Occupational Employment Statistics

May 2004 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Production Occupations

SOC major groups



These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry sectors in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in every State and the District of Columbia. These and other data elements, including the 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentile wages, are available in the downloadable Excel files(XLS).

Click on the SOC Code Number to view an occupational profile.

Wage Estimates
SOC Code Number Occupation Title Employment (1) Median Hourly Mean Hourly Mean Annual (2) Mean RSE (3)
51-0000 Production Occupations 10,128,200 $12.65 $14.08 $29,280 0.2 %
51-1011 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Production and Operating Workers 696,750 $21.51 $22.96 $47,760 0.2 %
51-2011 Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers 18,710 $17.79 $18.02 $37,470 2.8 %
51-2021 Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers 27,360 $12.24 $12.69 $26,400 1.3 %
51-2022 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers 217,360 $11.68 $12.63 $26,270 0.6 %
51-2023 Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers 51,370 $12.71 $13.29 $27,650 0.8 %
51-2031 Engine and Other Machine Assemblers 45,730 $16.73 $17.29 $35,960 2.9 %
51-2041 Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters 86,240 $14.34 $14.94 $31,070 0.6 %
51-2091 Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators 30,250 $12.18 $12.59 $26,190 1.0 %
51-2092 Team Assemblers 1,208,270 $11.42 $12.36 $25,720 0.6 %
51-2093 Timing Device Assemblers, Adjusters, and Calibrators 3,150 $13.76 $14.57 $30,310 2.4 %
51-2099 Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other 259,830 $11.90 $14.14 $29,410 2.1 %
51-3011 Bakers 150,900 $10.26 $10.97 $22,820 0.5 %
51-3021 Butchers and Meat Cutters 131,490 $12.45 $13.12 $27,300 0.6 %
51-3022 Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers 137,370 $9.09 $9.60 $19,970 0.8 %
51-3023 Slaughterers and Meat Packers 134,140 $10.03 $10.20 $21,220 1.0 %
51-3091 Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders 18,110 $11.46 $12.12 $25,210 1.6 %
51-3092 Food Batchmakers 85,010 $10.62 $11.34 $23,590 0.8 %
51-3093 Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders 41,810 $10.02 $10.72 $22,290 1.1 %
51-4011 Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic 124,330 $14.75 $15.22 $31,650 0.5 %
51-4012 Numerical Tool and Process Control Programmers 17,310 $19.31 $20.27 $42,160 0.9 %
51-4021 Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 88,980 $13.18 $13.54 $28,170 0.6 %
51-4022 Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 37,890 $13.22 $14.05 $29,210 1.1 %
51-4023 Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 37,210 $14.33 $14.81 $30,810 0.8 %
51-4031 Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 248,800 $12.45 $13.04 $27,120 0.4 %
51-4032 Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 41,940 $13.69 $14.72 $30,620 1.2 %
51-4033 Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 98,770 $13.19 $14.10 $29,330 0.8 %
51-4034 Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 70,230 $15.04 $15.47 $32,190 0.7 %
51-4035 Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 30,280 $14.91 $15.16 $31,530 0.8 %
51-4041 Machinists 361,280 $16.33 $16.73 $34,790 0.4 %
51-4051 Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders 17,150 $15.74 $16.13 $33,560 0.9 %
51-4052 Pourers and Casters, Metal 13,670 $13.92 $14.68 $30,530 1.0 %
51-4061 Model Makers, Metal and Plastic 8,030 $21.28 $21.57 $44,870 2.0 %
51-4062 Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic 5,930 $17.86 $18.19 $37,840 2.7 %
51-4071 Foundry Mold and Coremakers 17,320 $13.37 $14.29 $29,720 1.8 %
51-4072 Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 156,480 $11.63 $12.47 $25,940 0.8 %
51-4081 Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 97,060 $14.06 $14.88 $30,960 1.3 %
51-4111 Tool and Die Makers 99,390 $20.55 $21.19 $44,070 0.6 %
51-4121 Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers 344,970 $14.72 $15.41 $32,050 0.3 %
51-4122 Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 47,210 $14.32 $15.39 $32,020 1.5 %
51-4191 Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 25,690 $14.26 $14.73 $30,630 1.1 %
51-4192 Lay-Out Workers, Metal and Plastic 11,240 $15.65 $16.23 $33,750 1.5 %
51-4193 Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic 38,620 $12.96 $13.68 $28,440 0.9 %
51-4194 Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners 19,750 $14.52 $15.10 $31,410 0.9 %
51-4199 Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other 53,050 $16.15 $17.19 $35,750 1.7 %
51-5011 Bindery Workers 73,240 $11.31 $12.33 $25,650 0.7 %
51-5012 Bookbinders 7,160 $13.71 $14.58 $30,320 2.1 %
51-5021 Job Printers 56,770 $15.41 $16.23 $33,750 1.2 %
51-5022 Prepress Technicians and Workers 76,190 $15.30 $16.08 $33,450 0.8 %
51-5023 Printing Machine Operators 184,230 $14.38 $15.26 $31,740 1.0 %
51-6011 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers 218,610 $8.28 $8.74 $18,170 0.4 %
51-6021 Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials 80,520 $8.33 $8.62 $17,920 0.5 %
51-6031 Sewing Machine Operators 242,500 $8.61 $9.24 $19,230 0.5 %
51-6041 Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers 7,840 $9.29 $9.68 $20,120 1.7 %
51-6042 Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders 4,530 $9.44 $9.85 $20,500 1.7 %
51-6051 Sewers, Hand 12,430 $9.13 $10.20 $21,210 3.1 %
51-6052 Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers 27,180 $10.79 $11.76 $24,450 1.2 %
51-6061 Textile Bleaching and Dyeing Machine Operators and Tenders 21,480 $10.56 $10.96 $22,790 1.0 %
51-6062 Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 25,320 $9.80 $10.44 $21,700 1.2 %
51-6063 Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 45,320 $11.48 $11.47 $23,850 0.6 %
51-6064 Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 53,490 $10.87 $11.41 $23,740 1.2 %
51-6091 Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers 23,040 $13.37 $13.71 $28,520 1.3 %
51-6092 Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers 9,340 $13.85 $16.23 $33,760 1.8 %
51-6093 Upholsterers 38,550 $12.35 $13.05 $27,140 1.0 %
51-6099 Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers, All Other 21,920 $10.34 $10.96 $22,790 2.1 %
51-7011 Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters 121,380 $12.16 $12.90 $26,830 0.5 %
51-7021 Furniture Finishers 25,770 $11.35 $12.11 $25,190 0.8 %
51-7031 Model Makers, Wood 3,210 $12.94 $14.82 $30,820 4.9 %
51-7032 Patternmakers, Wood 2,500 $14.88 $15.74 $32,750 2.0 %
51-7041 Sawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Wood 56,500 $10.91 $11.35 $23,600 0.7 %
51-7042 Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Except Sawing 88,870 $10.93 $11.43 $23,780 0.5 %
51-7099 Woodworkers, All Other 12,190 $10.16 $10.94 $22,760 1.3 %
51-8011 Nuclear Power Reactor Operators 4,300 $30.81 $30.71 $63,880 1.2 %
51-8012 Power Distributors and Dispatchers 8,290 $27.56 $28.03 $58,300 0.7 %
51-8013 Power Plant Operators 33,350 $25.26 $25.02 $52,030 0.5 %
51-8021 Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators 46,870 $21.22 $21.66 $45,060 0.7 %
51-8031 Water and Liquid Waste Treatment Plant and System Operators 92,120 $16.81 $17.32 $36,030 0.6 %
51-8091 Chemical Plant and System Operators 59,980 $21.55 $21.61 $44,940 1.0 %
51-8092 Gas Plant Operators 10,670 $24.36 $24.36 $50,660 0.7 %
51-8093 Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers 42,300 $24.27 $23.44 $48,760 1.2 %
51-8099 Plant and System Operators, All Other 14,930 $20.10 $20.14 $41,900 1.0 %
51-9011 Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders 48,450 $18.69 $18.94 $39,390 1.5 %
51-9012 Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 38,000 $15.98 $16.49 $34,290 1.1 %
51-9021 Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 42,600 $12.96 $13.70 $28,490 0.9 %
51-9022 Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand 44,210 $11.28 $12.03 $25,030 0.6 %
51-9023 Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 119,320 $13.51 $14.06 $29,240 0.4 %
51-9031 Cutters and Trimmers, Hand 28,780 $10.59 $11.60 $24,120 1.6 %
51-9032 Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 73,250 $12.82 $13.46 $27,990 0.6 %
51-9041 Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 73,970 $13.20 $13.88 $28,880 0.7 %
51-9051 Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders 29,750 $14.29 $15.08 $31,360 0.9 %
51-9061 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers 495,430 $13.66 $15.00 $31,210 0.4 %
51-9071 Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers 26,360 $13.18 $14.76 $30,700 1.8 %
51-9081 Dental Laboratory Technicians 44,540 $14.93 $16.21 $33,720 1.4 %
51-9082 Medical Appliance Technicians 10,080 $13.38 $15.19 $31,600 2.9 %
51-9083 Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians 25,170 $11.40 $12.32 $25,620 1.4 %
51-9111 Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders 411,660 $10.67 $11.59 $24,110 0.5 %
51-9121 Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 96,510 $12.64 $13.25 $27,550 0.4 %
51-9122 Painters, Transportation Equipment 49,810 $16.89 $18.17 $37,800 1.0 %
51-9123 Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers 26,990 $10.95 $12.01 $24,970 1.9 %
51-9131 Photographic Process Workers 31,610 $9.63 $11.07 $23,010 1.5 %
51-9132 Photographic Processing Machine Operators 53,350 $9.33 $10.26 $21,340 1.2 %
51-9141 Semiconductor Processors 44,440 $13.85 $14.46 $30,070 1.3 %
51-9191 Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators and Tenders 24,630 $11.57 $12.34 $25,660 0.9 %
51-9192 Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders 16,860 $11.18 $12.15 $25,270 0.9 %
51-9193 Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders 8,790 $10.96 $12.18 $25,340 1.6 %
51-9194 Etchers and Engravers 8,490 $11.33 $12.59 $26,180 2.5 %
51-9195 Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic 37,930 $11.58 $12.51 $26,020 2.2 %
51-9196 Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders 109,560 $14.63 $15.01 $31,220 0.7 %
51-9197 Tire Builders 17,960 $17.50 $17.38 $36,150 2.7 %
51-9198 Helpers—Production Workers 480,430 $9.70 $10.35 $21,530 0.4 %
51-9199 Production Workers, All Other 299,950 $11.38 $13.47 $28,010 1.0 %

About May 2004 National, State, and Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

(1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.

(2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.


National OES estimates by SOC major group



May 2004 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2004 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2004 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2004 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

List of Occupations in SOC Code Number Order

List of Occupations in Alphabetical Order

Download May 2004 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates in Zipped Excel files

Technical notes

Last Modified Date: June 02, 2005

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