Occupational Employment Statistics

1999 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Production Occupations

other SOC major groups


These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry divisions in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in every State and the District of Columbia.

Click on the SOC Code Number to view that occupation's definition, additional wage estimates, and relative standard error (RSE) estimates.

Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
51-0000 Production Occupations 12,620,920 $10.75 $12.21 $25,400 0.4 %
51-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Production and Operating Workers 760,050 $18.61 $19.83 $41,250 0.3 %
51-2011 Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers (3) 18,070 $17.83 $17.65 $36,720 2.9 %
51-2021 Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers (3) 56,350 $9.65 $10.45 $21,740 0.9 %
51-2022 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers 387,430 $9.84 $10.50 $21,840 1.0 %
51-2023 Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers 69,830 $10.69 $11.46 $23,830 1.7 %
51-2031 Engine and Other Machine Assemblers 85,570 $13.23 $13.41 $27,900 3.1 %
51-2041 Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters 94,390 $12.62 $13.21 $27,470 1.7 %
51-2091 Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators 49,750 $10.20 $11.34 $23,600 2.8 %
51-2092 Team Assemblers 1,302,820 $9.95 $10.67 $22,200 0.8 %
51-2093 Timing Device Assemblers, Adjusters, and Calibrators 10,270 $9.90 $10.67 $22,190 4.0 %
51-3011 Bakers (3) 176,080 $8.82 $9.61 $19,990 0.4 %
51-3021 Butchers and Meat Cutters 138,870 $11.20 $11.97 $24,890 1.5 %
51-3022 Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers (3) 159,890 $8.08 $8.35 $17,370 0.7 %
51-3023 Slaughterers and Meat Packers 116,970 $9.18 $9.13 $18,980 1.2 %
51-3091 Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders 19,830 $9.83 $11.58 $24,080 7.4 %
51-3092 Food Batchmakers 64,760 $9.64 $10.22 $21,260 1.7 %
51-3093 Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders 44,340 $9.85 $10.45 $21,730 2.9 %
51-4011 Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic 168,170 $13.07 $13.66 $28,420 0.9 %
51-4012 Numerical Tool and Process Control Programmers 24,180 $17.27 $17.45 $36,300 1.9 %
51-4021 Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 108,570 $11.25 $11.65 $24,220 1.0 %
51-4022 Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 60,970 $11.91 $12.99 $27,020 2.5 %
51-4023 Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 47,580 $12.95 $13.49 $28,060 2.1 %
51-4031 Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 353,300 $10.67 $11.37 $23,640 0.7 %
51-4032 Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 75,140 $11.89 $12.60 $26,220 1.4 %
51-4033 Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 127,920 $11.54 $12.14 $25,250 1.0 %
51-4034 Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 83,940 $13.65 $14.18 $29,490 1.1 %
51-4035 Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 35,830 $12.70 $13.44 $27,960 1.6 %
51-4041 Machinists 419,800 $14.30 $14.69 $30,540 0.6 %
51-4051 Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders (3) 19,350 $12.94 $13.75 $28,590 0.8 %
51-4052 Pourers and Casters, Metal (3) 15,600 $12.34 $12.94 $26,920 1.0 %
51-4061 Model Makers, Metal and Plastic 12,520 $16.15 $16.89 $35,130 7.1 %
51-4062 Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic 8,340 $13.45 $14.53 $30,230 4.6 %
51-4071 Foundry Mold and Coremakers 34,840 $11.39 $11.99 $24,950 2.3 %
51-4072 Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 179,640 $9.81 $10.81 $22,480 1.6 %
51-4081 Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic (3) 103,620 $12.00 $12.89 $26,820 1.1 %
51-4111 Tool and Die Makers (3) 132,350 $18.60 $19.12 $39,770 0.6 %
51-4121 Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers (3) 410,040 $12.58 $13.40 $27,870 0.3 %
51-4122 Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (3) 68,680 $12.29 $13.17 $27,400 1.0 %
51-4191 Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic (3) 36,300 $12.13 $13.00 $27,030 0.8 %
51-4192 Lay-Out Workers, Metal and Plastic 17,990 $13.90 $14.65 $30,470 2.3 %
51-4193 Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic (3) 58,350 $10.76 $11.45 $23,810 0.6 %
51-4194 Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners (3) 28,150 $13.19 $13.97 $29,060 0.8 %
51-5011 Bindery Workers 106,560 $9.74 $10.90 $22,660 1.1 %
51-5012 Bookbinders (3) 10,010 $10.36 $11.59 $24,110 1.7 %
51-5021 Job Printers (3) 45,850 $12.55 $13.17 $27,390 1.2 %
51-5022 Prepress Technicians and Workers 109,350 $13.90 $14.90 $30,990 2.0 %
51-5023 Printing Machine Operators (3) 208,980 $12.94 $13.86 $28,830 0.4 %
51-6011 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers 217,350 $7.25 $7.58 $15,760 0.7 %
51-6021 Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials (3) 93,320 $7.49 $7.77 $16,170 0.6 %
51-6031 Sewing Machine Operators (3) 403,770 $7.57 $8.05 $16,750 0.5 %
51-6041 Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers 15,610 $8.04 $8.67 $18,040 1.9 %
51-6042 Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders 11,450 $8.63 $8.62 $17,920 2.1 %
51-6051 Sewers, Hand 23,910 $8.06 $9.48 $19,720 8.8 %
51-6052 Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers (3) 32,310 $9.29 $10.22 $21,260 1.3 %
51-6061 Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders 44,450 $9.09 $9.14 $19,020 1.5 %
51-6062 Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 39,870 $8.98 $9.45 $19,650 1.4 %
51-6063 Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 79,440 $10.00 $10.17 $21,150 1.2 %
51-6064 Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 83,360 $9.91 $10.25 $21,320 1.6 %
51-6091 Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers 35,810 $11.97 $11.94 $24,840 2.4 %
51-6092 Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers (3) 16,920 $10.63 $13.52 $28,120 1.9 %
51-6093 Upholsterers (3) 45,380 $10.98 $11.58 $24,090 0.9 %
51-7011 Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters 136,910 $10.46 $11.20 $23,300 0.9 %
51-7021 Furniture Finishers (3) 38,040 $9.86 $10.41 $21,650 0.7 %
51-7031 Model Makers, Wood 4,910 $11.84 $13.14 $27,330 3.7 %
51-7032 Patternmakers, Wood 5,820 $14.48 $14.77 $30,710 5.3 %
51-7041 Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood (3) 54,760 $9.71 $10.22 $21,250 0.5 %
51-7042 Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing 103,650 $9.65 $10.02 $20,840 0.8 %
51-8011 Nuclear Power Reactor Operators (3) 3,240 $26.73 $27.19 $56,550 1.3 %
51-8012 Power Distributors and Dispatchers (3) 14,080 $22.60 $22.89 $47,600 0.8 %
51-8013 Power Plant Operators 34,310 $21.30 $20.73 $43,110 1.1 %
51-8021 Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators 56,350 $18.54 $18.78 $39,070 1.0 %
51-8031 Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators (3) 81,830 $14.46 $15.07 $31,350 0.7 %
51-8091 Chemical Plant and System Operators (3) 64,320 $18.88 $18.91 $39,330 0.9 %
51-8092 Gas Plant Operators (3) 16,740 $20.89 $20.71 $43,080 1.1 %
51-8093 Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers (3) 34,370 $21.55 $20.58 $42,810 1.3 %
51-9011 Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders (3) 51,080 $16.58 $16.61 $34,560 0.7 %
51-9012 Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (3) 33,470 $13.23 $13.61 $28,310 0.8 %
51-9021 Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 49,690 $11.71 $12.31 $25,600 1.4 %
51-9022 Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand (3) 49,510 $10.15 $11.18 $23,260 1.1 %
51-9023 Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 114,540 $12.26 $12.67 $26,360 1.1 %
51-9031 Cutters and Trimmers, Hand 33,590 $9.78 $10.94 $22,750 2.4 %
51-9032 Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (3) 85,060 $10.87 $11.44 $23,800 0.5 %
51-9041 Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (3) 74,100 $11.44 $12.01 $24,990 0.6 %
51-9051 Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders (3) 29,640 $12.52 $13.42 $27,910 0.9 %
51-9061 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers (3) 577,650 $11.68 $13.05 $27,140 0.4 %
51-9071 Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers (3) 28,690 $11.19 $12.67 $26,360 3.3 %
51-9081 Dental Laboratory Technicians (3) 42,940 $12.46 $14.06 $29,240 1.5 %
51-9082 Medical Appliance Technicians (3) 13,610 $10.97 $13.02 $27,080 3.4 %
51-9083 Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians (3) 34,590 $9.49 $10.42 $21,680 1.6 %
51-9111 Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders 379,760 $9.01 $9.99 $20,790 1.2 %
51-9121 Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (3) 101,610 $10.86 $11.46 $23,840 0.5 %
51-9122 Painters, Transportation Equipment (3) 45,920 $14.13 $15.36 $31,940 1.4 %
51-9123 Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers (3) 34,780 $9.56 $10.43 $21,700 1.0 %
51-9131 Photographic Process Workers (3) 26,170 $9.92 $11.11 $23,110 2.1 %
51-9132 Photographic Processing Machine Operators (3) 50,270 $8.59 $9.58 $19,920 1.3 %
51-9141 Semiconductor Processors (3) 42,110 $12.45 $13.24 $27,540 1.3 %
51-9191 Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators and Tenders (3) 32,440 $10.23 $10.69 $22,240 1.0 %
51-9192 Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders 18,850 $9.41 $10.38 $21,590 2.6 %
51-9193 Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders (3) 6,200 $9.36 $10.35 $21,520 1.6 %
51-9194 Etchers and Engravers (3) 9,420 $9.50 $10.76 $22,380 2.5 %
51-9195 Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic 34,310 $10.47 $11.04 $22,960 2.0 %
51-9196 Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders (3) 118,830 $12.82 $13.24 $27,540 1.1 %
51-9197 Tire Builders (3) 16,680 $17.93 $17.30 $35,980 2.1 %
51-9198 Helpers—Production Workers 584,060 $8.37 $8.98 $18,680 0.8 %

About 1999 National, State, and Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Estimates for residual, "All Other", occupations are not available.

(1) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) = Wage rates are calculated using three years of data: 1997, 1998, and 1999.

The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.


National OES estimates by SOC major group



1999 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1999 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1999 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1999 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Technical notes

List of Occupations in SOC Code Number Order

List of Occupations in Alphabetical Order

Last modified: October 16, 2001

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