Occupational Employment Statistics

1999 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Williamsport, PA MSA

These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry divisions in the Williamsport, PA MSA, a metropolitan statistical area in Pennsylvania.

Links to OES estimates for other areas and States

SOC Major Groups in the Williamsport, PA MSA:

Click on the SOC code number to view that occupation's definition and national estimates.

Management Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
11-0000 Management Occupations 2,120 $21.80 $23.14 $48,140 3.6 %
11-1011 Chief Executives 230 $26.29 $31.10 $64,690 9.6 %
11-1021 General and Operations Managers 800 $22.20 $23.52 $48,910 6.7 %
11-2021 Marketing Managers 30 $26.59 $32.10 $66,770 11.5 %
11-2022 Sales Managers 110 $22.20 $23.16 $48,180 8.3 %
11-3011 Administrative Services Managers 80 $22.68 $21.46 $44,630 5.0 %
11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers 40 $29.91 $28.86 $60,040 7.4 %
11-3031 Financial Managers 100 $27.25 $26.98 $56,120 6.6 %
11-3040 Human Resources Managers (3) 50 $19.18 $20.18 $41,970 2.7 %
11-3051 Industrial Production Managers (3) 110 $22.86 $23.07 $47,980 5.7 %
11-3061 Purchasing Managers (3) 40 $22.79 $23.87 $49,650 3.4 %
11-3071 Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers 30 $20.39 $23.29 $48,430 5.0 %
11-9032 Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School 90 (2) (2) $44,580 29.3 %
11-9051 Food Service Managers 50 $12.31 $13.53 $28,140 6.5 %
11-9111 Medical and Health Services Managers 30 $22.52 $19.22 $39,970 9.2 %
11-9141 Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers (5) $15.41 $15.79 $32,850 3.9 %
Business and Financial Operations Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations 750 $16.14 $17.14 $35,660 6.1 %
13-1022 Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products (3) (5) $11.96 $12.52 $26,040 7.4 %
13-1023 Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products (3) 40 $15.75 $16.60 $34,520 2.0 %
13-1051 Cost Estimators (3) 90 $16.94 $17.50 $36,390 3.5 %
13-1073 Training and Development Specialists (5) $12.03 $11.70 $24,340 5.4 %
13-2011 Accountants and Auditors (3) 80 $14.69 $15.40 $32,020 2.8 %
13-2072 Loan Officers 60 $16.74 $20.16 $41,930 10.4 %
Computer and Mathematical Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations 200 $19.25 $22.08 $45,920 9.5 %
15-1021 Computer Programmers (3) 50 $19.29 $21.79 $45,320 6.8 %
15-1041 Computer Support Specialists 80 $15.93 $17.18 $35,740 9.2 %
15-1071 Network and Computer Systems Administrators (5) $17.02 $18.25 $37,950 5.1 %
Architecture and Engineering Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations 590 $18.92 $20.03 $41,660 4.2 %
17-3013 Mechanical Drafters 80 $13.02 $14.25 $29,630 11.1 %
17-3023 Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians 100 $14.49 $14.97 $31,130 5.1 %
Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 190 $19.99 $21.11 $43,910 6.3 %
Community and Social Services Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
21-0000 Community and Social Services Occupations 420 $11.98 $12.70 $26,410 6.0 %
21-1012 Educational, Vocational, and School Counselors (3) (5) $16.79 $17.54 $36,480 8.2 %
21-1021 Child, Family, and School Social Workers 160 $12.19 $12.28 $25,530 5.8 %
Legal Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
23-0000 Legal Occupations 270 $13.12 $21.34 $44,380 23.7 %
23-1011 Lawyers (5) $37.81 $37.03 $77,010 18.3 %
23-2011 Paralegals and Legal Assistants 150 $11.38 $11.22 $23,330 6.6 %
Education, Training, and Library Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations 2,390 $14.40 $15.78 $32,830 8.0 %
25-2011 Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education (3) 90 $7.85 $8.02 $16,680 4.4 %
25-2012 Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education (3) (5) (2) (2) $39,120 4.0 %
25-2021 Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education (3) (5) (2) (2) $42,190 3.8 %
25-9041 Teacher Assistants (3) 490 (2) (2) $14,670 4.2 %
Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations 140 $9.93 $12.16 $25,290 11.3 %
Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations 2,330 $17.01 $19.49 $40,540 5.9 %
29-1051 Pharmacists (3) (5) $34.47 $31.69 $65,920 2.1 %
29-1071 Physician Assistants (3) (5) $26.02 $24.46 $50,880 6.2 %
29-1123 Physical Therapists (3) 80 $25.97 $27.23 $56,640 2.7 %
29-2034 Radiologic Technologists and Technicians 140 $14.64 $13.91 $28,930 7.1 %
29-2052 Pharmacy Technicians (3) 40 $8.14 $8.35 $17,370 7.5 %
29-2061 Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses (3) 300 $11.76 $11.78 $24,510 1.4 %
29-2071 Medical Records and Health Information Technicians (5) $10.67 $11.02 $22,910 3.6 %
Healthcare Support Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations 1,200 $7.98 $8.27 $17,200 2.9 %
31-1011 Home Health Aides (3) 120 $7.32 $8.09 $16,830 8.8 %
31-1012 Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants (3) 760 $7.68 $7.76 $16,140 1.2 %
31-2021 Physical Therapist Assistants (5) $12.15 $11.96 $24,880 4.4 %
31-9091 Dental Assistants (3) (5) $9.12 $8.66 $18,010 2.4 %
Protective Service Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
33-0000 Protective Service Occupations 750 $13.46 $15.74 $32,740 20.9 %
33-3051 Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers (3) (5) $19.92 $18.46 $38,400 7.2 %
33-9032 Security Guards (3) 40 $8.02 $8.05 $16,750 5.4 %
33-9091 Crossing Guards (3) (5) $6.56 $6.69 $13,920 5.6 %
Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations 3,610 $6.26 $6.62 $13,770 2.3 %
35-1011 Chefs and Head Cooks 30 $10.04 $12.71 $26,440 17.6 %
35-1012 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Food Preparation and Serving Workers 120 $9.55 $11.47 $23,850 18.9 %
35-2011 Cooks, Fast Food (3) (5) $6.07 $6.28 $13,060 3.5 %
35-2012 Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria (3) (5) $9.13 $8.81 $18,320 4.1 %
35-2014 Cooks, Restaurant (3) 190 $7.30 $7.47 $15,530 2.4 %
35-2015 Cooks, Short Order (3) (5) $7.92 $8.39 $17,440 6.7 %
35-2021 Food Preparation Workers 510 $6.60 $7.15 $14,880 5.3 %
35-3011 Bartenders (3) 230 $7.42 $7.70 $16,030 7.7 %
35-3021 Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food (3) 550 $5.95 $5.99 $12,470 2.0 %
35-3022 Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop (3) (5) $5.91 $5.99 $12,470 3.0 %
35-3031 Waiters and Waitresses (3) 920 $5.96 $6.13 $12,740 3.1 %
35-9011 Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers (3) (5) $6.16 $6.44 $13,390 2.9 %
35-9021 Dishwashers 150 $6.61 $6.81 $14,160 5.8 %
35-9031 Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop (3) 170 $6.25 $6.77 $14,070 2.8 %
Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations 1,190 $6.63 $7.47 $15,540 3.5 %
37-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers (3) 60 $9.51 $10.25 $21,310 3.9 %
37-2011 Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners (3) 770 $6.70 $7.40 $15,400 2.4 %
37-2012 Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners (3) 220 $6.30 $6.52 $13,560 2.2 %
37-3011 Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers 90 $8.26 $9.10 $18,940 5.8 %
Personal Care and Service Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations 850 $6.55 $7.62 $15,850 4.8 %
39-3091 Amusement and Recreation Attendants 220 $6.19 $6.51 $13,540 7.3 %
39-5012 Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists 190 $7.76 $9.10 $18,920 7.0 %
39-9011 Child Care Workers (3) (5) $6.04 $6.56 $13,650 6.9 %
39-9032 Recreation Workers (5) $7.54 $7.83 $16,290 3.5 %
Sales and Related Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations 5,480 $8.03 $10.39 $21,620 5.7 %
41-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Retail Sales Workers 410 $11.62 $12.56 $26,130 4.9 %
41-1012 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Non-Retail Sales Workers 120 $20.03 $20.58 $42,800 3.8 %
41-2011 Cashiers (3) 1,100 $6.15 $6.33 $13,160 1.7 %
41-2021 Counter and Rental Clerks (3) 180 $6.51 $7.01 $14,570 2.9 %
41-2022 Parts Salespersons (3) 120 $10.69 $11.75 $24,430 5.3 %
41-2031 Retail Salespersons (3) 2,090 $6.98 $8.15 $16,940 2.8 %
41-3011 Advertising Sales Agents (3) (5) $15.21 $16.50 $34,320 5.4 %
41-3021 Insurance Sales Agents 480 $13.21 $16.68 $34,700 7.3 %
41-4011 Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products (3) (5) $18.81 $23.41 $48,680 9.8 %
41-4012 Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products (3) 500 $16.71 $18.05 $37,550 3.9 %
41-9022 Real Estate Sales Agents (3) (5) $8.02 $8.58 $17,850 5.6 %
Office and Administrative Support Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations 7,190 $9.47 $10.42 $21,670 4.6 %
43-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Office and Administrative Support Workers (3) 310 $13.50 $15.18 $31,570 5.7 %
43-2011 Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service (3) 140 $8.44 $8.86 $18,430 2.9 %
43-3011 Bill and Account Collectors (3) 30 $9.58 $9.52 $19,800 3.0 %
43-3021 Billing and Posting Clerks and Machine Operators (3) 170 $9.18 $9.31 $19,350 2.3 %
43-3031 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks (3) 640 $9.91 $10.50 $21,830 2.0 %
43-3051 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks (3) 30 $11.27 $11.41 $23,740 2.4 %
43-3071 Tellers (3) (5) $9.08 $9.09 $18,910 3.3 %
43-4051 Customer Service Representatives 400 $9.68 $10.61 $22,060 4.8 %
43-4071 File Clerks (3) 50 $7.95 $8.67 $18,020 5.8 %
43-4081 Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks (3) (5) $6.83 $6.81 $14,160 2.0 %
43-4131 Loan Interviewers and Clerks 40 $11.39 $11.13 $23,150 2.8 %
43-4151 Order Clerks 120 $10.40 $10.50 $21,840 6.8 %
43-4161 Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping (3) 40 $11.85 $12.93 $26,900 5.0 %
43-4171 Receptionists and Information Clerks (3) 260 $7.49 $7.67 $15,960 2.3 %
43-5032 Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance (3) 30 $10.95 $10.80 $22,470 6.0 %
43-5061 Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks (3) 70 $15.47 $15.78 $32,810 2.7 %
43-5071 Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks (3) 280 $8.97 $9.69 $20,160 3.1 %
43-5081 Stock Clerks and Order Fillers (3) 380 $7.47 $8.57 $17,820 4.5 %
43-6011 Executive Secretaries and Administrative Assistants (5) $8.22 $10.02 $20,840 8.1 %
43-6012 Legal Secretaries (3) (5) $9.48 $10.43 $21,690 15.1 %
43-6014 Secretaries, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive 870 $9.65 $9.65 $20,060 2.9 %
43-9011 Computer Operators (3) 60 $10.87 $11.08 $23,050 3.9 %
43-9021 Data Entry Keyers (3) 70 $7.96 $8.20 $17,050 2.2 %
43-9051 Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service (3) 60 $7.13 $7.50 $15,600 3.5 %
43-9061 Office Clerks, General 780 $8.11 $9.27 $19,270 5.9 %
Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations 30 $6.38 $8.31 $17,290 8.6 %
Construction and Extraction Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations 1,720 $12.79 $13.61 $28,300 4.6 %
47-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers 120 $16.71 $18.19 $37,840 5.7 %
47-2031 Carpenters 320 $12.12 $12.60 $26,200 6.9 %
47-2061 Construction Laborers 190 $9.36 $9.80 $20,390 9.1 %
47-2111 Electricians 110 $12.53 $12.56 $26,120 2.3 %
47-2141 Painters, Construction and Maintenance 40 $12.44 $12.63 $26,270 4.7 %
47-2152 Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters (3) 100 $13.69 $14.48 $30,130 3.6 %
47-2181 Roofers (3) (5) $12.79 $13.09 $27,240 5.9 %
47-2211 Sheet Metal Workers (3) 40 $15.01 $14.60 $30,360 4.1 %
47-3012 Helpers—Carpenters (3) 30 $9.73 $9.64 $20,040 3.4 %
47-3015 Helpers—Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters (3) 30 $7.67 $7.76 $16,130 5.2 %
47-4051 Highway Maintenance Workers (3) (5) $12.94 $13.39 $27,850 6.3 %
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations 1,950 $12.80 $13.40 $27,860 4.0 %
49-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers 150 $15.72 $17.35 $36,090 6.2 %
49-3021 Automotive Body and Related Repairers (5) $12.59 $12.77 $26,560 5.2 %
49-3023 Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics (3) 360 $10.94 $11.05 $22,980 3.7 %
49-3031 Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists (3) 100 $13.71 $14.00 $29,110 2.9 %
49-9021 Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers (3) (5) $13.18 $13.21 $27,470 2.4 %
49-9042 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General (3) 540 $11.27 $11.99 $24,930 3.4 %
49-9098 Helpers—Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers (3) 90 $9.49 $9.72 $20,230 4.0 %
Production Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
51-0000 Production Occupations 4,240 $10.78 $11.46 $23,850 4.2 %
51-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Production and Operating Workers 310 $17.86 $18.60 $38,700 4.7 %
51-2092 Team Assemblers 330 $7.78 $9.47 $19,690 15.3 %
51-3011 Bakers (3) (5) $11.11 $14.51 $30,190 18.9 %
51-3021 Butchers and Meat Cutters (5) $10.24 $12.96 $26,960 5.4 %
51-4011 Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic (5) $12.74 $12.86 $26,750 3.6 %
51-4021 Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 140 $9.49 $9.82 $20,430 11.4 %
51-4031 Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 100 $9.52 $9.58 $19,920 12.3 %
51-4041 Machinists 160 $14.25 $13.88 $28,870 18.8 %
51-4111 Tool and Die Makers (3) 50 $15.07 $14.90 $31,000 4.1 %
51-4121 Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers (3) 120 $11.14 $12.01 $24,990 4.6 %
51-5011 Bindery Workers 30 $14.43 $12.51 $26,010 11.1 %
51-5022 Prepress Technicians and Workers 50 $12.31 $12.54 $26,080 3.5 %
51-5023 Printing Machine Operators (3) 140 $13.60 $13.21 $27,480 4.5 %
51-6011 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers 50 $7.22 $7.41 $15,410 10.3 %
51-6021 Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials (3) (5) $8.36 $8.10 $16,840 4.7 %
51-6031 Sewing Machine Operators (3) 150 $7.33 $7.28 $15,140 2.3 %
51-7011 Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters 110 $8.68 $9.04 $18,800 3.7 %
51-8021 Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators (5) $18.53 $18.26 $37,980 4.9 %
51-8031 Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators (3) (5) $14.53 $14.21 $29,550 3.0 %
51-9061 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers (3) 130 $11.78 $12.39 $25,770 2.3 %
51-9111 Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders 40 $11.42 $10.94 $22,760 8.1 %
51-9191 Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators and Tenders (3) (5) $9.81 $11.20 $23,290 10.8 %
51-9198 Helpers—Production Workers 240 $9.55 $9.37 $19,490 4.3 %
Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (1) Mean RSE
53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations 3,260 $9.80 $11.33 $23,560 5.4 %
53-1031 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators 60 $23.66 $22.50 $46,810 8.3 %
53-3022 Bus Drivers, School (3) 60 $7.61 $7.87 $16,370 7.5 %
53-3031 Driver/Sales Workers (3) 110 $13.12 $14.17 $29,470 6.2 %
53-3032 Truck Drivers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer 590 $15.68 $15.04 $31,290 6.5 %
53-3033 Truck Drivers, Light Or Delivery Services 600 $9.03 $10.94 $22,760 15.3 %
53-3041 Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs (3) (5) $6.97 $8.71 $18,120 14.1 %
53-6031 Service Station Attendants (3) 90 $6.25 $6.23 $12,960 4.4 %
53-7051 Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators (3) 270 $10.73 $12.15 $25,270 5.3 %
53-7061 Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment (3) 90 $6.93 $7.02 $14,590 2.1 %
53-7062 Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand 580 $9.01 $9.09 $18,900 4.2 %
53-7063 Machine Feeders and Offbearers (3) 60 $8.37 $9.34 $19,430 2.6 %
53-7064 Packers and Packagers, Hand (3) 600 $7.80 $8.08 $16,800 3.1 %

About 1999 National, State, and Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Estimates for residual, "All Other", occupations are not available.

(1) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(2) = Hourly wage rates for occupations where workers typically work fewer than 2,080 hours per year are not available.

(3) = Wage rates are calculated using three years of data: 1997, 1998, and 1999.

(5) = Estimates not released due to high relative standard error.

The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.



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State estimates for Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania's metropolitan area estimates:

1999 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1999 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1999 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1999 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Technical notes

List of Occupations in SOC Code Number Order

List of Occupations in Alphabetical Order

Last modified: October 16, 2001

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