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15-1368-DAL Monday, July 13, 2015

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Occupational Employment and Wages in Fort Smith, May 2014

Workers in the Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $16.92 in May 2014, about 25 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 21 of the 22 major occupational groups; local wages for the farming, fishing, and forestry occupational group were not measurably different from the national average.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 3 of the 22 occupational groups, including production; transportation and material moving; and installation, maintenance, and repair. Conversely, 12 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including business and financial operations; computer and mathematical; and office and administrative support. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Fort Smith United States Fort Smith Percent
difference(1)

Total, all occupations

100.0% 100.0%   $22.71 $16.92 * -25

Management

5.0 3.6 * 54.08 45.45 * -16

Business and financial operations

5.1 2.8 * 34.81 27.17 * -22

Computer and mathematical

2.8 0.9 * 40.37 28.40 * -30

Architecture and engineering

1.8 0.8 * 39.19 30.63 * -22

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.3 * 33.69 23.81 * -29

Community and social service

1.4 1.2 * 21.79 18.52 * -15

Legal

0.8 0.4 * 48.61 38.10 * -22

Education, training, and library

6.2 5.4 * 25.10 19.45 * -23

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 0.6 * 26.82 19.38 * -28

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.8 5.7   36.54 30.25 * -17

Healthcare support

2.9 3.3   13.86 11.08 * -20

Protective service

2.4 2.3   21.14 15.62 * -26

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 9.1   10.57 8.84 * -16

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 2.6 * 12.68 10.76 * -15

Personal care and service

3.1 3.0   12.01 9.58 * -20

Sales and related

10.5 10.0 * 18.59 13.98 * -25

Office and administrative support

16.0 15.0 * 17.08 14.19 * -17

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.8   12.09 11.62   -4

Construction and extraction

3.9 4.2   22.40 17.83 * -20

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 4.5 * 21.74 18.08 * -17

Production

6.6 13.1 * 17.06 14.23 * -17

Transportation and material moving

6.8 9.6 * 16.57 14.85 * -10

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Fort Smith is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.

Note: * The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group–production–was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Fort Smith had 14,890 jobs in production, accounting for 13.1 percent of local area employment, more than double the 6.6-percent national share. However, the local average hourly wage for this occupational group was $14.23, significantly below the national average of $17.06.

With employment of 1,470, team assemblers was one of the largest occupations within the production group, as were meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers (1,430) and production worker helpers (1,370). Among the higher paying jobs were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers, as well as metal and plastic computer-controlled machine tool operators, with mean hourly wages of $22.23 and $20.34, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were slaughterers and meat packers ($8.81) and laundry and dry-cleaning workers ($9.23). (Detailed occupational data for the production occupational group are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_22900.htm.)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Fort Smith metropolitan area, above average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers were employed at 11.4 times the national rate in Fort Smith, and slaughterers and meat packers, at 10.6 times the U.S. average. Both location quotients were among the highest in all metropolitan areas for these particular occupations.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Arkansas Department of Workforce Services.

Note

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.


Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57.1 percent of total national employment. (Response rates are slightly lower for these estimates due to the federal shutdown in October 2013.) The sample in the Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area included 1,855 establishments with a response rate of 85 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.

The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm and www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm, respectively.

The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

Area definitions
The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes Crawford, Franklin, and Sebastian Counties in Arkansas, and Le Flore and Sequoyah Counties in Oklahoma.

Additional information
OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/southwest. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/current/methods_statement.pdf.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation(1) Employment Mean wages
Level(2) Location
quotient(3)
Hourly Annual(4)

 

Production occupations
14,890 2.0 $14.23 $29,590

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

950 1.9 22.23 46,250

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

350 2.0 19.04 39,600

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

50 0.8 14.40 29,950

Team assemblers

1,470 1.6 14.34 29,830

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

140 0.7 13.63 28,360

Bakers

110 0.8 10.20 21,210

Butchers and meat cutters

120 1.0 11.82 24,590

Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers

1,430 11.4 10.53 21,910

Slaughterers and meat packers

770 10.6 8.81 18,330

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

(5) (5) 8.15 16,950

Food batchmakers

(5) (5) 12.40 25,780

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

90 2.9 11.11 23,100

Food processing workers, all other

410 11.1 9.90 20,590

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

300 2.4 20.34 42,320

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

390 2.4 16.32 33,940

Grinding, lapping, polishing, & buffing machine tool setters, operators, & tenders, metal & plastic

40 0.7 (5) (5)

Machinists

220 0.7 18.80 39,100

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

90 0.8 16.18 33,650

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

160 2.0 12.72 26,460

Tool and die makers

110 1.7 20.17 41,950

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

470 1.5 18.29 38,040

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

(5) (5) 16.33 33,960

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40 2.5 20.28 42,180

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

(5) (5) 14.62 30,400

Print binding and finishing workers

110 2.6 13.83 28,760

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

160 0.9 9.23 19,190

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

(5) (5) 8.43 17,520

Sewing machine operators

80 0.7 11.60 24,130

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

110 1.5 13.11 27,270

Furniture finishers

(5) (5) 9.94 20,670

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

130 2.2 11.83 24,610

Power plant operators

(5) (5) 30.86 64,180

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

200 2.2 16.35 34,000

Gas plant operators

40 3.0 27.83 57,880

Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers

40 1.3 29.60 61,570

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

40 1.1 18.03 37,510

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

(5) (5) 13.72 28,550

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

220 2.2 15.22 31,660

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

290 5.5 14.15 29,430

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

40 2.4 14.23 29,600

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

760 1.9 14.96 31,120

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

50 2.1 15.51 32,260

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

900 2.8 12.04 25,040

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

110 1.4 15.74 32,730

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

70 4.9 10.37 21,570

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

60 2.0 (5) (5)

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

80 1.0 15.08 31,360

Helpers-production workers

1,370 3.9 10.64 22,130

Production workers, all other

(5) (5) 15.97 33,220

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Fort Smith MSA, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_22900.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimates not released.

Last Modified Date: Monday, July 13, 2015

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News Release Information

15-1368-DAL Monday, July 13, 2015

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (972) 850-4800

Occupational Employment and Wages in Fort Smith, May 2014

Workers in the Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $16.92 in May 2014, about 25 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Regional Commissioner Stanley W. Suchman noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 21 of the 22 major occupational groups; local wages for the farming, fishing, and forestry occupational group were not measurably different from the national average.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 3 of the 22 occupational groups, including production; transportation and material moving; and installation, maintenance, and repair. Conversely, 12 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including business and financial operations; computer and mathematical; and office and administrative support. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Fort Smith United States Fort Smith Percent
difference(1)

Total, all occupations

100.0% 100.0%   $22.71 $16.92 * -25

Management

5.0 3.6 * 54.08 45.45 * -16

Business and financial operations

5.1 2.8 * 34.81 27.17 * -22

Computer and mathematical

2.8 0.9 * 40.37 28.40 * -30

Architecture and engineering

1.8 0.8 * 39.19 30.63 * -22

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.3 * 33.69 23.81 * -29

Community and social service

1.4 1.2 * 21.79 18.52 * -15

Legal

0.8 0.4 * 48.61 38.10 * -22

Education, training, and library

6.2 5.4 * 25.10 19.45 * -23

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 0.6 * 26.82 19.38 * -28

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.8 5.7   36.54 30.25 * -17

Healthcare support

2.9 3.3   13.86 11.08 * -20

Protective service

2.4 2.3   21.14 15.62 * -26

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 9.1   10.57 8.84 * -16

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 2.6 * 12.68 10.76 * -15

Personal care and service

3.1 3.0   12.01 9.58 * -20

Sales and related

10.5 10.0 * 18.59 13.98 * -25

Office and administrative support

16.0 15.0 * 17.08 14.19 * -17

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.8   12.09 11.62   -4

Construction and extraction

3.9 4.2   22.40 17.83 * -20

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 4.5 * 21.74 18.08 * -17

Production

6.6 13.1 * 17.06 14.23 * -17

Transportation and material moving

6.8 9.6 * 16.57 14.85 * -10

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Fort Smith is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.

Note: * The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group–production–was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Fort Smith had 14,890 jobs in production, accounting for 13.1 percent of local area employment, more than double the 6.6-percent national share. However, the local average hourly wage for this occupational group was $14.23, significantly below the national average of $17.06.

With employment of 1,470, team assemblers was one of the largest occupations within the production group, as were meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers (1,430) and production worker helpers (1,370). Among the higher paying jobs were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers, as well as metal and plastic computer-controlled machine tool operators, with mean hourly wages of $22.23 and $20.34, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were slaughterers and meat packers ($8.81) and laundry and dry-cleaning workers ($9.23). (Detailed occupational data for the production occupational group are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_22900.htm.)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Fort Smith metropolitan area, above average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers were employed at 11.4 times the national rate in Fort Smith, and slaughterers and meat packers, at 10.6 times the U.S. average. Both location quotients were among the highest in all metropolitan areas for these particular occupations.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Arkansas Department of Workforce Services.

Note

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.


Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57.1 percent of total national employment. (Response rates are slightly lower for these estimates due to the federal shutdown in October 2013.) The sample in the Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area included 1,855 establishments with a response rate of 85 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.

The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm and www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm, respectively.

The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

Area definitions
The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes Crawford, Franklin, and Sebastian Counties in Arkansas, and Le Flore and Sequoyah Counties in Oklahoma.

Additional information
OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/southwest. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/current/methods_statement.pdf.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Fort Smith Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation(1) Employment Mean wages
Level(2) Location
quotient(3)
Hourly Annual(4)

 

Production occupations
14,890 2.0 $14.23 $29,590

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

950 1.9 22.23 46,250

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

350 2.0 19.04 39,600

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

50 0.8 14.40 29,950

Team assemblers

1,470 1.6 14.34 29,830

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

140 0.7 13.63 28,360

Bakers

110 0.8 10.20 21,210

Butchers and meat cutters

120 1.0 11.82 24,590

Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers

1,430 11.4 10.53 21,910

Slaughterers and meat packers

770 10.6 8.81 18,330

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

(5) (5) 8.15 16,950

Food batchmakers

(5) (5) 12.40 25,780

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

90 2.9 11.11 23,100

Food processing workers, all other

410 11.1 9.90 20,590

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

300 2.4 20.34 42,320

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

390 2.4 16.32 33,940

Grinding, lapping, polishing, & buffing machine tool setters, operators, & tenders, metal & plastic

40 0.7 (5) (5)

Machinists

220 0.7 18.80 39,100

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

90 0.8 16.18 33,650

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

160 2.0 12.72 26,460

Tool and die makers

110 1.7 20.17 41,950

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

470 1.5 18.29 38,040

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

(5) (5) 16.33 33,960

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

40 2.5 20.28 42,180

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

(5) (5) 14.62 30,400

Print binding and finishing workers

110 2.6 13.83 28,760

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

160 0.9 9.23 19,190

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

(5) (5) 8.43 17,520

Sewing machine operators

80 0.7 11.60 24,130

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

110 1.5 13.11 27,270

Furniture finishers

(5) (5) 9.94 20,670

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

130 2.2 11.83 24,610

Power plant operators

(5) (5) 30.86 64,180

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

200 2.2 16.35 34,000

Gas plant operators

40 3.0 27.83 57,880

Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers

40 1.3 29.60 61,570

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

40 1.1 18.03 37,510

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

(5) (5) 13.72 28,550

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

220 2.2 15.22 31,660

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

290 5.5 14.15 29,430

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

40 2.4 14.23 29,600

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

760 1.9 14.96 31,120

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

50 2.1 15.51 32,260

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

900 2.8 12.04 25,040

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

110 1.4 15.74 32,730

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

70 4.9 10.37 21,570

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

60 2.0 (5) (5)

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

80 1.0 15.08 31,360

Helpers-production workers

1,370 3.9 10.64 22,130

Production workers, all other

(5) (5) 15.97 33,220

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Fort Smith MSA, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_22900.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimates not released.

Last Modified Date: Monday, July 13, 2015