
were held from ages 18 to 24.

These findings are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979; a survey of 9,964 men
and women who were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979 and ages 47 to 56 when interviewed
most recently in 2012-13. These respondents were born in the years 1957 to 1964, the latter years
of the "baby boom" that occurred in the United States from 1946 to 1964. The survey spans more
than three decades and provides information on work and nonwork experiences, education, training,
income and assets, health, and other characteristics. The information provided by respondents,
who were interviewed annually from 1979 to 1994 and biennially since 1994, can be considered
representative of all men and women born in the late 1950s and early 1960s and living in the
United States when the survey began in 1979.

This release of the latest data from the longitudinal survey focuses on the number of jobs
held, job duration, labor force participation, and earnings growth. Highlights from the survey
include:

 •	Individuals born from 1957 to 1964 held an average of 11.7 jobs from ages 18 to 48.
        These baby boomers held an average of 5.5 jobs while ages 18 to 24. The average fell
        to 3 jobs from ages 25 to 29, to 2.4 jobs from ages 30 to 34, and to 2.1 jobs from ages 35
        to 39. From ages 40 to 48 the average person held 2.4 jobs. Jobs that span more than
        one age group were counted once in each age group, so the overall average number of
        jobs held from age 18 to age 48 is less than the sum of the number of jobs across
        the individual age groups. (See table 1.)

 •	Although job duration tended to be longer the older a worker was when starting the job,
        these baby boomers continued to have large numbers of short-duration jobs. Among jobs
        started by 40 to 48 year olds, 32 percent ended in less than a year, and 69 percent
        ended in fewer than 5 years. (See table 2.)

 •	The average person was employed during 78 percent of the weeks from age 18 to age 48.
        Generally, men spent a larger percent of weeks employed than did women (84 percent 
        versus 71 percent). Women spent much more time out of the labor force (25 percent of
        weeks) than did men (11 percent of weeks). (See table 3.)

 •	The average annual percent growth in inflation-adjusted hourly earnings grew the most
        during a workers late teens and early twenties. Growth rates in earnings generally
        were higher for college graduates than for workers with less education. (See table 5.)

Number of Jobs Held

Individuals held an average of 11.7 jobs from ages 18 to 48, with nearly half of these jobs held
before age 25. In this news release, a job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with
a particular employer. (See the Technical Note for additional information on the definition of a
job.) On average, men held 11.8 jobs and women held 11.5 jobs from age 18 to age 48. Men held 5.7
jobs from age 18 to age 24, compared with 2.4 jobs from age 40 to age 48. The reduction in the
average number of jobs held in successive age groups was similar for women. (See table 1.) 

On average, men without a high school diploma held 12.9 jobs from ages 18 to 48, while men with a
bachelor's degree held 11.2 jobs between these ages. In contrast, women without a high school
diploma held 9.6 jobs from ages 18 to 48, while women with a bachelor's degree held 12.5 jobs 
between these ages.

From age 18 to age 24, whites held more jobs than blacks or Hispanics. On average,
whites held 5.7 jobs between the ages of 18 and 24, while blacks held 4.6 jobs and Hispanics 
held 4.9 jobs. From age 25 to age 48, there was no significant difference in the average
number of jobs held by whites and the average number of jobs held by blacks or Hispanics.

Duration of Employment Relationships

The length of time a worker remains with the same employer increased with the age at which the
worker began the job. Of the jobs that workers began when they were 18 to 24 years of age, 69
percent of those jobs ended in less than a year and 93 percent ended in fewer than 5 years.
Among jobs started by 40 to 48 year olds, 32 percent ended in less than a year and 69 percent
ended in fewer than 5 years. (See table 2.)

Percent of Weeks Employed, Unemployed, and Not in the Labor Force

On average, baby boomers (born 1957-1964) were employed during 78 percent of all the weeks
occurring from age 18 to age 48. They were unemployed--that is, without jobs but seeking
work--5 percent of the weeks. They were not in the labor force--that is, neither working
nor seeking work--18 percent of the weeks. (See table 3.)

The amount of time spent employed differed substantially between those without a high school
diploma and those who had graduated from high school or attained higher levels of education.
Individuals with less than a high school diploma (as of the 2012-13 survey) spent 60 percent
of weeks employed and 32 percent of weeks out of the labor force from age 18 to age 48. By
comparison, high school graduates spent 77 percent of weeks employed and 18 percent of weeks
out of the labor force, while those with a bachelor's degree or higher spent 84 percent of
weeks employed and 14 percent of weeks out of the labor force.  

White high school graduates with no college were employed a higher percentage of weeks and out
of the labor force a smaller percentage of weeks than similarly educated blacks or Hispanics.
Between the ages of 18 and 48, white high school graduates with no college spent 80
percent of weeks employed and 16 percent of weeks out of the labor force, while similarly
educated blacks spent 66 percent of weeks employed and 24 percent of weeks out of the labor
force and Hispanic high school graduates with no college spent 73 percent of weeks
employed and 22 percent of weeks out of the labor force. Among those with a bachelor's degree
or higher, however, there was little difference among racial and ethnic groups in labor market
attachment; each group spent between 83 percent and 85 percent of weeks employed.

The amount of time spent in the labor force differs by sex, with women at every educational
level spending fewer weeks in the labor force than men. Overall, men were out of the labor
force 11 percent of weeks from age 18 to age 48; at these same ages, women were out of the
labor force 25 percent of weeks. Women's labor force participation increased with their
education level. Women without a high school diploma spent almost half (48 percent) of
all weeks between age 18 and age 48 out of the labor force, while those with a high school
diploma were out of the labor force 26 percent of weeks, those with some college were out
of the labor force 22 percent of weeks, and women with a bachelor's degree or more were out
of the labor force only 18 percent of weeks. Among men, those without a high school diploma
were out of the labor force about 20 percent of weeks, while men in the top three
education categories were out of the labor force only 9 percent to 11 percent of weeks.
(See table 3.)

The labor force participation patterns of men and women differed. For both groups, time spent
out of the labor force was greatest between the ages of 18 and 24, reflecting the transition
from education and training to the work force. For women, time spent out of the labor force
decreased in each successive age range, from 30 percent of weeks between the ages of 18
and 24 to 21 percent between the ages of 40 and 48. In comparison, men were out of the
labor force fewer than 8 percent of weeks from age 25 to age 39; from age 40 to age
48, they increased their time out of the labor force to 10 percent of weeks. So while the
percent of weeks out of the labor force trended in different directions for the two sexes
after age 24, women in each age range still spent an average of two to three times as many
weeks out of the labor force as their male counterparts. (See table 4.) 

The percentage of weeks in which women were employed increased steadily from 63 percent in
the 18 to 24 age group to 76 percent in the 40 to 48 age group. The percentage of weeks in
which men were employed increased from 73 percent in the 18 to 24 age group to a peak of 89
percent in the 35 to 39 age category and then decreased slightly to 86 percent in the 40 to
48 age group. (See table 4.)

Percent Growth in Real Earnings

The inflation-adjusted earnings of workers born in the latter years of the baby boom (1957-1964)
increased most rapidly while they were young. Hourly earnings grew by an average of 6.2 percent
per year from ages 18 to 24 and 4.1 percent per year from ages 25 to 29. The earnings growth
rate slowed to 3.3 percent annually from age 30 to age 34 and 3.1 percent annually from age 35
to age 39. From ages 40 to 48, hourly earnings grew an average of 0.7 percent per year. In every
age category, growth rates of inflation-adjusted hourly earnings generally were higher for
workers with more education. Earnings growth for 18 to 24 year olds with less than a high school
diploma was 3.0 percent, while those with a bachelor's degree or more saw their earnings grow by
9.4 percent at the same ages. Earnings growth was stagnant (0.0 percent) for 40- to 48-year-olds
with less than a high school diploma while earnings among those with a bachelor's degree or more
increased by 1.3 percent at the same ages. This pattern in earnings growth reflects, in part,
the state of the U.S. economy during the years in which survey participants were in each age group.
(See table 5.)

Additional data are available at www.bls.gov/nls/y79supp.htm.




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained using data from the first 25 
rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). This sur-
vey is conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of 
Chicago and the Center for Human Resource Research at The Ohio State University 
under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Labor’s 
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
   
Sample

   The NLSY79 is a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and 
women who were 14 to 22 years of age when first surveyed in 1979. This sur-
vey sample was initially composed of three subsamples:
  
   --A cross-sectional sample of 6,111 youths that was designed to represent 
     the noninstitutionalized, civilian population of young people living in 
     the U.S. in 1979 and born between Jan. 1, 1957, and Dec. 31, 1964.

   --A supplemental sample of 5,295 youths designed to oversample noninsti-
     tutionalized, civilian black, Hispanic or Latino, and economically dis-
     advantaged nonblack, non-Hispanic youths living in the U.S. in 1979 and 
     born between Jan. 1, 1957, and Dec. 31, 1964.

   --A military sample of 1,280 youths born between Jan. 1, 1957, and Dec. 31, 
     1961, and enlisted in the Army, Air Force, Navy, or Marine Corps as of 
     September 30, 1978.

   In 1985, the military sample was discontinued, and, in 1991, the economic-
ally disadvantaged nonblack, non-Hispanic youths were dropped from the sup-
plemental sample. As a result, the NLSY79 sample now includes 9,964 individ-
uals from the cross-sectional sample and the black and Hispanic 
supplemental samples. (This sample size is not adjusted for sample members 
who have died.)

   Individuals were surveyed annually from 1979 to 1994 and biennially since 
1994. In 2012-13, 7,301 individuals responded to the survey, for a retention 
rate of 73 percent (representing a 79 percent response rate among those sample 
members who are still living). Only these individuals are included in the 
estimates in this release. All results are weighted using the 2012-13 survey 
weights that correct for the oversampling, interview nonresponse, and permanent 
attrition from the survey. When weighted, the estimates represent all persons 
born in the years 1957 to 1964 and living in the U.S. when the survey began 
in 1979. Not represented by the survey are U.S. immigrants who were born from 
1957 to 1964 and moved to the U.S. after 1979.

Work history data

   The total number of jobs that people hold during their work life is an 
easy concept to understand but a difficult one to measure. Reliable esti-
mates require a survey that interviews the same people over the course of
their entire work life and also keeps track of all the jobs they ever held. 
The NLSY79 tracks the number of jobs that people have held, but most of the 
respondents in this survey are still in their prime working years, ages 47 
to 56 in 2012-13, and still have more years of work life ahead of them. As 
the cohort continues to age, however, more complete information will become 
available.

  A unique feature of the NLSY79 is that it collects the beginning and end-
ing dates of all jobs held by a respondent so that a longitudinal history 
can be constructed of each respondent’s work experiences. The NLSY79 work 
history data provide a week-by-week work record of each respondent from 
Jan. 1, 1978, through the most recent survey date. These data contain in-
formation on the respondent’s labor force status each week, the usual hours 
worked per week at all jobs, and earnings for all jobs. If a respondent 
worked at more than one job in any week, hours and earnings are obtained 
for additional jobs. When a respondent who missed one or more consecutive 
survey rounds is interviewed again, he is asked to provide information 
about all time since the last interview.

Interaction between time and age in a longitudinal survey

   Because the NLSY79 is a longitudinal survey, meaning the same people
are surveyed over time, the ages of the respondents change with each sur-
vey round. It is important to keep in mind this inherent link between the 
calendar years and the ages of the respondents. For example, table 5 re-
ports earnings growth from age 25 to age 29. The youngest respondents in 
the sample (birth year 1964) were these ages during 1989-93, whereas the 
oldest respondents (birth year 1957) were these ages during 1982-86.

   Although participants in the NLSY79 were ages 47 to 56 during the 2012-
13 interviews, this release covers only the period while the respondents 
were ages 18 to 46. The reason for not including older ages is that the 
sample sizes were still too small to provide statistically reliable esti-
mates for age groups older than 48. As the NLSY79 continues to be adminis-
tered and the respondents age, subsequent rounds of the survey will enable 
analyses to be conducted for older age groups.

   As with age, the educational attainment of individuals may change from 
year to year. In the tables and analysis presented in this report, educa-
tional attainment is defined as of the 2012-13 survey. This definition is 
used even when data on age and educational attainment are presented together. 
For example, table 1 reports the number of jobs held during different age 
categories. Suppose that a respondent had completed a bachelor’s degree at 
age 40. That respondent would be included in the "Bachelor’s degree or more"
educational category in all age categories shown on the table, even
though he or she did not have a bachelor’s degree at any point from 
age 18 to age 39.

Definitions

   Job. A job is defined as an uninterrupted period of work with a particu-
lar employer. Jobs are therefore employer-based, not position-based. If a 
respondent indicates that he or she left a job but in a subsequent survey 
returned to the same job, it is counted as a new job. For example, if an 
individual worked in a retail establishment during the summer, quit at the 
end of summer to return to school, and then resumed working for the same 
employer the following spring, this sequence would count as two jobs, ra-
ther than one. For self-employed workers, each "new" job is defined by the 
individuals themselves.

   Unemployment. If respondents indicate a gap between employers, they
are asked how many of those weeks they spent searching for employment or
on layoff. For that number of weeks, they are considered unemployed. For
the remaining weeks, they are coded as not in the labor force. No probing 
for intensity of job search is done.

   Usual earnings. Respondents can report earnings over any time frame
(hour, day, week, month, year). For those who do not report an hourly
wage, one is constructed using usual hours worked over that time frame.
Wages greater than $100 per hour and less than $1 per hour (in January 1979 
dollars, 100=283.70 in December 2010 dollars) were not included in the 
analysis of earnings growth because the reported earnings levels were almost 
certainly in error. For the same reason, individuals who had inflation-adjusted 
earnings growth greater than 100 percent were not included in the analysis. 
These exclusions from the analysis affected 37 respondents.

   Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the findings are reported
for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics or Latinos.
These three groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race
groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately 
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently 
large to provide statistically reliable estimates. In other BLS publica-
tions, estimates usually are published for whites, blacks, and Hispanics 
or Latinos, but these groups are not mutually exclusive. The term "His-
panic or Latino" is considered to be an ethnicity group, and Hispanics 
or Latinos can be of any race. Most other BLS publications include Hispan-
ics or Latinos in the white and black race groups in addition to the His-
panic or Latino ethnicity group.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Ser-
vice:  (800) 877-8339.




Table 1. Number of jobs held by individuals from age 18 to age 48 in 1978-2012 by educational 
attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age

                                     Average number of jobs for persons ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012
          Characteristic     
                                                 Ages 18  Ages 25  Ages 30  Ages 35   Ages 40
                                       Total (1)  to 24    to 29    to 34    to 39     to 48

Total ...................................  11.7     5.5      3.0      2.4      2.1      2.4
 Less than a high school diploma ........  11.5     5.0      2.9      2.4      2.0      2.1
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  11.2     5.1      2.8      2.4      2.1      2.3
 Some college or associate degree .......  12.3     5.8      3.1      2.5      2.1      2.5
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.8     6.1      3.0      2.4      2.1      2.3

Men .....................................  11.8     5.7      3.1      2.5      2.1      2.4
 Less than a high school diploma ........  12.9     5.7      3.5      2.6      2.1      2.5
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  11.7     5.5      3.1      2.6      2.1      2.3
 Some college or associate degree .......  12.4     6.0      3.2      2.7      2.1      2.5
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.2     5.8      2.8      2.4      2.2      2.3

Women ...................................  11.5     5.3      2.8      2.3      2.1      2.4
 Less than a high school diploma ........   9.6     4.0      2.2      2.1      1.9      1.7
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.7     4.6      2.5      2.2      2.1      2.3
 Some college or associate degree .......  12.3     5.6      3.0      2.4      2.2      2.6
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  12.5     6.4      3.2      2.3      2.0      2.4

White non-Hispanic ......................  11.7     5.7      3.0      2.4      2.1      2.3
 Less than a high school diploma ........  12.1     5.4      3.1      2.6      2.1      2.2
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  11.4     5.3      2.9      2.4      2.1      2.3
 Some college or associate degree .......  12.3     5.9      3.1      2.5      2.1      2.5
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.8     6.2      3.0      2.3      2.0      2.3

Black non-Hispanic ......................  11.4     4.6      2.9      2.5      2.1      2.5
 Less than a high school diploma ........  10.1     3.7      2.6      2.2      1.7      1.9
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.9     4.4      2.8      2.5      2.2      2.4
 Some college or associate degree .......  12.6     5.1      3.1      2.6      2.4      2.8
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.9     5.6      3.0      2.6      2.1      2.8

Hispanic or Latino ......................  11.4     4.9      2.8      2.3      2.1      2.4
 Less than a high school diploma ........  10.9     4.3      2.8      2.1      1.9      2.3
 High school graduates, no college (2) ..  10.9     4.9      2.7      2.3      2.1      2.4
 Some college or associate degree .......  12.5     5.2      3.1      2.5      2.3      2.8
 Bachelor's degree and higher (3) .......  11.6     5.5      2.8      2.5      2.2      2.1

  1 Jobs that were held in more than one of the age categories were counted in each 
appropriate column, but only once in the total column.
  2 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
  3 Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
  NOTE:  This table excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978, or who had 
not yet turned age 49 when interviewed in 2012-13. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
1979 consists of men and women who were born in the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when
first interviewed in 1979. These individuals were ages 47 to 56 in 2012-13. Educational
attainment is defined as of the 2012-13 survey. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups
are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall
totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not
sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 2. Duration of employment relationships with a single employer for all jobs started from 
age 18 to age 48 in 1978 - 2012 by age at start of job, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

				   Cumulative percent distribution of duration
				     of completed employment relationships   
Age at the start of job 	       		          			       Percent
    and characteristic                         					       of jobs
                           Less than   Less than   Less than   Less than   Less than   Ongoing
                            1 year      2 years     5 years     10 years    15 years   in 2012

Ages 18 to 24 ..........    69.1         82.8        92.8        96.3        97.5        1.4

  Men ..................    69.2         82.8        92.5        96.1        97.2        1.5
  Women ................    69.0         82.8        93.2        96.6        97.7        1.2

  White non-Hispanic ...    68.8         82.6        92.7        96.2        97.3        1.5
  Black non-Hispanic ...    71.4         84.9        93.9        97.1        98.0        1.0
  Hispanic or Latino ...    68.8         82.1        92.4        96.5        97.7        1.2

Ages 25 to 29 ..........    56.1         72.9        86.8        92.7        94.9        3.3

  Men ..................    55.7         72.3        85.7        91.8        94.2        3.9
  Women ................    56.6         73.6        88.0        93.8        95.8        2.7

  White non-Hispanic ...    54.8         71.7        86.0        92.2        94.6        3.5
  Black non-Hispanic ...    60.8         77.1        89.7        94.3        95.9        2.5
  Hispanic or Latino ...    60.6         76.3        88.1        93.7        95.9        2.8

Ages 30 to 34 ..........    47.8         64.5        82.9        90.9        93.7        5.4

  Men ..................    47.6         64.0        82.2        90.0        93.1        6.0
  Women ................    47.9         65.1        83.5        91.9        94.3        4.8

  White non-Hispanic ...    46.2         62.8        81.9        90.3        93.2        5.8
  Black non-Hispanic ...    53.1         71.1        86.5        93.3        95.8        3.5
  Hispanic or Latino ...    49.7         66.7        84.2        92.0        94.3        4.6

Ages 35 to 39 ..........    37.8         55.5        76.3        86.6        89.6       10.2
           
  Men ..................    36.7         55.2        75.5        85.9        89.0       10.7
  Women ................    38.9         55.8        77.1        87.2        90.2        9.7

  White non-Hispanic ...    36.5         54.0        74.7        85.5        88.7       11.1
  Black non-Hispanic ...    42.3         60.9        82.1        90.7        92.9        6.7
  Hispanic or Latino ...    42.4         58.9        80.0        88.7        91.5        8.3

Ages 40 to 48 ..........    32.0         50.0        69.0        (1)         (1)        23.5
    
  Men ..................    30.1         47.5        67.6        (1)         (1)        24.6
  Women ................    33.9         52.3        70.3        (1)         (1)        22.3

  White non-Hispanic ...    31.1         48.9        67.3        (1)         (1)        24.8
  Black non-Hispanic ...    35.6         54.9        74.9        (1)         (1)        18.4
  Hispanic or Latino ...    32.6         50.5        73.6        (1)         (1)        19.7


  1 Estimates are not presented for these categories because most sample members were not yet
old enough at the time of the 2012-13 survey to have completed jobs of these durations.
  NOTE: The age category of 18 to 24 excludes individuals who turned age 18 before Jan. 1, 1978.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in the
years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals were ages
47 to 56 in 2012-13. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately
because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically
reliable estimates.




Table 3. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor 
force from age 18 to age 48 in 1978-2012 by educational attainment, sex, race, and 
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

                                               Percent of total weeks while ages 18 to 48
              Characteristic                                    in 1978-2012
              
                                                   Employed     Unemployed    Not in 
                                                                            labor force

Total, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 ............      77.8          4.7           17.6	
  Less than a high school diploma ............      59.7          8.0           32.3	
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      76.8          5.6           17.6	
  Some college or associate degree ...........      79.3          4.3           16.4	
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2)............      83.8          2.4           13.9	

Men ..........................................      84.0          5.2           10.8
  Less than a high school diploma ............      70.7          9.6           19.7
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      83.4          6.1           10.5
  Some college or associate degree ...........      86.3          4.5            9.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      87.9          2.4            9.6 

Women ........................................      71.2          4.2           24.6
  Less than a high school diploma ............      45.8          6.1           48.2
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      68.8          5.0           26.2
  Some college or associate degree ...........      73.5          4.2           22.3
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      79.7          2.3           18.0

White non-Hispanic ...........................      79.9          3.9           16.2
  Less than a high school diploma ............      63.7          7.2           29.1
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      79.6          4.7           15.7
  Some college or associate degree ...........      80.4          3.6           16.0
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      83.8          2.2           14.0

Black non-Hispanic ...........................      68.7          8.7           22.6
  Less than a high school diploma ............      47.7         11.5           40.8
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      65.9         10.1           24.0
  Some college or associate degree ...........      74.9          7.6           17.6
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      83.2          4.1           12.7

Hispanic  or Latino ..........................      72.4          5.5           22.1
  Less than a high school diploma ............      58.4          7.7           33.9
  High school graduates, no college (1) ......      72.6          5.8           21.6
  Some college or associate degree ...........      77.9          4.4           17.7
  Bachelor's degree and higher (2) ...........      84.7          2.7           12.6

  1  Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
  2  Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
  NOTE: This table excludes individuals who turned age 18 before Jan. 1, 1978, or who 
had not yet turned age 49 when interviewed in 2012-13. Totals may not add to 100 percent
due to rounding. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women
who were born in the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979.
These individuals were ages 47 to 56 in 2012-13. Educational attainment is defined as of the    
2012-13 survey. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive. Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown
separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to 
provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 4. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force 
from age 18 to age 48 in 1978-2012 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
  
                                                                 Percent of total weeks
           Age and characteristic                                                   Not in
                                                         Employed    Unemployed   labor force

Total, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 (1) ...............      77.8         4.7          17.6
  Ages 18 to 24 in 1978-1988 (2) ....................      68.1         8.0          23.9
  Ages 25 to 29 in 1982-1993 ........................      78.6         4.6          16.9
  Ages 30 to 34 in 1987-1998 ........................      80.2         3.6          16.1
  Ages 35 to 39 in 1992-2003 ........................      82.5         2.8          14.6
  Ages 40 to 48 in 1997-2012 (3) ....................      80.8         3.5          15.6

Men, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 (1) .................      84.0         5.2          10.8
  Ages 18 to 24 in 1978-1988 (2) ....................      72.8         9.1          18.1
  Ages 25 to 29 in 1982-1993 ........................      87.0         5.4           7.6
  Ages 30 to 34 in 1987-1998 ........................      88.4         4.1           7.5
  Ages 35 to 39 in 1992-2003 ........................      89.2         3.0           7.8
  Ages 40 to 48 in 1997-2012 (3) ....................      85.8         4.0          10.2
				
Women, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 (1) ...............      71.2         4.2          24.6
  Ages 18 to 24 in 1978-1988 (2) ....................      63.2         6.9          29.9 
  Ages 25 to 29 in 1982-1993 ........................      69.8         3.8          26.4
  Ages 30 to 34 in 1987-1998 ........................      71.8         3.2          25.0
  Ages 35 to 39 in 1992-2003 ........................      75.7         2.7          21.7
  Ages 40 to 48 in 1997-2012 (3) ....................      75.7         3.1          21.2

White non-Hispanic, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 (1) ..      79.9         3.9          16.2
  Ages 18 to 24 in 1978-1988 (2) ....................      70.9         7.0          22.1
  Ages 25 to 29 in 1982-1993 ........................      80.8         3.7          15.5
  Ages 30 to 34 in 1987-1998 ........................      82.2         3.0          14.8
  Ages 35 to 39 in 1992-2003 ........................      84.2         2.2          13.7
  Ages 40 to 46 in 1997-2012 (3) ....................      82.4         3.0          14.6

Black non-Hispanic, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 (1) ..      68.7         8.7          22.6
  Ages 18 to 24 in 1978-1988 (2) ....................      55.7        13.5          30.7
  Ages 25 to 29 in 1982-1993 ........................      69.7         8.9          21.4
  Ages 30 to 34 in 1987-1998 ........................      71.7         7.3          21.0
  Ages 35 to 39 in 1992-2003 ........................      75.7         5.9          18.4 
  Ages 40 to 48 in 1997-2012 (3) ....................      73.7         6.6          19.8

Hispanic or Latino, ages 18 to 48 in 1978-2012 (1) ..      72.4         5.5          22.1
  Ages 18 to 24 in 1978-1988 (2) ....................      63.2         8.6          28.1
  Ages 25 to 29 in 1982-1993 ........................      71.4         5.5          23.1
  Ages 30 to 34 in 1987-1998 ........................      74.9         4.1          21.0
  Ages 35 to 39 in 1992-2003 ........................      78.1         4.0          17.9
  Ages 40 to 48 in 1997-2012 (3) ....................      77.3         4.5          18.2

  1 This category excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978, or who had not
yet turned age 49 when interviewed in 2012-13.
  2 This category excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978.	
  3 This  category excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 49 when interviewed in 2012-13.
  NOTE: Totals may not add to 100 percent due to rounding. The National Longitudinal Survey of
Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22
when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals were ages 47 to 56 in 2012-13. Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups, which are
included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the
survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically reliable estimates.




Table 5. Average annual percent growth in inflation-adjusted hourly earnings from 1978-2012
by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age

                                             Average annual percent growth in hourly earnings

              Characteristic                   Ages 18  Ages 25  Ages 30  Ages 35  Ages 40
                                                to 24    to 29    to 34    to 39    to 48

Total .....................................      6.2      4.1      3.3      3.1      0.7
  Less than a high school diploma  ........      3.0      2.4      1.9      2.2      0.0
  High school graduates, no college (1)....      4.8      2.6      2.4      2.9      0.4
  Less than a bachelor's degree ...........      6.2      4.7      3.4      2.8      0.6
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)............      9.4      6.2      4.9      3.9      1.3
					 
Men .......................................      6.9      4.5      3.6      3.1      0.6
  Less than a high school diploma  ........      3.6      2.1      2.2      1.7     -0.4
  High school graduates, no college (1)....      5.5      3.0      2.3      2.9      0.5
  Less than a bachelor's degree ...........      7.5      5.3      4.1      2.6      0.2
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)............      9.8      7.5      5.9      4.5      1.5
					
Women .....................................      5.6      3.6      2.9      3.0      0.7
  Less than a high school diploma .........      1.9      2.8      1.4      2.9      0.5
  High school graduates, no college (1)....      3.8      2.1      2.6      2.8      0.3
  Less than a bachelor's degree ...........      5.1      4.3      2.8      3.0      0.9
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)............      9.0      4.9      3.9      3.3      1.2
					
White non-Hispanic ........................      6.6      4.2      3.3      3.1      0.7
  Less than a high school diploma .........      3.5      2.0      2.2      2.4      0.1
  High school graduates, no college (1)....      5.0      2.6      2.2      2.8      0.5
  Less than a bachelor's degree ...........      6.2      4.9      3.4      2.7      0.4
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)............      9.7      6.3      5.0      4.0      1.4

Black non-Hispanic ........................      4.3      3.7      3.1      2.8      0.3
  Less than a high school diploma .........      1.8      3.3      0.8      1.8     -0.7
  High school graduates, no college (1)....      3.2      2.9      3.2      3.1     -0.1
  Less than a bachelor's degree ...........      5.6      4.2      3.1      2.6      1.2
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)............      7.0      5.8      4.4      2.8      0.3
					
Hispanic or Latino.........................      5.9      3.2      3.5      3.0      0.9
  Less than a high school diploma .........      2.6      2.6      2.4      2.0      0.1
  High school graduates, no college (1)....      5.6      2.4      3.5      2.8      0.5
  Less than a bachelor's degree ...........      7.1      3.8      3.7      3.4      1.3
  Bachelor's degree or more (2)............      9.4      5.5      4.2      4.0      2.1


  1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
  2 Includes persons with a bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
  NOTE: The first column excludes individuals who turned age 18 before 1978. The last
column excludes individuals who were not yet age 49 when interviewed in 2012-13. The CPI-U-RS
was used to adjust hourly earnings to 2010 dollars, prior to calculating the growth rates.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in
the years 1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals 
were ages 47 to 56 in the 2012-13 survey. Educational attainment is defined as of the 2012-13 
survey. Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  
Other race groups, which are included in the overall totals, are not shown separately because 
their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently large to provide statistically 
reliable estimates.




Last Modified Date: April 01, 2015
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