Economic News Release

Union Membership (Annual) News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 23, 2015		       		          USDL-15-0072

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  •  cpsinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/cps 
Media contact: 	   	(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


				UNION MEMBERS -- 2014


In 2014, the union membership rate--the percent of wage and salary workers who were
members of unions--was 11.1 percent, down 0.2 percentage point from 2013, the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The number of wage and salary workers
belonging to unions, at 14.6 million, was little different from 2013. In 1983, the
first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate
was 20.1 percent, and there were 17.7 million union workers. 

The data on union membership are collected as part of the Current Population Survey
(CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that obtains information
on employment and unemployment among the nation's civilian noninstitutional population
age 16 and over. For more information, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2014 data:

   --Public-sector workers had a union membership rate (35.7 percent), more
     than five times higher than that of private-sector workers (6.6 percent).
     (See table 3.)

   --Workers in education, training, and library occupations and in protective
     service occupations had the highest unionization rate, at 35.3 percent for
     each occupation group. (See table 3.)

   --Men had a higher union membership rate (11.7 percent) than women
     (10.5 percent) in 2014. (See table 1.)

   --Black workers were more likely to be union members than were white, Asian,
     or Hispanic workers. (See table 1.)

   --Median weekly earnings of nonunion workers ($763) were 79 percent of
     earnings for workers who were union members ($970). (The comparisons of
     earnings in this release are on a broad level and do not control for many
     factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences.)
     (See table 2.)

   --Among states, New York continued to have the highest union membership rate
     (24.6 percent), and North Carolina again had the lowest rate (1.9 percent).
     (See table 5.)


Industry and Occupation of Union Members

In 2014, 7.2 million employees in the public sector belonged to a union, compared with
7.4 million workers in the private sector. The union membership rate for public-sector
workers (35.7 percent) was substantially higher than the rate for private-sector workers
(6.6 percent). Within the public sector, the union membership rate was highest for local
government (41.9 percent), which includes employees in heavily unionized occupations, such
as teachers, police officers, and firefighters. In the private sector, industries with
high unionization rates included utilities (22.3 percent), transportation and warehousing
(19.6 percent), telecommunications (14.8 percent), and construction (13.9 percent). Low
unionization rates occurred in agriculture and related industries (1.1 percent), finance
(1.3 percent), professional and technical services (1.4 percent), and food services and
drinking places (1.4 percent). (See table 3.)

Among occupational groups, the highest unionization rates in 2014 were in education,
training, and library occupations and protective service occupations (35.3 percent each).
The lowest unionization rates were in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (2.5 percent)
and sales and related occupations (3.1 percent). (See table 3.)

Selected Characteristics of Union Members

The union membership rate was higher for men (11.7 percent) than for women (10.5 percent)
in 2014. (See table 1.) The gap between their rates has narrowed considerably since 1983,
when rates for men and women were 24.7 percent and 14.6 percent, respectively.

Among major race and ethnicity groups, black workers had a higher union membership rate
in 2014 (13.2 percent) than workers who were white (10.8 percent), Asian (10.4 percent),
or Hispanic (9.2 percent).

By age, the union membership rate was highest among workers ages 45 to 64--13.8 percent for
those ages 45 to 54 and 14.1 percent for those ages 55 to 64.

The union membership rate was 12.3 percent for full-time workers, more than twice the rate
for part-time workers, 5.8 percent.

Union Representation 

In 2014, 16.2 million wage and salary workers were represented by a union. This group
includes both union members (14.6 million) and workers who report no union affiliation
but whose jobs are covered by a union contract (1.6 million). (See table 1.) 

Earnings

In 2014, among full-time wage and salary workers, union members had median usual weekly
earnings of $970, while those who were not union members had median weekly earnings of $763.
In addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, this earnings difference
reflects a variety of influences, including variations in the distributions of union members
and nonunion employees by occupation, industry, age, firm size, or geographic region.
(See tables 2 and 4.)

Union Membership by State

In 2014, 30 states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below that of the
U.S. average, 11.1 percent, 19 states had rates above it, and 1 state had a rate equal to that
of the nation. All states in the East South Central and West South Central divisions had union
membership rates below the national average, and all states in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific
divisions had rates above it. Union membership rates declined over the year in 27 states and
the District of Columbia, rose in 18 states, and were unchanged in 5 states. (See table 5.)

Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent in 2014, with North Carolina having
the lowest rate (1.9 percent). The next lowest rates were in South Carolina (2.2 percent) and
Mississippi and Utah (3.7 percent each). Three states had union membership rates over 20.0
percent in 2014: New York (24.6 percent), Alaska (22.8 percent), and Hawaii (21.8 percent).
(See chart 1.)

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and the union membership
rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.5 million) and New York
(2.0 million). Over half of the 14.6 million union members in the U.S. lived in just seven
states (California, 2.5 million; New York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.8 million; Pennsylvania,
0.7 million; and Michigan, New Jersey, and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states
accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment.
The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census
Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households.
The union membership and earnings data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly
sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

   Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the
CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The exact difference,
or sampling error, varies depending on the particular sample selected, and this variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or
level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 
standard errors from the true population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state section of this release
preserves the long-time practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state
union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many
reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to
provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard
errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Union membership questions 

   Employed wage and salary workers are classified as union members if they answer “yes” to 
the following question: On this job, are you a member of a labor union or of an employee
association similar to a union? If the response is “no” to that question, then the interviewer
asks a second question: On this job, are you covered by a union or employee association
contract? If the response is “yes,” then these persons, along with those who responded “yes”
to being union members, are classified as represented by a union.  If the response is “no”
to both the first and second questions, then they are classified as nonunion.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

   Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar
to a union.

   Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who
are union members.
   
   Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union
affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

   Nonunion. Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a
union on their job.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they usually
earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify the easiest
way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly, monthly, annually,
other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period. Earnings reported on a
basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is as perceived
by the respondent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual, interviewers are instructed
to define the term as more than half of the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution into
two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings below the
median. The estimating procedure places each reported or calculated weekly earnings value into
$50-wide intervals which are centered around multiples of $50. The actual value is estimated
through the linear interpolation of the interval in which the median lies.

   Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in
kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors.
Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with
incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

   Full-time workers. Workers who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Part-time workers. Workers who usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or
principal job.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Refers to persons who identified themselves in the enumeration
process as being Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic
or Latino may be of any race.




Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2013 2014
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

129,110 14,528 11.3 16,028 12.4 131,431 14,576 11.1 16,152 12.3

16 to 24 years

17,647 745 4.2 854 4.8 18,019 804 4.5 956 5.3

25 years and over

111,463 13,783 12.4 15,174 13.6 113,412 13,772 12.1 15,196 13.4

25 to 34 years

29,404 2,886 9.8 3,228 11.0 30,158 2,879 9.5 3,205 10.6

35 to 44 years

27,631 3,458 12.5 3,790 13.7 27,948 3,460 12.4 3,823 13.7

45 to 54 years

28,498 3,990 14.0 4,377 15.4 28,540 3,927 13.8 4,286 15.0

55 to 64 years

20,207 2,899 14.3 3,176 15.7 20,781 2,924 14.1 3,229 15.5

65 years and over

5,723 549 9.6 603 10.5 5,985 582 9.7 653 10.9

Men, 16 years and over

66,794 7,955 11.9 8,688 13.0 68,048 7,939 11.7 8,717 12.8

16 to 24 years

8,918 434 4.9 488 5.5 9,141 462 5.1 540 5.9

25 years and over

57,876 7,522 13.0 8,200 14.2 58,907 7,476 12.7 8,177 13.9

25 to 34 years

15,755 1,635 10.4 1,807 11.5 16,172 1,611 10.0 1,773 11.0

35 to 44 years

14,667 1,940 13.2 2,104 14.3 14,769 1,913 13.0 2,108 14.3

45 to 54 years

14,466 2,157 14.9 2,347 16.2 14,508 2,085 14.4 2,256 15.6

55 to 64 years

10,033 1,513 15.1 1,640 16.3 10,419 1,553 14.9 1,689 16.2

65 years and over

2,954 277 9.4 302 10.2 3,040 315 10.4 351 11.5

Women, 16 years and over

62,316 6,573 10.5 7,340 11.8 63,383 6,638 10.5 7,434 11.7

16 to 24 years

8,729 311 3.6 366 4.2 8,879 342 3.8 416 4.7

25 years and over

53,587 6,261 11.7 6,974 13.0 54,505 6,296 11.6 7,019 12.9

25 to 34 years

13,649 1,251 9.2 1,420 10.4 13,985 1,268 9.1 1,431 10.2

35 to 44 years

12,964 1,518 11.7 1,686 13.0 13,180 1,548 11.7 1,715 13.0

45 to 54 years

14,032 1,834 13.1 2,030 14.5 14,032 1,842 13.1 2,030 14.5

55 to 64 years

10,175 1,386 13.6 1,536 15.1 10,362 1,371 13.2 1,541 14.9

65 years and over

2,768 273 9.8 302 10.9 2,946 267 9.1 302 10.2

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

102,670 11,324 11.0 12,507 12.2 104,065 11,274 10.8 12,503 12.0

Men

54,017 6,320 11.7 6,897 12.8 54,747 6,295 11.5 6,900 12.6

Women

48,653 5,004 10.3 5,609 11.5 49,318 4,979 10.1 5,602 11.4

Black or African American, 16 years and over

15,274 2,081 13.6 2,294 15.0 15,830 2,097 13.2 2,303 14.6

Men

6,965 1,031 14.8 1,129 16.2 7,243 1,047 14.5 1,147 15.8

Women

8,310 1,049 12.6 1,165 14.0 8,586 1,050 12.2 1,156 13.5

Asian, 16 years and over

7,271 683 9.4 758 10.4 7,476 779 10.4 866 11.6

Men

3,786 338 8.9 380 10.0 3,921 361 9.2 416 10.6

Women

3,485 346 9.9 377 10.8 3,555 418 11.8 450 12.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

20,730 1,952 9.4 2,141 10.3 21,571 1,978 9.2 2,220 10.3

Men

11,903 1,121 9.4 1,218 10.2 12,339 1,155 9.4 1,286 10.4

Women

8,827 831 9.4 923 10.5 9,232 823 8.9 933 10.1

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS(3)

Full-time workers

104,262 13,020 12.5 14,341 13.8 106,526 13,132 12.3 14,491 13.6

Part-time workers

24,664 1,483 6.0 1,662 6.7 24,707 1,424 5.8 1,636 6.6

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation and selected characteristics, 2013-2014 annual averages
Characteristic 2013 2014
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

$776 $950 $944 $750 $791 $970 $965 $763

16 to 24 years

454 576 565 445 477 602 605 470

25 years and over

827 966 961 797 839 987 985 810

25 to 34 years

708 877 871 683 726 874 867 705

35 to 44 years

874 1,008 1,001 844 881 1,034 1,029 848

45 to 54 years

883 999 996 857 899 1,025 1,022 872

55 to 64 years

904 998 992 882 911 1,014 1,017 885

65 years and over

801 871 866 786 824 908 920 813

Men, 16 years and over

860 991 985 831 871 1,015 1,013 840

16 to 24 years

479 577 573 473 493 644 643 485

25 years and over

912 1,010 1,005 891 922 1,036 1,035 899

25 to 34 years

744 902 897 722 755 896 889 740

35 to 44 years

956 1,060 1,052 936 964 1,102 1,097 933

45 to 54 years

994 1,073 1,067 978 1,011 1,083 1,088 994

55 to 64 years

1,011 1,039 1,035 1,002 1,021 1,068 1,076 1,007

65 years and over

937 896 897 944 942 921 936 943

Women, 16 years and over

706 898 893 676 719 904 899 687

16 to 24 years

423 575 542 420 451 557 562 445

25 years and over

740 911 907 716 752 921 917 728

25 to 34 years

665 845 843 642 679 848 843 655

35 to 44 years

767 958 951 743 781 962 956 751

45 to 54 years

761 924 923 738 780 951 945 754

55 to 64 years

779 928 923 757 780 931 935 757

65 years and over

691 841 832 670 740 879 887 719

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY,
AND SEX

White, 16 years and over

802 978 970 769 816 997 992 784

Men

884 1,019 1,012 856 897 1,043 1,041 867

Women

722 924 917 693 734 929 923 704

Black or African American, 16 years and over

629 791 794 606 639 810 807 611

Men

664 816 812 635 680 835 833 648

Women

606 771 779 584 611 792 788 590

Asian, 16 years and over

942 961 971 937 953 979 998 948

Men

1,059 1,044 1,044 1,063 1,080 1,028 1,041 1,087

Women

819 897 909 801 841 939 950 823

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 16 years and over

578 838 832 547 594 811 795 573

Men

594 895 884 571 616 860 838 596

Women

541 763 763 516 548 757 739 520

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by occupation and industry, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation and industry 2013 2014
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

47,723 5,726 12.0 6,490 13.6 48,890 5,835 11.9 6,612 13.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18,334 804 4.4 961 5.2 18,717 870 4.6 1,016 5.4

Management occupations

12,174 493 4.1 596 4.9 12,550 562 4.5 653 5.2

Business and financial operations occupations

6,159 311 5.0 365 5.9 6,168 308 5.0 362 5.9

Professional and related occupations

29,389 4,922 16.7 5,529 18.8 30,173 4,965 16.5 5,597 18.5

Computer and mathematical occupations

3,767 163 4.3 208 5.5 4,057 169 4.2 223 5.5

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,666 194 7.3 224 8.4 2,635 160 6.1 190 7.2

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,178 118 10.0 147 12.5 1,232 122 9.9 149 12.1

Community and social service occupations

2,263 361 16.0 390 17.2 2,373 358 15.1 396 16.7

Legal occupations

1,424 76 5.4 88 6.2 1,440 86 6.0 107 7.5

Education, training, and library occupations

8,457 2,986 35.3 3,304 39.1 8,437 2,976 35.3 3,279 38.9

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2,043 120 5.9 138 6.8 2,071 117 5.6 137 6.6

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

7,591 903 11.9 1,029 13.6 7,928 977 12.3 1,115 14.1

Service occupations

23,390 2,491 10.6 2,701 11.5 23,481 2,498 10.6 2,740 11.7

Healthcare support occupations

3,364 314 9.3 347 10.3 3,326 305 9.2 346 10.4

Protective service occupations

3,107 1,096 35.3 1,160 37.3 3,128 1,103 35.3 1,166 37.3

Food preparation and serving related occupations

8,037 341 4.2 375 4.7 8,021 338 4.2 389 4.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

4,708 488 10.4 534 11.3 4,916 504 10.2 560 11.4

Personal care and service occupations

4,174 252 6.0 285 6.8 4,090 248 6.1 279 6.8

Sales and office occupations

30,637 2,008 6.6 2,220 7.2 30,903 2,023 6.5 2,277 7.4

Sales and related occupations

13,316 381 2.9 437 3.3 13,529 415 3.1 499 3.7

Office and administrative support occupations

17,321 1,627 9.4 1,783 10.3 17,374 1,608 9.3 1,778 10.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,195 1,866 16.7 2,000 17.9 11,627 1,782 15.3 1,909 16.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

861 18 2.1 22 2.5 935 24 2.5 30 3.2

Construction and extraction occupations

5,809 1,119 19.3 1,181 20.3 6,196 1,104 17.8 1,167 18.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,525 729 16.1 797 17.6 4,496 655 14.6 711 15.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,165 2,438 15.1 2,617 16.2 16,530 2,438 14.8 2,614 15.8

Production occupations

7,936 1,070 13.5 1,156 14.6 8,098 1,066 13.2 1,150 14.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,229 1,367 16.6 1,461 17.8 8,432 1,372 16.3 1,464 17.4

INDUSTRY

Private sector

108,681 7,318 6.7 8,128 7.5 111,228 7,359 6.6 8,224 7.4

Agriculture and related industries

1,096 11 1.0 13 1.2 1,199 14 1.1 19 1.6

Nonagricultural industries

107,585 7,307 6.8 8,114 7.5 110,028 7,345 6.7 8,205 7.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,026 55 5.4 67 6.6 1,040 50 4.8 61 5.9

Construction

6,474 915 14.1 967 14.9 6,968 968 13.9 1,023 14.7

Manufacturing

14,195 1,431 10.1 1,558 11.0 14,471 1,409 9.7 1,517 10.5

Durable goods

8,933 883 9.9 956 10.7 9,111 876 9.6 944 10.4

Nondurable goods

5,262 549 10.4 602 11.4 5,359 534 10.0 572 10.7

Wholesale and retail trade

17,998 838 4.7 927 5.2 18,372 769 4.2 892 4.9

Wholesale trade

3,235 163 5.0 184 5.7 3,232 107 3.3 129 4.0

Retail trade

14,763 675 4.6 743 5.0 15,141 662 4.4 763 5.0

Transportation and utilities

5,563 1,144 20.6 1,212 21.8 5,750 1,153 20.1 1,217 21.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,686 920 19.6 974 20.8 4,814 945 19.6 996 20.7

Utilities

877 225 25.6 238 27.1 935 209 22.3 221 23.7

Information(3)

2,582 231 8.9 251 9.7 2,681 231 8.6 255 9.5

Publishing, except Internet

541 26 4.7 30 5.5 581 21 3.6 22 3.8

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

337 32 9.5 34 10.0 347 25 7.3 29 8.2

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

538 30 5.5 34 6.3 569 40 7.0 43 7.6

Telecommunications

916 132 14.4 141 15.4 915 135 14.8 151 16.5

Financial activities

8,515 170 2.0 219 2.6 8,481 169 2.0 200 2.4

Finance and insurance

6,392 84 1.3 118 1.8 6,409 92 1.4 112 1.8

Finance

4,090 39 1.0 61 1.5 4,039 53 1.3 63 1.6

Insurance

2,302 45 2.0 56 2.5 2,370 39 1.6 49 2.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,123 86 4.0 102 4.8 2,071 77 3.7 88 4.2

Professional and business services

12,890 304 2.4 371 2.9 13,300 309 2.3 389 2.9

Professional and technical services

7,711 115 1.5 154 2.0 8,045 109 1.4 157 2.0

Management, administrative, and waste services

5,179 189 3.6 217 4.2 5,254 199 3.8 232 4.4

Education and health services

20,596 1,718 8.3 1,961 9.5 21,147 1,728 8.2 2,003 9.5

Educational services

4,169 536 12.9 628 15.1 4,338 508 11.7 599 13.8

Health care and social assistance

16,426 1,182 7.2 1,333 8.1 16,809 1,220 7.3 1,404 8.4

Leisure and hospitality

11,973 326 2.7 386 3.2 11,997 387 3.2 454 3.8

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,248 118 5.2 130 5.8 2,166 140 6.5 158 7.3

Accommodation and food services

9,726 208 2.1 257 2.6 9,831 247 2.5 296 3.0

Accommodation

1,354 95 7.0 108 8.0 1,455 130 8.9 143 9.8

Food services and drinking places

8,372 113 1.3 149 1.8 8,377 117 1.4 153 1.8

Other services(3)

5,774 175 3.0 194 3.4 5,821 171 2.9 193 3.3

Other services, except private households

5,056 163 3.2 182 3.6 5,026 157 3.1 178 3.5

Public sector

20,429 7,210 35.3 7,900 38.7 20,203 7,218 35.7 7,927 39.2

Federal government

3,515 932 26.5 1,096 31.2 3,408 939 27.5 1,078 31.6

State government

6,353 1,966 30.9 2,147 33.8 6,264 1,867 29.8 2,056 32.8

Local government

10,561 4,311 40.8 4,658 44.1 10,532 4,412 41.9 4,793 45.5

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by union affiliation, occupation, and industry, 2013-2014 annual averages
Occupation and industry 2013 2014
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)
Total Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Non-
union(3)

OCCUPATION

Management, professional, and related occupations

$1,132 $1,121 $1,112 $1,135 $1,137 $1,132 $1,129 $1,139

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

1,208 1,202 1,223 1,207 1,227 1,246 1,243 1,226

Management occupations

1,285 1,305 1,329 1,280 1,295 1,333 1,333 1,292

Business and financial operations occupations

1,091 1,086 1,082 1,092 1,107 1,135 1,131 1,104

Professional and related occupations

1,071 1,102 1,087 1,067 1,078 1,117 1,112 1,068

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,365 1,248 1,271 1,371 1,368 1,288 1,277 1,373

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,365 1,269 1,313 1,369 1,377 1,416 1,424 1,370

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,152 1,233 1,200 1,149 1,168 1,271 1,276 1,141

Community and social service occupations

847 990 984 813 858 1,017 1,010 822

Legal occupations

1,253 1,325 1,355 1,248 1,271 1,208 1,333 1,270

Education, training, and library occupations

937 1,068 1,048 836 953 1,077 1,069 851

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

988 1,243 1,191 974 956 1,130 1,110 946

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

1,048 1,185 1,170 1,031 1,033 1,128 1,115 1,020

Service occupations

493 746 742 467 505 762 751 482

Healthcare support occupations

491 576 579 485 498 569 558 493

Protective service occupations

783 1,104 1,082 645 833 1,107 1,093 687

Food preparation and serving related occupations

416 538 535 413 439 535 525 433

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

475 635 628 448 480 644 633 456

Personal care and service occupations

481 529 538 476 487 591 583 480

Sales and office occupations

659 774 773 646 666 788 788 654

Sales and related occupations

708 705 702 708 705 728 724 704

Office and administrative support occupations

638 791 790 620 651 801 801 632

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

747 1,054 1,032 693 756 1,076 1,062 705

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

448 - - 445 429 - - 423

Construction and extraction occupations

732 1,069 1,043 675 756 1,095 1,078 697

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

821 1,045 1,027 772 821 1,064 1,057 782

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

621 810 805 598 642 838 830 614

Production occupations

623 790 782 604 646 825 824 620

Transportation and material moving occupations

619 838 834 590 637 850 836 608

INDUSTRY

Private sector

751 892 887 739 763 907 900 753

Agriculture and related industries

496 - - 496 502 - - 501

Nonagricultural industries

754 892 887 743 767 907 901 756

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

1,119 1,075 995 1,130 1,136 1,150 1,176 1,130

Construction

762 1,096 1,081 713 775 1,123 1,108 724

Manufacturing

816 841 831 814 812 861 854 807

Durable goods

863 881 868 862 840 888 886 833

Nondurable goods

747 790 789 739 765 808 795 761

Wholesale and retail trade

638 668 666 636 641 669 670 638

Wholesale trade

800 840 826 798 818 772 773 821

Retail trade

602 622 624 601 602 641 643 600

Transportation and utilities

824 1,015 1,003 773 826 1,011 1,009 785

Transportation and warehousing

777 975 970 732 780 947 947 748

Utilities

1,104 1,183 1,160 1,078 1,156 1,275 1,283 1,078

Information(4)

980 1,095 1,072 970 1,040 1,115 1,090 1,029

Publishing, except Internet

908 - - 912 1,068 - - 1,081

Motion pictures and sound recording industries

969 - - 937 1,021 - - 993

Radio and television broadcasting and cable subscription programming

897 - - 895 902 - - 879

Telecommunications

1,129 1,162 1,155 1,123 1,145 1,143 1,114 1,151

Financial activities

905 875 930 905 941 879 884 942

Finance and insurance

963 898 1,013 962 989 880 893 991

Finance

992 - 1,273 988 1,012 862 889 1,014

Insurance

928 - 854 929 959 - - 960

Real estate and rental and leasing

734 849 853 728 768 876 869 762

Professional and business services

907 889 896 907 915 805 851 918

Professional and technical services

1,172 1,169 1,165 1,173 1,199 1,081 1,145 1,203

Management, administrative, and waste services

$576 $800 $798 $567 $580 $743 $735 $575

Education and health services

765 894 897 752 777 926 925 763

Educational services

879 970 964 851 902 967 978 879

Health care and social assistance

741 823 837 732 750 893 886 740

Leisure and hospitality

492 605 611 487 505 636 624 500

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

629 636 646 627 650 688 683 642

Accommodation and food services

460 582 591 453 481 602 591 478

Accommodation

571 622 625 559 544 639 639 522

Food services and drinking places

432 530 535 430 465 496 485 465

Other services(4)

634 816 797 627 644 871 843 636

Other services, except private households

660 825 801 654 671 887 865 662

Public sector

910 999 994 839 927 1,014 1,014 850

Federal government

1,098 1,043 1,055 1,139 1,103 1,050 1,072 1,136

State government

868 959 951 806 886 967 966 821

Local government

879 1,003 992 757 899 1,026 1,020 780

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
(3) Data refer to workers who are neither members of a union nor represented by a union on their job.
(4) Includes other industries, not shown separately.

- Data not shown where base is less than 50,000.
NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2013-2014 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
State 2013 2014
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total
employed
Members
of
unions(1)
Represented
by unions(2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,894 203 10.7 222 11.7 1,887 204 10.8 228 12.1

Alaska

306 71 23.1 75 24.5 307 70 22.8 75 24.4

Arizona

2,452 122 5.0 147 6.0 2,593 138 5.3 173 6.7

Arkansas

1,072 38 3.5 44 4.1 1,108 52 4.7 60 5.4

California

14,835 2,430 16.4 2,579 17.4 15,135 2,472 16.3 2,652 17.5

Colorado

2,243 171 7.6 207 9.2 2,328 221 9.5 250 10.7

Connecticut

1,535 207 13.5 220 14.3 1,564 231 14.8 245 15.7

Delaware

370 38 10.3 41 11.0 384 38 9.9 43 11.3

District of Columbia

308 29 9.3 34 11.0 325 28 8.6 35 10.7

Florida

7,655 414 5.4 529 6.9 8,042 455 5.7 561 7.0

Georgia

3,958 209 5.3 248 6.3 3,926 170 4.3 193 4.9

Hawaii

549 121 22.1 129 23.6 572 124 21.8 131 22.9

Idaho

617 29 4.7 36 5.8 641 34 5.3 43 6.7

Illinois

5,397 851 15.8 882 16.3 5,500 831 15.1 880 16.0

Indiana

2,682 249 9.3 275 10.3 2,802 299 10.7 335 12.0

Iowa

1,421 143 10.1 171 12.0 1,459 156 10.7 184 12.6

Kansas

1,252 94 7.5 106 8.4 1,287 95 7.4 116 9.0

Kentucky

1,735 194 11.2 226 13.0 1,714 189 11.0 219 12.8

Louisiana

1,728 75 4.3 95 5.5 1,834 96 5.2 118 6.4

Maine

574 64 11.1 75 13.1 566 62 11.0 71 12.5

Maryland

2,665 308 11.6 349 13.1 2,612 310 11.9 347 13.3

Massachusetts

2,940 401 13.7 430 14.6 3,036 415 13.7 445 14.7

Michigan

3,889 633 16.3 656 16.9 4,028 585 14.5 631 15.7

Minnesota

2,532 362 14.3 381 15.0 2,538 360 14.2 380 15.0

Mississippi

1,040 38 3.7 44 4.2 1,028 38 3.7 46 4.5

Missouri

2,537 219 8.6 264 10.4 2,559 214 8.4 249 9.7

Montana

403 52 13.0 60 14.8 414 52 12.7 57 13.8

Nebraska

870 63 7.3 79 9.0 877 64 7.3 79 9.0

Nevada

1,154 169 14.6 186 16.1 1,173 169 14.4 192 16.4

New Hampshire

623 60 9.6 67 10.7 626 62 9.9 72 11.5

New Jersey

3,814 611 16.0 632 16.6 3,860 635 16.5 664 17.2

New Mexico

751 46 6.2 55 7.3 763 43 5.7 56 7.4

New York

8,149 1,986 24.4 2,104 25.8 8,060 1,980 24.6 2,081 25.8

North Carolina

3,879 117 3.0 184 4.8 3,936 76 1.9 126 3.2

North Dakota

342 22 6.4 29 8.5 353 18 5.0 24 6.9

Ohio

4,786 605 12.6 674 14.1 4,958 615 12.4 688 13.9

Oklahoma

1,516 114 7.5 144 9.5 1,465 89 6.0 106 7.2

Oregon

1,504 208 13.9 223 14.8 1,554 243 15.6 264 17.0

Pennsylvania

5,501 701 12.7 754 13.7 5,525 703 12.7 754 13.7

Rhode Island

459 77 16.9 82 17.8 453 68 15.1 72 15.8

South Carolina

1,855 69 3.7 86 4.7 1,884 41 2.2 61 3.2

South Dakota

362 17 4.8 21 5.8 363 18 4.9 22 6.0

Tennessee

2,543 155 6.1 188 7.4 2,514 127 5.0 141 5.6

Texas

10,877 518 4.8 647 6.0 11,205 543 4.8 700 6.2

Utah

1,253 49 3.9 67 5.4 1,236 46 3.7 57 4.6

Vermont

285 31 10.9 38 13.2 286 32 11.1 37 13.1

Virginia

3,601 180 5.0 229 6.4 3,665 179 4.9 228 6.2

Washington

2,882 546 18.9 568 19.7 2,914 491 16.8 536 18.4

West Virginia

686 87 12.7 93 13.5 687 73 10.6 80 11.6

Wisconsin

2,569 317 12.3 337 13.1 2,626 306 11.7 327 12.5

Wyoming

259 15 5.7 17 6.4 255 17 6.7 19 7.5

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

NOTE: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: January 23, 2015
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