Economic News Release

Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, July 24, 2014                  USDL-14-1347

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  •  cpsinfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


     USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS -- SECOND QUARTER 2014


Median weekly earnings of the nation's 106.6 million full-time wage and salary workers 
were $780 in the second quarter of 2014 (not seasonally adjusted), the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. This was essentially unchanged from a year earlier, 
compared with a gain of 2.1 percent in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers 
(CPI-U) over the same period.

Data on usual weekly earnings are collected as part of the Current Population Survey, 
a nationwide sample survey of households in which respondents are asked, among other 
things, how much each wage and salary worker usually earns. (See the Technical Note.)
Data shown in this release are not seasonally adjusted unless otherwise specified.
Highlights from the second-quarter data are:

  --Median weekly earnings were $780 in the second quarter of 2014. Women who 
    usually worked full time had median weekly earnings of $716, or 83.5 percent 
    of the $857 median for men. (See table 2.)

  --The women's-to-men's earnings ratio varied by race and ethnicity. White women 
    earned 82.0 percent as much as their male counterparts, compared with black 
    women (94.6 percent), Asian women (75.1 percent), and Hispanic women (87.4 
    percent). (See table 2.)

  --Among the major race and ethnicity groups, median weekly earnings for black 
    men working at full-time jobs were $667 per week, or 75.5 percent of the median 
    for white men ($884). The difference was less among women, as black women's 
    median earnings ($631) were 87.0 percent of those for white women ($725). Overall, 
    median earnings of Hispanics who worked full time ($583) were lower than those of 
    blacks ($649), whites ($802), and Asians ($954). (See table 2.)

  --Usual weekly earnings of full-time workers varied by age. Among men, those age 
    45 to 54 and 55 to 64 had the highest median weekly earnings, $1,009 and $1,012, 
    respectively. Usual weekly earnings were highest for women age 35 to 64: weekly 
    earnings were $769 for women age 35 to 44, $783 for women age 45 to 54, and $770 
    for women age 55 to 64. Workers age 16 to 24 had the lowest median weekly earnings, 
    at $464. (See table 3.)

  --Among the major occupational groups, persons employed full time in management, 
    professional, and related occupations had the highest median weekly earnings--
    $1,343 for men and $969 for women. Men and women employed in service jobs had 
    much lower earnings, $580 and $452, respectively. (See table 4.)

  --By educational attainment, full-time workers age 25 and over without a high 
    school diploma had median weekly earnings of $492, compared with $666 for high 
    school graduates (no college) and $1,187 for those holding at least a bachelor's 
    degree. Among college graduates with advanced degrees (professional or master's 
    degree and above), the highest earning 10 percent of male workers made $3,609 
    or more per week, compared with $2,331 or more for their female counterparts. 
    (See table 5.)

  --Seasonally adjusted median weekly earnings were $782 in the second quarter of 
    2014, little changed from the previous quarter ($791). (See table 1.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS),
which provides basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The
survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau using a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible house-
holds, with coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The earnings data
are collected from one-fourth of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and
salary workers. All self-employed workers, both incorporated and unincorporated, are
excluded from CPS earnings estimates.

   Material in this news release is in the public domain and may be used without
permission. This information is available to sensory impaired individuals upon
request. Voice telephone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Definitions

   The principal definitions used in connection with the earnings data in this news
release are described briefly below.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Prior to 1994, respondents were asked how much they
usually earned per week. Since January 1994, respondents have been asked to identify
the easiest way for them to report earnings (hourly, weekly, biweekly, twice monthly,
monthly, annually, or other) and how much they usually earn in the reported time period.

   Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent.
The term "usual" is determined by each respondent's own understanding of the term. If
the respondent asks for a definition of "usual," interviewers are instructed to define
the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

   Medians (and other quantiles) of weekly earnings. The median (or upper limit of the
second quartile) is the midpoint in a given earnings distribution, with half of workers
having earnings above the median and the other half having earnings below the median.
Ten percent of a given distribution have earnings below the upper limit of the first
decile (90 percent have higher earnings), 25 percent have earnings below the upper limit
of the first quartile (75 percent have higher earnings), 75 percent have earnings below
the upper limit of the third quartile (25 percent have higher earnings), and 90 percent
have earnings below the upper limit of the ninth decile (10 percent have higher earnings).

   The BLS procedure for estimating the median of an earnings distribution places each 
reported or calculated weekly earnings value into a $50-wide interval that is centered
around a multiple of $50. The median is calculated through the linear interpolation of 
the interval in which the median lies.

   Changes over time in the medians (and other quantile boundaries) for specific groups
may not necessarily be consistent with the movements estimated for the overall quantile
boundary. The most common reasons for this possible anomaly are as follows: (1) there
could be a change in the relative weights of the subgroups. For example, the median of
16- to 24-year-olds and the median earnings of those 25 years and over may rise, but if
the lower earning 16-to-24 age group accounts for a greatly increased share of the
total, the overall median could actually fall. (2) there could be a large change in the
shape of the distribution of reported earnings, particularly near a quantile boundary.
This change could be caused by survey observations that are clustered at rounded values,
such as $400 or $500. An estimate lying in a $50-wide centered interval containing such
a cluster or "spike" tends to change more slowly than one in other intervals.

   Constant dollars. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is used
to convert current dollars to constant (1982-84) dollars.

   Wage and salary workers. These are workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions,
tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private
and public sectors but, for the purposes of the earnings series, it excludes all self-
employed persons, both those with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated
businesses.

   Full-time workers. For the purpose of producing estimates of earnings, workers who
usually work 35 hours or more per week at their sole or principal job are defined as
working full time.

   Part-time workers. For the purpose of producing estimates of earnings, workers who
usually work fewer than 35 hours per week at their sole or principal job are defined as
working part time.

   Race. In the survey process, race is determined by the household respondent. In
accordance with the Office of Management and Budget guidelines, white, black or African
American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific 
Islanders are terms used to describe a person's race. Estimates for the latter two race
groups and persons who selected more than one race are not included in this release due
to insufficient sample size.

   Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This refers to people who identified themselves in the
survey process as being of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. People whose ethnicity
is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

Reliability

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the true population values they represent. The component of
this difference that occurs because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error,
and its variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a
90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. 

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   Additional information about the reliability of data from the CPS is available on the
BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and other measures
of labor market activity undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These recurring
events include seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening and closing
of schools. The effect of such seasonal variations can be very large.

   Because seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their
influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular seasonal
variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments easier to spot. The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes
in quarter-to-quarter activity.

   At the end of each calendar year, the seasonally adjusted data are revised for the past
5 years when the seasonal adjustment factors are updated. More information on seasonal
adjustment is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#sa.




Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted
Year and quarter Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
Total Men Women In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$
Total
$
Men
$
Women
$

2005

2nd Quarter

103,201 58,099 45,101 647 714 584 334 369 301

3rd Quarter

104,310 58,843 45,467 651 723 588 331 368 299

4th Quarter

104,605 58,967 45,638 658 730 588 332 368 296

2006

1st Quarter

104,708 58,960 45,748 662 737 594 332 370 298

2nd Quarter

105,798 59,831 45,966 663 732 597 329 364 296

3rd Quarter

107,041 60,060 46,981 678 755 603 334 372 297

4th Quarter

106,847 60,140 46,707 681 748 607 337 370 300

2007

1st Quarter

107,176 60,105 47,070 687 752 610 336 368 298

2nd Quarter

106,827 60,351 46,476 693 765 610 335 370 295

3rd Quarter

107,156 60,216 46,940 698 774 621 336 372 298

4th Quarter

108,178 60,508 47,670 700 774 615 332 368 292

2008

1st Quarter

107,786 60,378 47,408 713 783 633 335 368 298

2nd Quarter

107,046 59,586 47,460 722 802 636 335 372 295

3rd Quarter

106,136 59,273 46,863 724 802 637 331 367 291

4th Quarter

105,617 58,511 47,106 727 806 647 340 377 302

2009

1st Quarter

101,683 56,302 45,381 732 815 645 345 384 304

2nd Quarter

99,996 55,233 44,763 737 818 652 345 383 305

3rd Quarter

99,050 54,481 44,569 742 820 664 345 381 309

4th Quarter

98,555 54,410 44,145 747 823 666 344 379 307

2010

1st Quarter

98,151 54,104 44,047 748 836 662 344 384 305

2nd Quarter

99,616 55,042 44,574 743 813 670 342 374 309

3rd Quarter

100,407 55,613 44,793 745 822 670 342 377 307

4th Quarter

99,939 55,469 44,470 750 826 676 341 376 308

2011

1st Quarter

99,691 55,339 44,352 750 821 679 338 370 306

2nd Quarter

100,376 55,855 44,521 754 828 687 336 369 306

3rd Quarter

100,477 56,042 44,435 758 837 682 335 370 301

4th Quarter

101,287 56,646 44,641 761 838 686 335 369 302

2012

1st Quarter

102,194 57,114 45,080 765 841 693 335 369 304

2nd Quarter

102,543 57,113 45,430 772 867 686 337 379 300

3rd Quarter

102,615 57,216 45,399 764 838 693 332 365 302

4th Quarter

103,644 57,709 45,935 772 868 690 334 375 298

2013

1st Quarter

103,960 57,909 46,051 770 860 700 332 371 302

2nd Quarter

103,981 57,969 46,013 776 862 705 334 371 303

3rd Quarter

104,497 58,124 46,373 778 859 706 333 368 302

4th Quarter

104,620 57,988 46,632 782 862 712 334 368 304

2014

1st Quarter

105,620 58,704 46,917 791 867 716 336 368 304

2nd Quarter

106,337 59,469 46,868 782 859 715 330 362 302

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
2nd
2013
2nd
2014
In current dollars In constant (1982-84) dollars
2nd
2013
2nd
2014
2nd
2013
2nd
2014

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

104,194 106,555 $776 $780 $333 $328

Men, 16 years and over

58,164 59,714 860 857 369 360

16 to 24 years

5,304 5,663 479 481 206 202

25 years and over

52,859 54,052 913 914 392 384

Women, 16 years and over

46,030 46,840 707 716 303 301

16 to 24 years

4,069 4,195 422 449 181 189

25 years and over

41,961 42,645 743 750 319 316

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

82,612 84,544 799 802 343 337

Men

47,223 48,509 885 884 380 372

Women

35,390 36,035 718 725 308 305

Black or African American

12,353 12,736 634 649 272 273

Men

5,876 6,056 666 667 286 280

Women

6,476 6,680 610 631 262 265

Asian

6,085 6,320 973 954 418 401

Men

3,356 3,512 1,117 1,139 479 479

Women

2,729 2,807 861 855 369 360

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,990 17,599 572 583 245 245

Men

10,478 10,840 583 609 250 256

Women

6,512 6,759 549 532 236 224

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and sex, 2nd quarter 2014 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity Total Men Women
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings

TOTAL

16 years and over

106,555 $780 59,714 $857 46,840 $716

16 to 24 years

9,858 464 5,663 481 4,195 449

16 to 19 years

1,241 365 766 372 475 356

20 to 24 years

8,616 483 4,897 499 3,720 465

25 years and over

96,697 831 54,052 914 42,645 750

25 to 54 years

75,371 818 42,560 892 32,811 744

25 to 34 years

25,436 711 14,585 732 10,851 685

35 to 44 years

24,436 875 13,980 958 10,456 769

45 to 54 years

25,499 903 13,995 1,009 11,504 783

55 years and over

21,326 881 11,492 993 9,834 768

55 to 64 years

17,586 896 9,464 1,012 8,122 770

65 years and over

3,740 807 2,028 913 1,712 758

White

16 years and over

84,544 802 48,509 884 36,035 725

16 to 24 years

7,938 478 4,648 495 3,290 455

25 years and over

76,606 855 43,862 942 32,745 758

25 to 54 years

58,842 841 34,067 919 24,775 752

55 years and over

17,765 907 9,795 1,017 7,970 772

Black or African American

16 years and over

12,736 649 6,056 667 6,680 631

16 to 24 years

1,122 404 565 403 556 406

25 years and over

11,615 680 5,491 696 6,124 663

25 to 54 years

9,429 671 4,491 683 4,938 653

55 years and over

2,186 731 999 751 1,186 698

Asian

16 years and over

6,320 954 3,512 1,139 2,807 855

16 to 24 years

376 474 209 492 168 468

25 years and over

5,943 1,000 3,304 1,176 2,639 895

25 to 54 years

4,893 1,026 2,775 1,204 2,118 908

55 years and over

1,051 919 529 1,011 522 808

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16 years and over

17,599 583 10,840 609 6,759 532

16 to 24 years

2,182 420 1,359 424 823 414

25 years and over

15,417 609 9,481 637 5,936 565

25 to 54 years

13,340 607 8,230 637 5,110 562

55 years and over

2,077 625 1,251 637 826 593

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and sex, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Occupation and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
2nd
2013
2nd
2014
2nd
2013
2nd
2014

TOTAL

Management, professional, and related occupations

41,607 43,003 $1,126 $1,135

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

17,080 17,424 1,205 1,200

Professional and related occupations

24,527 25,578 1,060 1,078

Service occupations

15,203 15,051 493 500

Sales and office occupations

23,349 23,543 658 667

Sales and related occupations

9,279 9,854 704 683

Office and administrative support occupations

14,070 13,689 637 659

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,272 10,726 759 740

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

665 749 460 454

Construction and extraction occupations

5,289 5,827 744 728

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,318 4,149 826 815

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,762 14,232 616 629

Production occupations

7,188 7,245 622 632

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,574 6,987 608 625

Men

Management, professional, and related occupations

20,298 20,887 1,345 1,343

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

9,036 9,335 1,428 1,391

Professional and related occupations

11,262 11,552 1,268 1,299

Service occupations

7,793 7,820 534 580

Sales and office occupations

9,219 9,200 750 759

Sales and related occupations

5,291 5,448 897 806

Office and administrative support occupations

3,928 3,752 658 714

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,871 10,360 766 748

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

529 605 488 499

Construction and extraction occupations

5,195 5,736 747 729

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,147 4,020 828 820

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

10,983 11,447 657 677

Production occupations

5,279 5,347 685 699

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,704 6,100 625 646

Women

Management, professional, and related occupations

21,309 22,116 962 969

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

8,045 8,090 1,031 1,038

Professional and related occupations

13,264 14,026 932 935

Service occupations

7,411 7,231 461 452

Sales and office occupations

14,130 14,342 615 623

Sales and related occupations

3,988 4,406 557 561

Office and administrative support occupations

10,142 9,937 632 646

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

401 366 565 460

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

136 145 369 345

Construction and extraction occupations

95 92 668 699

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

171 130 724 637

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

2,779 2,785 498 497

Production occupations

1,909 1,898 503 491

Transportation and material moving occupations

870 887 488 528

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 5. Quartiles and selected deciles of usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, 2nd quarter 2014 averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
workers
(in
thousands)
Upper limit of:
First decile First
quartile
Second
quartile
(median)
Third
quartile
Ninth
decile

SEX, RACE, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Total, 16 years and over

106,555 $377 $515 $780 $1,244 $1,895

Men

59,714 391 559 857 1,384 2,081

Women

46,840 357 484 716 1,094 1,606

White

84,544 382 527 802 1,267 1,907

Men

48,509 398 577 884 1,415 2,107

Women

36,035 360 489 725 1,109 1,616

Black or African American

12,736 337 448 649 964 1,464

Men

6,056 341 466 667 1,005 1,510

Women

6,680 335 434 631 936 1,431

Asian

6,320 395 589 954 1,566 2,308

Men

3,512 412 626 1,139 1,774 2,691

Women

2,807 380 518 855 1,278 1,991

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,599 323 408 583 876 1,363

Men

10,840 338 421 609 904 1,474

Women

6,759 307 388 532 827 1,193

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

96,697 395 556 831 1,307 1,921

Less than a high school diploma

7,482 305 377 492 665 897

High school graduates, no college(1)

25,369 368 482 666 964 1,357

Some college or associate degree

26,435 400 536 757 1,108 1,550

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

37,411 578 802 1,187 1,781 2,696

Bachelor's degree only

23,411 520 737 1,098 1,638 2,399

Advanced degree

14,000 679 944 1,377 1,994 3,087

Men, 25 years and over

54,052 416 598 914 1,447 2,142

Less than a high school diploma

5,175 331 403 533 734 990

High school graduates, no college(1)

15,481 392 523 737 1,076 1,494

Some college or associate degree

14,002 441 605 863 1,267 1,770

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

19,393 607 910 1,377 2,015 3,067

Bachelor's degree only

12,108 577 812 1,234 1,878 2,724

Advanced degree

7,286 764 1,105 1,577 2,305 3,609

Women, 25 years and over

42,645 376 508 750 1,139 1,657

Less than a high school diploma

2,307 283 324 407 509 639

High school graduates, no college(1)

9,888 337 419 584 801 1,095

Some college or associate degree

12,433 379 487 655 938 1,267

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

18,018 526 739 1,049 1,524 2,182

Bachelor's degree only

11,304 490 688 971 1,428 2,019

Advanced degree

6,714 637 835 1,164 1,653 2,331

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Ten percent of all full-time wage and salary workers earn less than the upper limit of the first decile; 25 percent earn less than the upper limit of the first quartile; 50 percent earn less than the upper limit of the second quartile, or median; 75 percent earn less than the upper limit of the third quartile; and 90 percent earn less than the upper limit of the ninth decile. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Median usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers by selected characteristics, quarterly averages, not seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Median weekly earnings
2nd
2013
2nd
2014
2nd
2013
2nd
2014

SEX AND AGE

Total, 16 years and over

25,015 24,946 $238 $240

Men, 16 years and over

8,763 8,267 234 236

16 to 24 years

3,653 3,526 189 193

25 years and over

5,109 4,741 280 276

Women, 16 years and over

16,252 16,679 241 242

16 to 24 years

4,687 4,766 177 178

25 years and over

11,565 11,913 276 273

RACE, HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY, AND SEX

White

20,072 19,573 239 245

Men

6,943 6,231 233 239

Women

13,130 13,341 243 247

Black or African American

2,964 3,073 236 217

Men

1,070 1,159 238 220

Women

1,895 1,914 234 216

Asian

1,205 1,327 252 235

Men

433 486 254 231

Women

772 841 250 237

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

3,922 3,992 231 234

Men

1,684 1,498 248 250

Women

2,237 2,493 220 226

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: July 24, 2014
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