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15-740-NEW Thursday, April 23, 2015

Contacts

Technical information:
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Occupational Employment and Wages in Buffalo-Niagara Falls, May 2014

Workers in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $21.05 in May 2014, about 7 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Chief Regional Economist Martin Kohli noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were higher than their respective national averages in 2 of the 22 major occupational groups. Twelve groups had significantly lower wages than their respective national averages, including legal; computer and mathematical; and architecture and engineering.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 6 of the 22 occupational groups, including office and administrative support; education, training, and library; and food preparation and serving related. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including transportation and material moving; management; and construction and extraction. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Buffalo United States Buffalo Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0% 100.0% $22.71 $21.05* -7

Management

5.0 4.2* 54.08 50.36* -7

Business and financial operations

5.1 4.7* 34.81 31.45* -10

Computer and mathematical

2.8 2.4* 40.37 32.47* -20

Architecture and engineering

1.8 1.4* 39.19 33.75* -14

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.7* 33.69 30.42* -10

Community and social services

1.4 1.6* 21.79 21.01 -4

Legal

0.8 0.8 48.61 39.00* -20

Education, training, and library

6.2 7.4* 25.10 23.07* -8

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 1.0* 26.82 21.94* -18

Healthcare practitioner and technical

5.8 6.1 36.54 34.86* -5

Healthcare support

2.9 2.8 13.86 13.93 1

Protective service

2.4 2.8 21.14 22.11 5

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 9.7* 10.57 10.58 0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 3.4* 12.68 12.97 2

Personal care and service

3.1 3.4* 12.01 11.84 -1

Sales and related

10.5 10.3 18.59 16.94* -9

Office and administrative support

16.0 17.8* 17.08 16.82 -2

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 (2)* 12.09 16.34* 35

Construction and extraction

3.9 3.4* 22.40 22.94 2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.7* 21.74 20.98* -3

Production

6.6 6.7 17.06 18.44* 8

Transportation and material moving

6.8 5.8* 16.57 15.83* -4

Footnotes:
(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Buffalo is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
(2) Indicates a value of less than 0.05 percent
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.
 

One occupational group—office and administrative support—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Buffalo-Niagara Falls had 95,800 jobs in office and administrative support, accounting for 17.8 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 16.0-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $16.82, compared to the national wage of $17.08.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the office and administrative support group included office clerks, general (11,200); secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive (11,160); and customer service representatives (10,950). Among the higher paying jobs were executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants and brokerage clerks, with mean hourly wages of $27.64 and $25.74, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks ($9.27) and stock clerks and order fillers ($11.41). (Detailed occupational data for office and administrative support are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/2014/may/oes_15380.htm .)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in some of the occupations within the office and administrative support group. For instance, word processors and typists were employed at 4.2 times the national rate in Buffalo, and bill and account collectors, at 3.4 times the U.S. average. On the other hand, data entry keyers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Buffalo, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the New York State Department of Labor.

Note

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.


Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57.1 percent of total national employment. (Response rates are slightly lower for these estimates due to the federal shutdown in October 2013.) The sample in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area included 3,919 establishments with a response rate of 76 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.

The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm and www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm, respectively.

The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Buffalo-Niagara Falls, N.Y. Metropolitan Statistical Area  includes Erie and Niagara Counties.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/new-york-new-jersey. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/2014/may/methods_statement.pdf.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request . Voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 800-877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Office and Administrative Support Occupations

95,800 1.1 $16.82 $34,990

First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers

6,730 1.2 25.58 53,210

Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service

730 1.7 13.10 27,240

Bill and Account Collectors

4,730 3.4 15.47 32,180

Billing and Posting Clerks

2,530 1.3 16.47 34,270

Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks

6,710 1.1 17.59 36,590

Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks

730 1.1 18.44 38,360

Procurement Clerks

260 0.9 19.08 39,680

Tellers

1,540 0.8 13.03 27,110

Financial Clerks, All Other

150 1.0 18.35 38,170

Brokerage Clerks

610 2.7 25.74 53,550

Court, Municipal, and License Clerks

350 0.7 21.46 44,640

Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks

240 1.3 18.60 38,680

Customer Service Representatives

10,950 1.1 16.89 35,140

Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs

620 1.3 24.76 51,490

File Clerks

610 1.0 12.31 25,600

Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks

680 0.7 9.27 19,290

Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan

720 0.9 18.17 37,790

Library Assistants, Clerical

260 0.6 14.59 30,350

Loan Interviewers and Clerks

520 0.6 17.39 36,160

New Accounts Clerks

40 0.2 15.87 33,020

Order Clerks

560 0.7 15.66 32,570

Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping

600 1.1 17.24 35,850

Receptionists and Information Clerks

5,150 1.3 13.60 28,290

Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks

180 0.3 15.12 31,440

Information and Record Clerks, All Other

460 0.7 19.15 39,830

Cargo and Freight Agents

770 2.5 16.18 33,650

Couriers and Messengers

230 0.8 13.84 28,790

Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers

290 0.8 20.29 42,200

Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance

810 1.1 16.17 33,630

Meter Readers, Utilities

180 1.2 19.93 41,460

Postal Service Clerks

190 0.7 23.70 49,300

Postal Service Mail Carriers

1,290 1.1 24.84 51,670

Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators

400 0.8 24.43 50,820

Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks

1,230 1.0 22.30 46,390

Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks

2,740 1.0 14.63 30,430

Stock Clerks and Order Fillers

8,610 1.2 11.41 23,740

Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping

120 0.4 14.08 29,290

Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants

2,170 0.8 27.64 57,490

Legal Secretaries

1,020 1.2 20.30 42,230

Medical Secretaries

1,220 0.6 16.16 33,610

Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive

11,160 1.3 16.49 34,300

Computer Operators

230 1.0 21.66 45,050

Data Entry Keyers

850 1.0 14.95 31,100

Word Processors and Typists

1,370 4.2 17.49 36,370

Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks

1,170 1.2 18.23 37,910

Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service

320 0.8 17.14 35,660

Office Clerks, General

11,200 1.0 13.51 28,090

Office Machine Operators, Except Computer

160 0.6 14.97 31,140

Proofreaders and Copy Markers

50 1.3 13.11 27,270

Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other

990 1.1 22.85 47,530

Footnotes:
(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_15380.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a ‘year-round, full-time’ hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, April 23, 2015

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News Release Information

15-740-NEW Thursday, April 23, 2015

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (646) 264-3620

Occupational Employment and Wages in Buffalo-Niagara Falls, May 2014

Workers in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $21.05 in May 2014, about 7 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Chief Regional Economist Martin Kohli noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were higher than their respective national averages in 2 of the 22 major occupational groups. Twelve groups had significantly lower wages than their respective national averages, including legal; computer and mathematical; and architecture and engineering.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 6 of the 22 occupational groups, including office and administrative support; education, training, and library; and food preparation and serving related. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including transportation and material moving; management; and construction and extraction. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Buffalo United States Buffalo Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0% 100.0% $22.71 $21.05* -7

Management

5.0 4.2* 54.08 50.36* -7

Business and financial operations

5.1 4.7* 34.81 31.45* -10

Computer and mathematical

2.8 2.4* 40.37 32.47* -20

Architecture and engineering

1.8 1.4* 39.19 33.75* -14

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.7* 33.69 30.42* -10

Community and social services

1.4 1.6* 21.79 21.01 -4

Legal

0.8 0.8 48.61 39.00* -20

Education, training, and library

6.2 7.4* 25.10 23.07* -8

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 1.0* 26.82 21.94* -18

Healthcare practitioner and technical

5.8 6.1 36.54 34.86* -5

Healthcare support

2.9 2.8 13.86 13.93 1

Protective service

2.4 2.8 21.14 22.11 5

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 9.7* 10.57 10.58 0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 3.4* 12.68 12.97 2

Personal care and service

3.1 3.4* 12.01 11.84 -1

Sales and related

10.5 10.3 18.59 16.94* -9

Office and administrative support

16.0 17.8* 17.08 16.82 -2

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 (2)* 12.09 16.34* 35

Construction and extraction

3.9 3.4* 22.40 22.94 2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.7* 21.74 20.98* -3

Production

6.6 6.7 17.06 18.44* 8

Transportation and material moving

6.8 5.8* 16.57 15.83* -4

Footnotes:
(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Buffalo is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
(2) Indicates a value of less than 0.05 percent
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.
 

One occupational group—office and administrative support—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Buffalo-Niagara Falls had 95,800 jobs in office and administrative support, accounting for 17.8 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 16.0-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $16.82, compared to the national wage of $17.08.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the office and administrative support group included office clerks, general (11,200); secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive (11,160); and customer service representatives (10,950). Among the higher paying jobs were executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants and brokerage clerks, with mean hourly wages of $27.64 and $25.74, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks ($9.27) and stock clerks and order fillers ($11.41). (Detailed occupational data for office and administrative support are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/2014/may/oes_15380.htm .)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in some of the occupations within the office and administrative support group. For instance, word processors and typists were employed at 4.2 times the national rate in Buffalo, and bill and account collectors, at 3.4 times the U.S. average. On the other hand, data entry keyers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Buffalo, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the New York State Department of Labor.

Note

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.


Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57.1 percent of total national employment. (Response rates are slightly lower for these estimates due to the federal shutdown in October 2013.) The sample in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area included 3,919 establishments with a response rate of 76 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.

The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm and www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm, respectively.

The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Buffalo-Niagara Falls, N.Y. Metropolitan Statistical Area  includes Erie and Niagara Counties.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/new-york-new-jersey. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/2014/may/methods_statement.pdf.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request . Voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 800-877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Office and Administrative Support Occupations

95,800 1.1 $16.82 $34,990

First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers

6,730 1.2 25.58 53,210

Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service

730 1.7 13.10 27,240

Bill and Account Collectors

4,730 3.4 15.47 32,180

Billing and Posting Clerks

2,530 1.3 16.47 34,270

Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks

6,710 1.1 17.59 36,590

Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks

730 1.1 18.44 38,360

Procurement Clerks

260 0.9 19.08 39,680

Tellers

1,540 0.8 13.03 27,110

Financial Clerks, All Other

150 1.0 18.35 38,170

Brokerage Clerks

610 2.7 25.74 53,550

Court, Municipal, and License Clerks

350 0.7 21.46 44,640

Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks

240 1.3 18.60 38,680

Customer Service Representatives

10,950 1.1 16.89 35,140

Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs

620 1.3 24.76 51,490

File Clerks

610 1.0 12.31 25,600

Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks

680 0.7 9.27 19,290

Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan

720 0.9 18.17 37,790

Library Assistants, Clerical

260 0.6 14.59 30,350

Loan Interviewers and Clerks

520 0.6 17.39 36,160

New Accounts Clerks

40 0.2 15.87 33,020

Order Clerks

560 0.7 15.66 32,570

Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping

600 1.1 17.24 35,850

Receptionists and Information Clerks

5,150 1.3 13.60 28,290

Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks

180 0.3 15.12 31,440

Information and Record Clerks, All Other

460 0.7 19.15 39,830

Cargo and Freight Agents

770 2.5 16.18 33,650

Couriers and Messengers

230 0.8 13.84 28,790

Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers

290 0.8 20.29 42,200

Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance

810 1.1 16.17 33,630

Meter Readers, Utilities

180 1.2 19.93 41,460

Postal Service Clerks

190 0.7 23.70 49,300

Postal Service Mail Carriers

1,290 1.1 24.84 51,670

Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators

400 0.8 24.43 50,820

Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks

1,230 1.0 22.30 46,390

Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks

2,740 1.0 14.63 30,430

Stock Clerks and Order Fillers

8,610 1.2 11.41 23,740

Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping

120 0.4 14.08 29,290

Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants

2,170 0.8 27.64 57,490

Legal Secretaries

1,020 1.2 20.30 42,230

Medical Secretaries

1,220 0.6 16.16 33,610

Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive

11,160 1.3 16.49 34,300

Computer Operators

230 1.0 21.66 45,050

Data Entry Keyers

850 1.0 14.95 31,100

Word Processors and Typists

1,370 4.2 17.49 36,370

Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks

1,170 1.2 18.23 37,910

Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service

320 0.8 17.14 35,660

Office Clerks, General

11,200 1.0 13.51 28,090

Office Machine Operators, Except Computer

160 0.6 14.97 31,140

Proofreaders and Copy Markers

50 1.3 13.11 27,270

Office and Administrative Support Workers, All Other

990 1.1 22.85 47,530

Footnotes:
(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_15380.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a ‘year-round, full-time’ hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, April 23, 2015