Economic News Release

Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 24, 2014                       USDL-14-0095

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                                UNION MEMBERS -- 2013


In 2013, the union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were 
members of unions--was 11.3 percent, the same as in 2012, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers belonging to 
unions, at 14.5 million, was little different from 2012. In 1983, the first year 
for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1 
percent, and there were 17.7 million union workers.

The data on union membership were collected as part of the Current Population 
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that obtains 
information on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional
population age 16 and over. For more information, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2013 data:

   --Public-sector workers had a union membership rate (35.3 percent) more 
     than five times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.7 percent). 
     (See table 3.)

   --Workers in education, training, and library occupations and in protective 
     service occupations had the highest unionization rate, at 35.3 percent for 
     each occupation group. (See table 3.)

   --Men had a higher union membership rate (11.9 percent) than women (10.5 
     percent). (See table 1.)

   --Black workers were more likely to be union members than white, Asian, or 
     Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

   --Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership rate 
     (24.4 percent), and North Carolina had the lowest rate (3.0 percent). (See 
     table 5.)

 
Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2013, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared 
with 7.3 million workers in the private sector. The union membership rate for 
public-sector workers (35.3 percent) was substantially higher than the rate for 
private-sector workers (6.7 percent). Within the public sector, the union membership 
rate was highest for local government (40.8 percent), which includes employees in 
heavily unionized occupations, such as teachers, police officers, and firefighters. 
In the private sector, industries with high unionization rates included utilities 
(25.6 percent), transportation and warehousing (19.6 percent), telecommunications 
(14.4 percent), and construction (14.1 percent). Low unionization rates occurred 
in agriculture and related industries (1.0 percent), finance (1.0 percent), and in 
food services and drinking places (1.3 percent). (See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2013 were in education, 
training, and library occupations and protective service occupations (35.3 percent 
each). Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (2.1 percent) and sales and 
related occupations (2.9 percent) had the lowest unionization rates. (See table 3.)

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

The union membership rate was higher for men (11.9 percent) than for women (10.5 
percent) in 2013. (See table 1.) The gap between their rates has narrowed 
considerably since 1983, when rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 
14.6 percent, respectively.

Among major race and ethnicity groups, black workers had a higher union membership
rate in 2013 (13.6 percent) than workers who were white (11.0 percent), Asian
(9.4 percent), or Hispanic (9.4 percent). 

By age, the union membership rate was highest among workers ages 45 to 64--14.0 
percent for those ages 45 to 54 and 14.3 percent for those ages 55 to 64.

Full-time workers were about twice as likely as part-time workers to be union 
members, 12.5 percent compared with 6.0 percent.

Union Representation

In 2013, 16.0 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. 
This group includes both union members (14.5 million) and workers who report no 
union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.5 million). 
(See table 1.) Private-sector employees comprised more than half (810,000) of 
the 1.5 million workers who were covered by a union contract but were not 
members of a union. (See table 3.)

Earnings

In 2013, among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median 
usual weekly earnings of $950, while those who were not union members had 
median weekly earnings of $750. In addition to coverage by a collective 
bargaining agreement, this earnings difference reflects a variety of 
influences, including variations in the distributions of union members and 
nonunion employees by occupation, industry, firm size, or geographic region. 
(See table 2.)

Union Membership by State

In 2013, 30 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates 
below that of the U.S. average, 11.3 percent, while 20 states had higher rates. 
All states in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific divisions reported union membership
rates above the national average, and all states in the East South Central and
West South Central divisions had rates below it. Union membership rates 
declined over the year in 26 states, rose in 22 states and the District of 
Columbia, and remained unchanged in 2 states. (See table 5.)

Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2013, with North 
Carolina having the lowest rate (3.0 percent). The next lowest rates were 
recorded in Arkansas (3.5 percent), Mississippi and South Carolina (3.7 
percent each), and Utah (3.9 percent). Three states had union membership
rates over 20.0 percent in 2013: New York (24.4 percent), Alaska (23.1 percent),
and Hawaii (22.1 percent). 

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and union 
membership rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California 
(2.4 million) and New York (2.0 million). Over half of the 14.5 million union 
members in the U.S. lived in just seven states (California, 2.4 million; New 
York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.9 million; Pennsylvania, 0.7 million; and 
Michigan, New Jersey, and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states 
accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.

Texas had about one-fourth as many union members as New York, despite having 
2.7 million more wage and salary employees. Conversely, North Carolina and 
Hawaii had comparable numbers of union members (117,000 and 121,000,
respectively), though North Carolina's wage and salary employment level 
(3.9 million) was more than seven times that of Hawaii (549,000).




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible house-
holds. The union membership and earnings data  are tabulated from one-quarter of the
CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers
are excluded.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in 
the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS 
website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the 
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they represent. The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon the particular sample selected,
and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about
a  90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will
differ by no more than 1.6  standard errors from the "true" population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of
confidence. The state section of this release preserves the long-time practice of
highlighting the direction of the movements in state  union membership rates and
levels regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on
estimating standard errors, see the Household Data section of the "Explanatory Notes and
Estimates of Error" available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association
similar to a union.

   Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who 
are union members.
   
   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no
union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association
contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented
by a union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in
the case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they
usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the
easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly,
annually, other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings
reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term
"usual" is as perceived by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of
usual, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half of the weeks
worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution
into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings
below the median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly
earnings value into $50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The
actual value is estimated through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the
median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips,
payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and
public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers,
both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole
or principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their
sole or principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the
enumeration process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2012 2013
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

127,577 14,366 11.3 15,922 12.5 129,110 14,528 11.3 16,028 12.4

16 to 24 years

17,417 731 4.2 869 5.0 17,647 745 4.2 854 4.8

25 years and over

110,160 13,635 12.4 15,053 13.7 111,463 13,783 12.4 15,174 13.6

25 to 34 years

28,875 2,755 9.5 3,083 10.7 29,404 2,886 9.8 3,228 11.0

35 to 44 years

27,442 3,424 12.5 3,746 13.6 27,631 3,458 12.5 3,790 13.7

45 to 54 years

28,765 4,032 14.0 4,437 15.4 28,498 3,990 14.0 4,377 15.4

55 to 64 years

19,694 2,932 14.9 3,233 16.4 20,207 2,899 14.3 3,176 15.7

65 years and over

5,385 491 9.1 554 10.3 5,723 549 9.6 603 10.5

Men, 16 years and over

65,898 7,895 12.0 8,611 13.1 66,794 7,955 11.9 8,688 13.0

16 to 24 years

8,830 448 5.1 521 5.9 8,918 434 4.9 488 5.5

25 years and over

57,067 7,448 13.1 8,090 14.2 57,876 7,522 13.0 8,200 14.2

25 to 34 years

15,465 1,546 10.0 1,688 10.9 15,755 1,635 10.4 1,807 11.5

35 to 44 years

14,481 1,919 13.3 2,085 14.4 14,667 1,940 13.2 2,104 14.3

45 to 54 years

14,601 2,214 15.2 2,385 16.3 14,466 2,157 14.9 2,347 16.2

55 to 64 years

9,728 1,521 15.6 1,655 17.0 10,033 1,513 15.1 1,640 16.3

65 years and over

2,792 248 8.9 277 9.9 2,954 277 9.4 302 10.2

Women, 16 years and over

61,679 6,470 10.5 7,311 11.9 62,316 6,573 10.5 7,340 11.8

16 to 24 years

8,586 283 3.3 347 4.0 8,729 311 3.6 366 4.2

25 years and over

53,093 6,187 11.7 6,964 13.1 53,587 6,261 11.7 6,974 13.0

25 to 34 years

13,410 1,209 9.0 1,396 10.4 13,649 1,251 9.2 1,420 10.4

35 to 44 years

12,961 1,505 11.6 1,661 12.8 12,964 1,518 11.7 1,686 13.0

45 to 54 years

14,164 1,819 12.8 2,052 14.5 14,032 1,834 13.1 2,030 14.5

55 to 64 years

9,966 1,411 14.2 1,579 15.8 10,175 1,386 13.6 1,536 15.1

65 years and over

2,593 244 9.4 277 10.7 2,768 273 9.8 302 10.9

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

101,851 11,306 11.1 12,517 12.3 102,670 11,324 11.0 12,507 12.2

Men

53,542 6,359 11.9 6,933 12.9 54,017 6,320 11.7 6,897 12.8

Women

48,309 4,947 10.2 5,584 11.6 48,653 5,004 10.3 5,609 11.5

Black or African American, 16 years and over

14,975 2,009 13.4 2,220 14.8 15,274 2,081 13.6 2,294 15.0

Men

6,753 999 14.8 1,078 16.0 6,965 1,031 14.8 1,129 16.2

Women

8,222 1,009 12.3 1,142 13.9 8,310 1,049 12.6 1,165 14.0

Asian, 16 years and over

6,953 668 9.6 758 10.9 7,271 683 9.4 758 10.4

Men

3,650 323 8.9 369 10.1 3,786 338 8.9 380 10.0

Women

3,303 345 10.4 388 11.8 3,485 346 9.9 377 10.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

20,144 1,982 9.8 2,197 10.9 20,730 1,952 9.4 2,141 10.3

Men

11,415 1,148 10.1 1,266 11.1 11,903 1,121 9.4 1,218 10.2

Women

8,730 834 9.6 931 10.7 8,827 831 9.4 923 10.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

102,749 12,847 12.5 14,173 13.8 104,262 13,020 12.5 14,341 13.8

Part-time workers

24,614 1,483 6.0 1,710 6.9 24,664 1,483 6.0 1,662 6.7

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2012-2013 annual averages
Characteristic 2012 2013
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$768 $943 $933 $742 $776 $950 $944 $750

16 to 24 years

444 545 551 434 454 576 565 445

25 years and over

815 960 950 786 827 966 961 797

25 to 34 years

707 871 863 686 708 877 871 683

35 to 44 years

858 983 974 831 874 1,008 1,001 844

45 to 54 years

878 997 985 850 883 999 996 857

55 to 64 years

897 1,005 997 870 904 998 992 882

65 years and over

757 839 832 748 801 871 866 786

Men, 16 years and over

854 997 990 821 860 991 985 831

16 to 24 years

468 572 576 459 479 577 573 473

25 years and over

910 1,015 1,010 887 912 1,010 1,005 891

25 to 34 years

738 910 903 718 744 902 897 722

35 to 44 years

957 1,035 1,029 941 956 1,060 1,052 936

45 to 54 years

994 1,061 1,055 979 994 1,073 1,067 978

55 to 64 years

1,005 1,049 1,044 994 1,011 1,039 1,035 1,002

65 years and over

860 911 926 849 937 896 897 944

Women, 16 years and over

691 877 865 663 706 898 893 676

16 to 24 years

416 510 513 412 423 575 542 420

25 years and over

727 891 880 701 740 911 907 716

25 to 34 years

666 817 809 647 665 845 843 642

35 to 44 years

747 915 906 722 767 958 951 743

45 to 54 years

746 913 900 719 761 924 923 738

55 to 64 years

766 938 918 743 779 928 923 757

65 years and over

667 766 735 653 691 841 832 670

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

792 973 960 762 802 978 970 769

Men

879 1,025 1,017 845 884 1,019 1,012 856

Women

710 902 890 681 722 924 917 693

Black or African American, 16 years and over

621 784 774 599 629 791 794 606

Men

665 819 811 624 664 816 812 635

Women

599 755 747 582 606 771 779 584

Asian, 16 years and over

920 977 986 907 942 961 971 937

Men

1,055 1,010 1,022 1,062 1,059 1,044 1,044 1,063

Women

770 946 951 747 819 897 909 801

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

568 840 823 530 578 838 832 547

Men

592 881 868 563 594 895 884 571

Women

521 767 750 503 541 763 763 516

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2012 2013
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

46,897 5,751 12.3 6,514 13.9 47,723 5,726 12.0 6,490 13.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18,153 844 4.6 1,009 5.6 18,334 804 4.4 961 5.2

Management occupations

12,259 500 4.1 610 5.0 12,174 493 4.1 596 4.9

Business and financial operations occupations

5,894 344 5.8 399 6.8 6,159 311 5.0 365 5.9

Professional and related occupations

28,743 4,907 17.1 5,505 19.2 29,389 4,922 16.7 5,529 18.8

Computer and mathematical occupations

3,578 134 3.7 173 4.8 3,767 163 4.3 208 5.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,701 206 7.6 240 8.9 2,666 194 7.3 224 8.4

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,219 132 10.8 150 12.3 1,178 118 10.0 147 12.5

Community and social service occupations

2,239 361 16.1 406 18.1 2,263 361 16.0 390 17.2

Legal occupations

1,428 70 4.9 87 6.1 1,424 76 5.4 88 6.2

Education, training, and library occupations

8,325 2,944 35.4 3,267 39.2 8,457 2,986 35.3 3,304 39.1

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,943 144 7.4 159 8.2 2,043 120 5.9 138 6.8

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

7,309 916 12.5 1,023 14.0 7,591 903 11.9 1,029 13.6

Service occupations

23,095 2,406 10.4 2,630 11.4 23,390 2,491 10.6 2,701 11.5

Healthcare support occupations

3,340 277 8.3 321 9.6 3,364 314 9.3 347 10.3

Protective service occupations

3,078 1,071 34.8 1,122 36.5 3,107 1,096 35.3 1,160 37.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7,966 298 3.7 358 4.5 8,037 341 4.2 375 4.7

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,729 498 10.5 540 11.4 4,708 488 10.4 534 11.3

Personal care and service occupations

3,983 263 6.6 289 7.3 4,174 252 6.0 285 6.8

Sales and office occupations

30,685 2,070 6.7 2,357 7.7 30,637 2,008 6.6 2,220 7.2

Sales and related occupations

13,366 389 2.9 465 3.5 13,316 381 2.9 437 3.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,319 1,681 9.7 1,892 10.9 17,321 1,627 9.4 1,783 10.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,863 1,775 16.3 1,876 17.3 11,195 1,866 16.7 2,000 17.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

949 32 3.4 38 4.1 861 18 2.1 22 2.5

Construction and extraction occupations

5,567 1,054 18.9 1,108 19.9 5,809 1,119 19.3 1,181 20.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,347 689 15.8 729 16.8 4,525 729 16.1 797 17.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,038 2,365 14.7 2,546 15.9 16,165 2,438 15.1 2,617 16.2

Production occupations

8,116 1,002 12.3 1,084 13.4 7,936 1,070 13.5 1,156 14.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,922 1,363 17.2 1,462 18.5 8,229 1,367 16.6 1,461 17.8

INDUSTRY

Private sector

107,191 7,037 6.6 7,851 7.3 108,681 7,318 6.7 8,128 7.5

Agriculture and related industries

1,172 16 1.4 21 1.8 1,096 11 1.0 13 1.2

Nonagricultural industries

106,019 7,021 6.6 7,830 7.4 107,585 7,307 6.8 8,114 7.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

923 66 7.2 72 7.7 1,026 55 5.4 67 6.6

Construction

6,205 820 13.2 850 13.7 6,474 915 14.1 967 14.9

Manufacturing

13,941 1,338 9.6 1,468 10.5 14,195 1,431 10.1 1,558 11.0

Durable goods

8,787 830 9.4 906 10.3 8,933 883 9.9 956 10.7

Nondurable goods

5,154 507 9.8 563 10.9 5,262 549 10.4 602 11.4

Wholesale and retail trade

18,174 854 4.7 960 5.3 17,998 838 4.7 927 5.2

Wholesale trade

3,341 169 5.1 186 5.6 3,235 163 5.0 184 5.7

Retail trade

14,833 686 4.6 774 5.2 14,763 675 4.6 743 5.0

Transportation and utilities

5,359 1,105 20.6 1,174 21.9 5,563 1,144 20.6 1,212 21.8

Transportation and warehousing

4,520 898 19.9 948 21.0 4,686 920 19.6 974 20.8

Utilities

839 207 24.7 226 26.9 877 225 25.6 238 27.1

Information(3)

2,575 251 9.7 273 10.6 2,582 231 8.9 251 9.7

Publishing, except Internet

548 20 3.7 24 4.3 541 26 4.7 30 5.5

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

293 33 11.4 36 12.2 337 32 9.5 34 10.0

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

546 37 6.7 42 7.6 538 30 5.5 34 6.3

Telecommunications

956 149 15.6 160 16.8 916 132 14.4 141 15.4

Financial activities

8,196 156 1.9 203 2.5 8,515 170 2.0 219 2.6

Finance and insurance

6,195 73 1.2 102 1.7 6,392 84 1.3 118 1.8

Finance

4,054 45 1.1 62 1.5 4,090 39 1.0 61 1.5

Insurance

2,141 28 1.3 40 1.9 2,302 45 2.0 56 2.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,001 83 4.1 101 5.0 2,123 86 4.0 102 4.8

Professional and business services

12,726 310 2.4 388 3.0 12,890 304 2.4 371 2.9

Professional and technical services

7,630 93 1.2 140 1.8 7,711 115 1.5 154 2.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

5,096 217 4.3 248 4.9 5,179 189 3.6 217 4.2

Education and health services

20,394 1,658 8.1 1,891 9.3 20,596 1,718 8.3 1,961 9.5

Educational services

4,190 520 12.4 592 14.1 4,169 536 12.9 628 15.1

Health care and social assistance

16,204 1,138 7.0 1,299 8.0 16,426 1,182 7.2 1,333 8.1

Leisure and hospitality

11,775 321 2.7 377 3.2 11,973 326 2.7 386 3.2

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,127 136 6.4 148 7.0 2,248 118 5.2 130 5.8

Accommodation and food services

9,648 185 1.9 229 2.4 9,726 208 2.1 257 2.6

Accommodation

1,354 89 6.5 101 7.5 1,354 95 7.0 108 8.0

Food services and drinking places

8,295 97 1.2 128 1.5 8,372 113 1.3 149 1.8

Other services(3)

5,750 143 2.5 174 3.0 5,774 175 3.0 194 3.4

Other services, except private households

5,028 133 2.6 163 3.2 5,056 163 3.2 182 3.6

Public sector

20,385 7,328 35.9 8,072 39.6 20,429 7,210 35.3 7,900 38.7

Federal government

3,552 956 26.9 1,114 31.4 3,515 932 26.5 1,096 31.2

State government

6,279 1,968 31.3 2,190 34.9 6,353 1,966 30.9 2,147 33.8

Local government

10,554 4,404 41.7 4,768 45.2 10,561 4,311 40.8 4,658 44.1

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2012-2013 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2012 2013
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,108 $1,108 $1,092 $1,111 $1,132 $1,121 $1,112 $1,135

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,171 1,159 1,161 1,172 1,208 1,202 1,223 1,207

Management occupations

1,248 1,261 1,274 1,247 1,285 1,305 1,329 1,280

Business and financial operations occupations

1,058 1,060 1,024 1,060 1,091 1,086 1,082 1,092

Professional and related occupations

1,053 1,098 1,077 1,046 1,071 1,102 1,087 1,067

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,349 1,157 1,158 1,359 1,365 1,248 1,271 1,371

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,337 1,368 1,350 1,335 1,365 1,269 1,313 1,369

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,134 1,209 1,177 1,127 1,152 1,233 1,200 1,149

Community and social service occupations

838 1,007 1,003 783 847 990 984 813

Legal occupations

1,328 1,174 1,173 1,342 1,253 1,325 1,355 1,248

Education, training, and library occupations

915 1,050 1,028 814 937 1,068 1,048 836

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

969 1,107 1,097 957 988 1,243 1,191 974

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,028 1,151 1,142 1,010 1,048 1,185 1,170 1,031

Service occupations

485 754 735 458 493 746 742 467

Healthcare support occupations

482 527 522 477 491 576 579 485

Protective service occupations

791 1,071 1,056 649 783 1,104 1,082 645

Food preparation and serving related occupations

410 509 505 405 416 538 535 413

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

465 621 614 440 475 635 628 448

Personal care and service occupations

468 524 515 462 481 529 538 476

Sales and office occupations

655 789 776 642 659 774 773 646

Sales and related occupations

689 689 668 691 708 705 702 708

Office and administrative support occupations

643 808 796 624 638 791 790 620

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

740 1,026 1,018 688 747 1,054 1,032 693

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

435 - - 430 448 - - 445

Construction and extraction occupations

740 1,040 1,026 682 732 1,069 1,043 675

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

808 1,032 1,021 768 821 1,045 1,027 772

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

624 823 811 597 621 810 805 598

Production occupations

627 816 807 605 623 790 782 604

Transportation and material moving occupations

621 833 816 586 619 838 834 590

INDUSTRY

Private sector

742 887 877 731 751 892 887 739

Agriculture and related industries

470 - - 469 496 - - 496

Nonagricultural industries

746 888 878 735 754 892 887 743

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,112 1,119 1,112 1,113 1,119 1,075 995 1,130

Construction

768 1,086 1,069 722 762 1,096 1,081 713

Manufacturing

797 872 863 786 816 841 831 814

Durable goods

827 891 884 819 863 881 868 862

Nondurable goods

737 827 817 722 747 790 789 739

Wholesale and retail trade

630 650 637 629 638 668 666 636

Wholesale trade

821 821 801 823 800 840 826 798

Retail trade

592 609 598 592 602 622 624 601

Transportation and utilities

828 998 989 789 824 1,015 1,003 773

Transportation and warehousing

778 948 934 746 777 975 970 732

Utilities

1,132 1,216 1,204 1,086 1,104 1,183 1,160 1,078

Information(4)

978 1,103 1,087 966 980 1,095 1,072 970

Publishing, except Internet

934 - - 921 908 - - 912

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

854 - - 798 969 - - 937

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

890 - - 903 897 - - 895

Telecommunications

1,064 1,162 1,163 1,039 1,129 1,162 1,155 1,123

Financial activities

889 795 779 893 905 875 930 905

Finance and insurance

941 852 831 944 963 898 1,013 962

Finance

952 - 762 955 992 - 1,273 988

Insurance

922 - - 924 928 - - 929

Real estate and rental and leasing

731 773 759 727 734 849 853 728

Professional and business services

910 826 843 912 907 889 896 907

Professional and technical services

1,165 1,183 1,133 1,165 1,172 1,169 1,165 1,173

Management, administrative, and waste services

$582 $699 $708 $577 $576 $800 $798 $567

Education and health services

748 879 876 736 765 894 897 752

Educational services

864 918 922 844 879 970 964 851

Health care and social assistance

720 835 824 711 741 823 837 732

Leisure and hospitality

481 611 604 475 492 605 611 487

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

641 675 668 640 629 636 646 627

Accommodation and food services

445 596 588 438 460 582 591 453

Accommodation

542 613 609 527 571 622 625 559

Food services and drinking places

421 536 534 419 432 530 535 430

Other services(4)

622 807 763 618 634 816 797 627

Other services, except private households

649 828 774 645 660 825 801 654

Public sector

898 990 980 829 910 999 994 839

Federal government

1,072 1,035 1,045 1,113 1,098 1,043 1,055 1,139

State government

854 948 933 794 868 959 951 806

Local government

866 989 975 756 879 1,003 992 757

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2012-2013 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
State 2012 2013
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,807 166 9.2 190 10.5 1,894 203 10.7 222 11.7

Alaska

298 67 22.4 71 23.9 306 71 23.1 75 24.5

Arizona

2,434 125 5.1 159 6.5 2,452 122 5.0 147 6.0

Arkansas

1,157 37 3.2 43 3.7 1,072 38 3.5 44 4.1

California

14,483 2,489 17.2 2,666 18.4 14,835 2,430 16.4 2,579 17.4

Colorado

2,165 169 7.8 190 8.8 2,243 171 7.6 207 9.2

Connecticut

1,541 216 14.0 232 15.1 1,535 207 13.5 220 14.3

Delaware

377 39 10.4 44 11.8 370 38 10.3 41 11.0

District of Columbia

309 27 8.6 32 10.3 308 29 9.3 34 11.0

Florida

7,602 440 5.8 555 7.3 7,655 414 5.4 529 6.9

Georgia

3,914 171 4.4 210 5.4 3,958 209 5.3 248 6.3

Hawaii

537 116 21.6 124 23.2 549 121 22.1 129 23.6

Idaho

613 29 4.8 36 5.8 617 29 4.7 36 5.8

Illinois

5,486 801 14.6 852 15.5 5,397 851 15.8 882 16.3

Indiana

2,702 246 9.1 269 10.0 2,682 249 9.3 275 10.3

Iowa

1,390 145 10.4 172 12.4 1,421 143 10.1 171 12.0

Kansas

1,248 85 6.8 105 8.4 1,252 94 7.5 106 8.4

Kentucky

1,742 174 10.0 198 11.4 1,735 194 11.2 226 13.0

Louisiana

1,733 107 6.2 130 7.5 1,728 75 4.3 95 5.5

Maine

559 64 11.5 78 13.9 574 64 11.1 75 13.1

Maryland

2,636 280 10.6 325 12.3 2,665 308 11.6 349 13.1

Massachusetts

2,896 417 14.4 470 16.2 2,940 401 13.7 430 14.6

Michigan

3,785 629 16.6 648 17.1 3,889 633 16.3 656 16.9

Minnesota

2,465 351 14.2 368 14.9 2,532 362 14.3 381 15.0

Mississippi

1,113 48 4.3 64 5.7 1,040 38 3.7 44 4.2

Missouri

2,507 224 8.9 253 10.1 2,537 219 8.6 264 10.4

Montana

392 54 13.9 65 16.5 403 52 13.0 60 14.8

Nebraska

864 52 6.0 70 8.1 870 63 7.3 79 9.0

Nevada

1,101 162 14.7 181 16.4 1,154 169 14.6 186 16.1

New Hampshire

621 65 10.5 74 12.0 623 60 9.6 67 10.7

New Jersey

3,796 611 16.1 636 16.8 3,814 611 16.0 632 16.6

New Mexico

780 50 6.5 68 8.7 751 46 6.2 55 7.3

New York

7,936 1,841 23.2 1,975 24.9 8,149 1,986 24.4 2,104 25.8

North Carolina

3,805 112 2.9 162 4.3 3,879 117 3.0 184 4.8

North Dakota

329 20 6.1 27 8.2 342 22 6.4 29 8.5

Ohio

4,800 604 12.6 665 13.9 4,786 605 12.6 674 14.1

Oklahoma

1,531 115 7.5 140 9.1 1,516 114 7.5 144 9.5

Oregon

1,526 240 15.7 250 16.4 1,504 208 13.9 223 14.8

Pennsylvania

5,452 734 13.5 787 14.4 5,501 701 12.7 754 13.7

Rhode Island

455 81 17.8 84 18.4 459 77 16.9 82 17.8

South Carolina

1,773 58 3.3 82 4.6 1,855 69 3.7 86 4.7

South Dakota

351 20 5.6 24 6.7 362 17 4.8 21 5.8

Tennessee

2,586 124 4.8 152 5.9 2,543 155 6.1 188 7.4

Texas

10,590 599 5.7 721 6.8 10,877 518 4.8 647 6.0

Utah

1,179 61 5.2 77 6.6 1,253 49 3.9 67 5.4

Vermont

288 31 10.7 38 13.1 285 31 10.9 38 13.2

Virginia

3,592 159 4.4 197 5.5 3,601 180 5.0 229 6.4

Washington

2,776 513 18.5 541 19.5 2,882 546 18.9 568 19.7

West Virginia

697 84 12.1 91 13.1 686 87 12.7 93 13.5

Wisconsin

2,605 293 11.2 312 12.0 2,569 317 12.3 337 13.1

Wyoming

252 17 6.7 20 8.1 259 15 5.7 17 6.4

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 24, 2014
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