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15-238-CHI Thursday, February 12, 2015

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Technical information:
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Union Membership in Ohio – 2014

In 2014, union members accounted for 12.4 percent of wage and salary workers in Ohio, compared with 12.6 percent recorded in 2013, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Charlene Peiffer noted that the union membership rate for the state was at its peak in 1989, when it averaged 21.3 percent, and at its low point in 2014 at 12.4 percent. (See chart 1 and table A.) Nationwide, union members accounted for 11.1 percent of employed wage and salary workers in 2014, down 0.2 percentage point from 2013. Since 1989, when comparable state data became available, Ohio union membership rates have exceeded the U.S. average.

 Chart 1. Members of unions as a percent of employed in the United States and Illinois, 2004-2014

Ohio had 615,000 union members in 2014. In addition to these members, another 73,000 wage and salary workers in Ohio were represented by a union on their main job or covered by an employee association or contract while not union members themselves. (See table A.) Nationwide, 14.6 million wage and salary workers were union members in 2014 and 1.6 million wage and salary workers were not affiliated with a union but had jobs covered by a union contract.

Table A. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers in Ohio, annual averages, 2004-2014 (numbers in thousands)
Year Total employed Members of unions (1) Represented by unions (2)
Total Percent of employed Total Percent of employed

2004

4,998 759 15.2 820 16.4

2005

5,039 804 16.0 866 17.2

2006

5,170 734 14.2 801 15.5

2007

5,187 730 14.1 797 15.4

2008

5,046 716 14.2 783 15.5

2009

4,827 685 14.2 742 15.4

2010

4,787 655 13.7 702 14.7

2011

4,813 647 13.4 706 14.7

2012

4,800 604 12.6 665 13.9

2013

4,786 605 12.6 674 14.1

2014

4,958 615 12.4 688 13.9

Footnotes:
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union, as well as workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
 

Note: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
 

In 2014, 19 states had union membership rates above the U.S. average, of which 9 had rates above 15.0 percent. (See table 1.) Of the nine states with the highest rates, five bordered the Pacific Ocean, three were located in the Northeast, and the remaining state was in the Midwest. (See chart 2.) New York had the highest rate at 24.6 percent, followed by Alaska (22.8 percent) and Hawaii (21.8 percent). New York has had the highest union membership rate in the nation for 18 of the past 20 years. One state, Vermont, had a union membership rate that matched the U.S. average.

Thirty states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below the national average of 11.1 percent in 2014. Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent. Among these nine states, seven were located in the South, one was in the Midwest, and one was in the West. North Carolina had the lowest rate at 1.9 percent. The next lowest rates were in South Carolina (2.2 percent) and Mississippi and Utah (3.7 percent each). Union membership rates declined over the year in 27 states and the District of Columbia, rose in 18 states, and were unchanged in 5 states.

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and the union membership rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.5 million) and New York (2.0 million). Over half of the 14.6 million union members in the U.S. lived in just seven states (California, 2.5 million; New York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.8 million; Pennsylvania, 0.7 million; and Michigan, New Jersey, and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.


Technical Note

The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households. The union membership data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at  www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state discussion in this release preserves the longtime practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance.

The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who are union members.

Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5200, Federal Relay Service: 800-877-8339.

Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2013-2014 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
State 2013 2014
Total
employed
Members of unions (1) Represented by
unions (2)
Total
employed
Members of unions (1) Represented by
unions (2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,894 203 10.7 222 11.7 1,887 204 10.8 228 12.1

Alaska

306 71 23.1 75 24.5 307 70 22.8 75 24.4

Arizona

2,452 122 5.0 147 6.0 2,593 138 5.3 173 6.7

Arkansas

1,072 38 3.5 44 4.1 1,108 52 4.7 60 5.4

California

14,835 2,430 16.4 2,579 17.4 15,135 2,472 16.3 2,652 17.5

Colorado

2,243 171 7.6 207 9.2 2,328 221 9.5 250 10.7

Connecticut

1,535 207 13.5 220 14.3 1,564 231 14.8 245 15.7

Delaware

370 38 10.3 41 11.0 384 38 9.9 43 11.3

District of Columbia

308 29 9.3 34 11.0 325 28 8.6 35 10.7

Florida

7,655 414 5.4 529 6.9 8,042 455 5.7 561 7.0

Georgia

3,958 209 5.3 248 6.3 3,926 170 4.3 193 4.9

Hawaii

549 121 22.1 129 23.6 572 124 21.8 131 22.9

Idaho

617 29 4.7 36 5.8 641 34 5.3 43 6.7

Illinois

5,397 851 15.8 882 16.3 5,500 831 15.1 880 16.0

Indiana

2,682 249 9.3 275 10.3 2,802 299 10.7 335 12.0

Iowa

1,421 143 10.1 171 12.0 1,459 156 10.7 184 12.6

Kansas

1,252 94 7.5 106 8.4 1,287 95 7.4 116 9.0

Kentucky

1,735 194 11.2 226 13.0 1,714 189 11.0 219 12.8

Louisiana

1,728 75 4.3 95 5.5 1,834 96 5.2 118 6.4

Maine

574 64 11.1 75 13.1 566 62 11.0 71 12.5

Maryland

2,665 308 11.6 349 13.1 2,612 310 11.9 347 13.3

Massachusetts

2,940 401 13.7 430 14.6 3,036 415 13.7 445 14.7

Michigan

3,889 633 16.3 656 16.9 4,028 585 14.5 631 15.7

Minnesota

2,532 362 14.3 381 15.0 2,538 360 14.2 380 15.0

Mississippi

1,040 38 3.7 44 4.2 1,028 38 3.7 46 4.5

Missouri

2,537 219 8.6 264 10.4 2,559 214 8.4 249 9.7

Montana

403 52 13.0 60 14.8 414 52 12.7 57 13.8

Nebraska

870 63 7.3 79 9.0 877 64 7.3 79 9.0

Nevada

1,154 169 14.6 186 16.1 1,173 169 14.4 192 16.4

New Hampshire

623 60 9.6 67 10.7 626 62 9.9 72 11.5

New Jersey

3,814 611 16.0 632 16.6 3,860 635 16.5 664 17.2

New Mexico

751 46 6.2 55 7.3 763 43 5.7 56 7.4

New York

8,149 1,986 24.4 2,104 25.8 8,060 1,980 24.6 2,081 25.8

North Carolina

3,879 117 3.0 184 4.8 3,936 76 1.9 126 3.2

North Dakota

342 22 6.4 29 8.5 353 18 5.0 24 6.9

Ohio

4,786 605 12.6 674 14.1 4,958 615 12.4 688 13.9

Oklahoma

1,516 114 7.5 144 9.5 1,465 89 6.0 106 7.2

Oregon

1,504 208 13.9 223 14.8 1,554 243 15.6 264 17.0

Pennsylvania

5,501 701 12.7 754 13.7 5,525 703 12.7 754 13.7

Rhode Island

459 77 16.9 82 17.8 453 68 15.1 72 15.8

South Carolina

1,855 69 3.7 86 4.7 1,884 41 2.2 61 3.2

South Dakota

362 17 4.8 21 5.8 363 18 4.9 22 6.0

Tennessee

2,543 155 6.1 188 7.4 2,514 127 5.0 141 5.6

Texas

10,877 518 4.8 647 6.0 11,205 543 4.8 700 6.2

Utah

1,253 49 3.9 67 5.4 1,236 46 3.7 57 4.6

Vermont

285 31 10.9 38 13.2 286 32 11.1 37 13.1

Virginia

3,601 180 5.0 229 6.4 3,665 179 4.9 228 6.2

Washington

2,882 546 18.9 568 19.7 2,914 491 16.8 536 18.4

West Virginia

686 87 12.7 93 13.5 687 73 10.6 80 11.6

Wisconsin

2,569 317 12.3 337 13.1 2,626 306 11.7 327 12.5

Wyoming

259 15 5.7 17 6.4 255 17 6.7 19 7.5

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
 

Note: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorportated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
 

 Chart 2.  Union membership rates by state, 2014 annual averages

Last Modified Date: Thursday, February 12, 2015

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News Release Information

15-238-CHI Thursday, February 12, 2015

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Union Membership in Ohio – 2014

In 2014, union members accounted for 12.4 percent of wage and salary workers in Ohio, compared with 12.6 percent recorded in 2013, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Charlene Peiffer noted that the union membership rate for the state was at its peak in 1989, when it averaged 21.3 percent, and at its low point in 2014 at 12.4 percent. (See chart 1 and table A.) Nationwide, union members accounted for 11.1 percent of employed wage and salary workers in 2014, down 0.2 percentage point from 2013. Since 1989, when comparable state data became available, Ohio union membership rates have exceeded the U.S. average.

 Chart 1. Members of unions as a percent of employed in the United States and Illinois, 2004-2014

Ohio had 615,000 union members in 2014. In addition to these members, another 73,000 wage and salary workers in Ohio were represented by a union on their main job or covered by an employee association or contract while not union members themselves. (See table A.) Nationwide, 14.6 million wage and salary workers were union members in 2014 and 1.6 million wage and salary workers were not affiliated with a union but had jobs covered by a union contract.

Table A. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers in Ohio, annual averages, 2004-2014 (numbers in thousands)
Year Total employed Members of unions (1) Represented by unions (2)
Total Percent of employed Total Percent of employed

2004

4,998 759 15.2 820 16.4

2005

5,039 804 16.0 866 17.2

2006

5,170 734 14.2 801 15.5

2007

5,187 730 14.1 797 15.4

2008

5,046 716 14.2 783 15.5

2009

4,827 685 14.2 742 15.4

2010

4,787 655 13.7 702 14.7

2011

4,813 647 13.4 706 14.7

2012

4,800 604 12.6 665 13.9

2013

4,786 605 12.6 674 14.1

2014

4,958 615 12.4 688 13.9

Footnotes:
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union, as well as workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
 

Note: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
 

In 2014, 19 states had union membership rates above the U.S. average, of which 9 had rates above 15.0 percent. (See table 1.) Of the nine states with the highest rates, five bordered the Pacific Ocean, three were located in the Northeast, and the remaining state was in the Midwest. (See chart 2.) New York had the highest rate at 24.6 percent, followed by Alaska (22.8 percent) and Hawaii (21.8 percent). New York has had the highest union membership rate in the nation for 18 of the past 20 years. One state, Vermont, had a union membership rate that matched the U.S. average.

Thirty states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below the national average of 11.1 percent in 2014. Nine states had union membership rates below 5.0 percent. Among these nine states, seven were located in the South, one was in the Midwest, and one was in the West. North Carolina had the lowest rate at 1.9 percent. The next lowest rates were in South Carolina (2.2 percent) and Mississippi and Utah (3.7 percent each). Union membership rates declined over the year in 27 states and the District of Columbia, rose in 18 states, and were unchanged in 5 states.

State union membership levels depend on both the employment level and the union membership rate. The largest numbers of union members lived in California (2.5 million) and New York (2.0 million). Over half of the 14.6 million union members in the U.S. lived in just seven states (California, 2.5 million; New York, 2.0 million; Illinois, 0.8 million; Pennsylvania, 0.7 million; and Michigan, New Jersey, and Ohio, 0.6 million each), though these states accounted for only about one-third of wage and salary employment nationally.


Technical Note

The estimates in this release are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which provides the basic information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment. The survey is conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census Bureau from a scientifically selected national sample of about 60,000 eligible households. The union membership data are tabulated from one-quarter of the CPS monthly sample and are limited to wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded.

Beginning in January of each year, data reflect revised population controls used in the CPS. Additional information about population controls is available on the BLS website at  www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence. The state discussion in this release preserves the longtime practice of highlighting the direction of the movements in state union membership rates and levels regardless of their statistical significance.

The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

Information about the reliability of data from the CPS and guidance on estimating standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

Definitions

The principal definitions used in this release are described briefly below.

Union members. Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.

Union membership rate. Data refer to the proportion of total wage and salary workers who are union members.

Represented by unions. Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Wage and salary workers. Workers who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors. Union membership and earnings data exclude all self-employed workers, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorporated businesses.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5200, Federal Relay Service: 800-877-8339.

Table 1. Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2013-2014 annual averages (numbers in thousands)
State 2013 2014
Total
employed
Members of unions (1) Represented by
unions (2)
Total
employed
Members of unions (1) Represented by
unions (2)
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed
Total Percent
of
employed

Alabama

1,894 203 10.7 222 11.7 1,887 204 10.8 228 12.1

Alaska

306 71 23.1 75 24.5 307 70 22.8 75 24.4

Arizona

2,452 122 5.0 147 6.0 2,593 138 5.3 173 6.7

Arkansas

1,072 38 3.5 44 4.1 1,108 52 4.7 60 5.4

California

14,835 2,430 16.4 2,579 17.4 15,135 2,472 16.3 2,652 17.5

Colorado

2,243 171 7.6 207 9.2 2,328 221 9.5 250 10.7

Connecticut

1,535 207 13.5 220 14.3 1,564 231 14.8 245 15.7

Delaware

370 38 10.3 41 11.0 384 38 9.9 43 11.3

District of Columbia

308 29 9.3 34 11.0 325 28 8.6 35 10.7

Florida

7,655 414 5.4 529 6.9 8,042 455 5.7 561 7.0

Georgia

3,958 209 5.3 248 6.3 3,926 170 4.3 193 4.9

Hawaii

549 121 22.1 129 23.6 572 124 21.8 131 22.9

Idaho

617 29 4.7 36 5.8 641 34 5.3 43 6.7

Illinois

5,397 851 15.8 882 16.3 5,500 831 15.1 880 16.0

Indiana

2,682 249 9.3 275 10.3 2,802 299 10.7 335 12.0

Iowa

1,421 143 10.1 171 12.0 1,459 156 10.7 184 12.6

Kansas

1,252 94 7.5 106 8.4 1,287 95 7.4 116 9.0

Kentucky

1,735 194 11.2 226 13.0 1,714 189 11.0 219 12.8

Louisiana

1,728 75 4.3 95 5.5 1,834 96 5.2 118 6.4

Maine

574 64 11.1 75 13.1 566 62 11.0 71 12.5

Maryland

2,665 308 11.6 349 13.1 2,612 310 11.9 347 13.3

Massachusetts

2,940 401 13.7 430 14.6 3,036 415 13.7 445 14.7

Michigan

3,889 633 16.3 656 16.9 4,028 585 14.5 631 15.7

Minnesota

2,532 362 14.3 381 15.0 2,538 360 14.2 380 15.0

Mississippi

1,040 38 3.7 44 4.2 1,028 38 3.7 46 4.5

Missouri

2,537 219 8.6 264 10.4 2,559 214 8.4 249 9.7

Montana

403 52 13.0 60 14.8 414 52 12.7 57 13.8

Nebraska

870 63 7.3 79 9.0 877 64 7.3 79 9.0

Nevada

1,154 169 14.6 186 16.1 1,173 169 14.4 192 16.4

New Hampshire

623 60 9.6 67 10.7 626 62 9.9 72 11.5

New Jersey

3,814 611 16.0 632 16.6 3,860 635 16.5 664 17.2

New Mexico

751 46 6.2 55 7.3 763 43 5.7 56 7.4

New York

8,149 1,986 24.4 2,104 25.8 8,060 1,980 24.6 2,081 25.8

North Carolina

3,879 117 3.0 184 4.8 3,936 76 1.9 126 3.2

North Dakota

342 22 6.4 29 8.5 353 18 5.0 24 6.9

Ohio

4,786 605 12.6 674 14.1 4,958 615 12.4 688 13.9

Oklahoma

1,516 114 7.5 144 9.5 1,465 89 6.0 106 7.2

Oregon

1,504 208 13.9 223 14.8 1,554 243 15.6 264 17.0

Pennsylvania

5,501 701 12.7 754 13.7 5,525 703 12.7 754 13.7

Rhode Island

459 77 16.9 82 17.8 453 68 15.1 72 15.8

South Carolina

1,855 69 3.7 86 4.7 1,884 41 2.2 61 3.2

South Dakota

362 17 4.8 21 5.8 363 18 4.9 22 6.0

Tennessee

2,543 155 6.1 188 7.4 2,514 127 5.0 141 5.6

Texas

10,877 518 4.8 647 6.0 11,205 543 4.8 700 6.2

Utah

1,253 49 3.9 67 5.4 1,236 46 3.7 57 4.6

Vermont

285 31 10.9 38 13.2 286 32 11.1 37 13.1

Virginia

3,601 180 5.0 229 6.4 3,665 179 4.9 228 6.2

Washington

2,882 546 18.9 568 19.7 2,914 491 16.8 536 18.4

West Virginia

686 87 12.7 93 13.5 687 73 10.6 80 11.6

Wisconsin

2,569 317 12.3 337 13.1 2,626 306 11.7 327 12.5

Wyoming

259 15 5.7 17 6.4 255 17 6.7 19 7.5

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(2) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.
 

Note: Data refer to the sole or principal job of full- and part-time wage and salary workers. All self-employed workers are excluded, both those with incorporated businesses as well as those with unincorportated businesses. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
 

 Chart 2.  Union membership rates by state, 2014 annual averages

Last Modified Date: Thursday, February 12, 2015