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13-1031-PHI

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

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Occupational Employment and Wages in Lancaster – May 2012

Workers in the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $19.08 in May 2012, 13 percent below the nationwide average of $22.01, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly lower than their respective national averages in 12 of the 22 major occupational groups, including arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media; computer and mathematical; and business and financial operations. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2012
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Lancaster United States Lancaster Percent difference(1)

Total, all occupations

100.0
100.0
$22.01
$19.08*
-13

Management

4.9
3.3*
52.20
48.17*
-8

Business and financial operations

4.9
3.1*
33.44
28.46*
-15

Computer and mathematical

2.7
1.1*
38.55
31.18*
-19

Architecture and engineering

1.8
1.5
37.98
33.99*
-11

Life, physical, and social science

0.8
0.4*
32.87
29.18*
-11

Community and social service

1.4
1.5
21.27
18.36*
-14

Legal

0.8
0.4*
47.39
42.43
-10

Education, training, and library

6.4
5.2*
24.62
23.11
-6

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3
1.5
26.20
17.86*
-32

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.9
5.5
35.35
33.86
-4

Healthcare support

3.0
3.7*
13.36
13.66
2

Protective service

2.5
0.9*
20.70
19.92
-4

Food preparation and serving related

8.9
8.8
10.28
10.45
2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.3
2.9*
12.34
12.09
-2

Personal care and service

2.9
2.6*
11.80
11.64
-1

Sales and related

10.6
12.1*
18.26
16.79*
-8

Office and administrative support

16.4
15.8
16.54
15.72*
-5

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3
0.3
11.65
13.65*
17

Construction and extraction

3.8
5.2*
21.61
20.09*
-7

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9
4.1
21.09
19.97*
-5

Production

6.6
11*
16.59
16.56
0

Transportation and material moving

6.7
9.1*
16.15
15.06*
-7
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

Footnotes:
(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Lancaster is above the national mean wage, while a negative percent difference reflects a lower wage.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Lancaster employment was more highly concentrated in 5 of the 22 occupational groups including production, transportation and material moving, and sales and related. Conversely, 9 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation; these groups included business and financial operations, management, and protective service.

One occupational group—production—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Lancaster had 24,200 jobs in production, accounting for 11.0 percent of local area employment, significantly larger than the 6.6-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $16.56, very close to the national wage of $16.59.

With employment of 2,450, team assemblers was the largest occupation within the production group, followed by production helpers, with 1,960 jobs. Among the higher-paying jobs were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers and printing press operators, with mean hourly wages of $26.40 and $19.09, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were bakers ($11.14) and production helpers ($12.61). (Detailed occupational data for business and financial operations are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_29540.htm.)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area as it does nationally. In the Lancaster area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, print binding and finishing workers were employed at over six times the national rate in Lancaster, and food batchmakers, at five times the U.S. average. On the other hand, machinists had a location quotient of 1.2 in Lancaster, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.

With the release of the May 2012 estimates, OES data are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system for the first time. The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and more than 800 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data for the first time. Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc/.

The May 2012 OES estimates are the first to be produced using the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2012 NAICS is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

OES wage and employment data for the 22 major occupational groups in the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared to their respective national averages based on statistical significance testing. Only those occupations with wages or employment shares above or below the national wage or share after testing for significance at the 90-percent confidence level meet the criteria.

NOTE: A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year for a 3-year period. May 2012 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected in May 2012, November 2011, May 2011, November 2010, May 2010, and November 2009. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 76.6 percent based on establishments and 72.9 percent based on employment. The sample in the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,400 establishments with a response rate of 77 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Lancaster, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes Lancaster County in Pennsylvania.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/ro3/. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/2012/may/methods_statement.pdf. Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2012
Occupation(1) Employment Mean wage
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual(4)

Production occupations

24,200 1.7 $16.56 $34,440

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

1,630 1.7 26.40 54,900

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

370 1.1 13.59 28,260

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

370 2.8 17.68 36,780

Team assemblers

2,450 1.4 14.46 30,080

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

270 0.6 12.83 26,690

Bakers

550 2.1 11.14 23,170

Butchers and meat cutters

400 1.7 13.87 28,850

Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers

(5) (5) 9.71 20,190

Slaughterers and meat packers

(5) (5) 12.00 24,950

Food batchmakers

860 5.0 18.71 38,920

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

160 2.9 11.80 24,550

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

150 0.7 20.46 42,550

Computer numerically controlled machine tool programmers, metal and plastic

40 1.0 27.24 56,660

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

470 3.7 16.97 35,290

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

170 2.8 20.79 43,240

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

690 2.2 15.00 31,190

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

130 3.7 14.01 29,140

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

90 0.8 17.85 37,140

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

120 1.9 17.56 36,520

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

80 2.0 23.33 48,520

Machinists

780 1.2 18.24 37,930

Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders

90 2.6 21.03 43,740

Pourers and casters, metal

(5) (5) 16.09 33,470

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

(5) (5) 19.49 40,530

Foundry mold and coremakers

30 1.5 17.42 36,240

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

190 0.9 15.60 32,440

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

130 0.9 20.16 41,940

Tool and die makers

270 2.1 21.88 45,510

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

970 1.7 17.11 35,580

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

(5) (5) 17.66 36,730

Layout workers, metal and plastic

30 1.6 19.38 40,320

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

130 2.3 17.20 35,770

Prepress technicians and workers

250 3.6 18.89 39,280

Printing press operators

1,090 3.7 19.09 39,710

Print binding and finishing workers

570 6.3 15.71 32,680

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

360 1.1 11.05 22,990

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

50 0.6 13.45 27,980

Sewing machine operators

260 1.1 12.67 26,350

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

(5) (5) 18.18 37,820

Upholsterers

(5) (5) 14.56 30,290

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

490 3.7 17.93 37,280

Furniture finishers

100 4.4 15.68 32,620

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

110 1.7 15.66 32,560

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

250 2.4 16.17 33,620

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

250 1.3 21.32 44,350

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

80 1.1 17.00 35,360

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

80 1.6 16.61 34,540

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

60 1.1 13.52 28,130

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

250 1.3 16.44 34,200

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

280 3.0 15.62 32,490

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

180 1.6 17.78 36,980

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

930 1.2 17.68 36,770

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

70 1.9 26.75 55,630

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

60 1.1 13.77 28,650

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

1,490 2.4 14.27 29,690

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

250 1.8 17.25 35,880

Painters, transportation equipment

80 1.1 22.50 46,790

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

210 2.6 12.96 26,960

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

30 1.1 15.22 31,660

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

(5) (5) 14.19 29,510

Etchers and engravers

(5) (5) 13.89 28,890

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

170 3.2 17.58 36,560

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

220 1.3 15.96 33,200

Helpers--production workers

1,960 2.8 12.61 26,230

Production workers, all other

190 0.5 13.42 27,900

Footnotes:
(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Lancaster MSA, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_29540.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a ‘year-round, full-time’ hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimates not available.

Last Modified Date: May 28, 2013