Current Employment Statistics - CES (National)

CES National Benchmark Article (PDF)

BLS Establishment Survey National Estimates Revised to Incorporate March 2015 Benchmarks

Authored by Madison Lau and Kerrie Leslie.

Madison Lau and Kerrie Leslie are economists in the Division of Current Employment Statistics – National, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Telephone: (202)691‑6555; email: Contact CES

Introduction

With the release of January 2016 data on February 5, 2016, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) introduced its annual revision of national estimates of employment, hours, and earnings from the Current Employment Statistics (CES) monthly survey of nonfarm establishments. Each year, the CES survey realigns its sample-based estimates to incorporate universe counts of employment—a process known as benchmarking. Comprehensive counts of employment, or benchmarks, are derived primarily from unemployment insurance (UI) tax reports that nearly all employers are required to file with State Workforce Agencies.

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Summary of the benchmark revisions

The March 2015 benchmark level for total nonfarm employment is 140,099,000.

In most years, a discussion of revisions to the not seasonally adjusted employment level for the March benchmark also describes the revisions to the over-the-year change from the previous March benchmark level. This year, with the implementation of the March 2015 benchmark, historical data have been reconstructed back to January 2000 for CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities. More information on this historical reconstruction is available in the Reconstructed data section below. As a result of this reconstruction, the March 2014 not seasonally adjusted employment level has also been revised and the revisions associated with this benchmark can be looked at in several ways.

To eliminate the nonstandard impact on the benchmark from the reconstruction to CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities, the originally published CES employment levels were adjusted to incorporate the reconstruction prior to calculating the benchmark error and performing the wedge. For more information on the CES wedging process, refer to the Methods section of this article. This approach better reflects the performance of the estimates for the benchmark time period. The tables in this article reflect this process.

Considering only the change to the employment level due to error, which accounts for the decrease of 27,000 due to the reconstruction, total nonfarm employment for March 2015 had a downward revision of −172,000, or −0.1 percent, to 140,099,000. Because the March 2014 employment level now reflects changes due to the reconstruction, another measure of the impact of the benchmark is to consider the over-the-year change revision from March 2014 to March 2015. Prior to the implementation of the benchmark, the level change for total nonfarm over that time period was 3,084,000. After the benchmark, the change is 2,912,000 which is 172,000 less than previously published.

Compared with the sample-based, published estimate for March 2015, the March 2015 benchmark level is 199,000 lower. This is a downward adjustment of −0.1 percent.

Table 1 below shows the recent history of total nonfarm percentage benchmark revisions. Over the prior ten years, the annual benchmark revision at the total nonfarm level has averaged 0.3 percent (in absolute terms), with an absolute range of 0.0 percent to 0.7 percent.

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Table 1. Percent and level differences between nonfarm employment benchmarks and estimates by industry supersector, March 2005 – 2015 (1)
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Type 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 (2) 2012 2013 (3) 2014 2015 (4)

00-000000

Total nonfarm Percent -0.1 0.6 -0.2 -0.1 -0.7 -0.3 0.1 0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.1
Level -158 752 -293 -89 -902 -378 162 424 -119 67 -172

05-000000

Total private Percent -0.2 0.7 -0.2 -0.1 -0.9 -0.4 0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.1 -0.2
Level -166 749 -241 -137 -933 -391 134 481 -126 105 -232

10-000000

Mining and logging Percent -0.3 1.2 0.0 0.4 -3.5 -3.0 -0.4 1.6 -1.2 -1.8 -2.2
Level -2 8 0 3 -25 -20 -3 13 -10 -16 -19

20-000000

Construction Percent 0.5 2.6 0.1 0.7 -2.9 -1.3 -0.5 1.8 0.3 1.6 0.6
Level 35 189 6 49 -171 -67 -26 93 14 90 39

30-000000

Manufacturing Percent -0.3 -0.1 -1.0 -0.1 -0.7 -1.0 0.1 -0.2 0.2 0.4 -0.1
Level -47 -21 -137 -17 -84 -119 9 -25 23 43 -12

40-000000

Trade, transportation, and utilities Percent 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.2 -1.2 -0.6 0.4 0.6 -0.5 -0.1 0.0
Level 74 158 140 65 -300 -143 95 145 -131 -31 -5

41-420000

Wholesale trade

Percent 0.4 0.8 0.4 -0.7 -1.2 -2.3 -0.2 0.8 -0.4 -0.8 -0.7
Level 25.0 47.0 21.5 -43.1 -68.0 -124.5 -13.1 45.3 -20.2 -45.4 -41.3

42-000000

Retail trade

Percent 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 -1.6 -0.1 0.6 0.5 -0.8 0.0 -0.2
Level 74.3 78.0 107.5 92.8 -235.6 -18.4 83.8 78.9 -110.3 5.5 -23.5

43-000000

Transportation and warehousing

Percent -0.1 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.2 1.4
Level -4.8 44.9 11.5 15.0 9.9 3.1 22.4 29.4 3.6 9.7 65.3

44-220000

Utilities

Percent -3.7 -2.1 0.0 0.0 -1.2 -0.6 0.5 -1.5 -0.8 -0.1 -0.8
Level -20.6 -11.4 -0.2 -0.2 -6.8 -3.4 2.8 -8.5 -4.6 -0.6 -4.7

50-000000

Information Percent -2.1 -0.5 -1.8 0.3 -1.5 -0.4 -0.4 1.8 -0.2 2.4 -1.6
Level -64 -15 -54 8 -42 -11 -12 47 -5 66 -44

55-000000

Financial activities Percent -0.8 0.4 -1.3 -0.3 -0.1 0.4 0.9 0.6 -0.1 0.2 -0.1
Level -68 35 -111 -23 -4 34 69 45 -10 19 -9

60-000000

Professional and business services Percent -0.4 1.3 0.2 -0.4 -0.8 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 -0.8 -0.6
Level -64 230 44 -63 -137 -3 125 2 4 -147 -110

65-000000

Education and health services Percent 0.0 0.5 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 0.0 -0.5 0.0 -0.3 -0.1 0.0
Level -5 96 -39 -17 -56 7 -108 -2 -61 -16 -7

70-000000

Leisure and hospitality Percent 0.4 0.3 -0.8 -1.1 -0.6 -0.6 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.3 -0.3
Level 44 42 -108 -151 -72 -80 93 104 72 38 -45

80-000000

Other services Percent -1.3 0.5 0.3 0.2 -0.8 0.2 -2.0 1.1 -0.4 1.1 -0.4
Level -69 27 18 9 -42 11 -108 59 -22 59 -20

90-000000

Government Percent 0.0 0.0 -0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.3 0.0 -0.2 0.3
Level 8 3 -52 48 31 13 28 -57 7 -38 60

Footnotes
(1) The differences listed in this table reflect the error due to normal benchmarking procedures. Typically this error is equal to the March benchmarked level minus the published March estimated level. However in some years, other factors beyond normal benchmarking procedures influence the difference between the benchmarked and published March estimate levels. Those years are footnoted. (2) A review of industries for the possible presence of noncovered employment in benchmark 2011 yielded 13 additional industries. As a result of including these industries, employment for total nonfarm was 95,000 more than the originally published March 2011 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and published March 2011 estimate level was 162,000. For this table, the 95,000 amount was added to the original published total nonfarm and total private March 2011 estimates before calculating the percent and level differences. Similarly, for the financial activities and education and health services supersectors, this table displays March 2011 data after incorporating the employment from the additional industries. (3) The percent and level differences in this column reflect reconstructions to series within CES supersectors financial activities and education and healthcare services. Each first quarter, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, whose data account for approximately 97 percent of the CES universe scope (see www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section1), incorporates updated industry assignments. In 2013, these updates included two substantial groups of nonrandom, noneconomic code changes, one to funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles (NAICS 525), and the other, a reclassification of approximately 466,000 in employment from private households (NAICS 814), which is out of scope for CES, to services for the elderly and persons with disabilities (NAICS 62412), which is in scope. These changes also had an impact, beyond what would be considered typical for a given benchmark year, on corresponding CES series. For more information about the changes to these industries, see the QCEW First Quarter 2013 News Release available at www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/cewqtr_09262013.htm or the Special notice regarding reconstructed data section of the 2013 CES Benchmark Article at www.bls.gov/ces/cesbmart13.pdf. (4) With the 2015 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series for CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities back to January 2000. CES previously reconstructed this series with the 2013 benchmark; however, between the 2013 and 2015 benchmark, a better source of information for the employment within NAICS 62412 for the state of California was found. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 27,000 less than the originally published March 2015 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2015 estimate level is −199,000 or −0.1 percent. This table displays March 2015 data after accounting for the decrease of 27,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the education and health services supersector, this table displays March 2015 data after incorporating the reconstructed series.

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Note

Tables 2, 5, and 6 on this page contain clickable headers that sort the table by the clicked column.

Table 2 shows the nonfarm employment benchmarks for March 2015, not seasonally adjusted, by industry. The revision to the reconstructed total nonfarm employment is −172,000.

Nine supersectors saw negative revisions. The largest downward revision occurred in professional and business services, −110,000, or −0.6 percent. Within this supersector, the largest revision was in administrative and support services with a revision of −69,400, or −0.9 percent. The next largest downward revision occurred in leisure and hospitality, which experienced a downward revision of −45,000, or −0.3 percent. This downward revision was driven by a large downward revision in food services and drinking places (−60,000, or −0.6 percent). Information was revised downward by −44,000, or −1.6 percent. Within this supersector, the largest downward revision was in telecommunications (−55,500, or −6.9 percent). Other services had a downward revision of −20,000, or −0.4 percent, driven by a large downward revision in membership associations and organizations (−34,200, or −1.2 percent). Mining and logging experienced the largest downward revision in percentage terms among supersectors with a revision of −19,000, or −2.2 percent. Manufacturing and financial activities also had downward revisions of −12,000, or −0.1 percent, and −9,000, or −0.1 percent, respectively. The two smallest downward revisions occurred in education and health services (−7,000, or 0.0 percent) and trade, transportation, and utilities (−5,000, or 0.0 percent).

The remaining two supersectors had upward revisions. The larger upward revision occurred in government by an amount of 60,000, or 0.3 percent. Construction had an upward revision of 39,000, or 0.6 percent.

Table 2. Nonfarm employment benchmarks for industries released with first preliminary estimates, March 2015 (in thousands)
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Benchmark Estimate(1) Differences Absolute Differences
Amount Percent Amount Percent
00-000000 Total nonfarm 140,099 140,271 -172.0 -0.1 172.0 0.1
05-000000 Total private 117,751 117,983 -232.0 -0.2 232.0 0.2
06-000000 Goods-producing 19,153 19,145 8.0 0.0 8.0 0.0
07-000000 Service-providing 120,946 121,126 -180.0 -0.1 180.0 0.1
08-000000 Private service-providing 98,598 98,838 -240.0 -0.2 240.0 0.2
10-000000 Mining and logging 848 867 -19.0 -2.2 19.0 2.2
10-113300 Logging 50.7 52.3 -1.6 -3.2 1.6 3.2
10-210000 Mining 797.1 814.3 -17.2 -2.2 17.2 2.2
10-211000 Oil and gas extraction 195.9 196.6 -0.7 -0.4 0.7 0.4
10-212000 Mining, except oil and gas 197.1 197.9 -0.8 -0.4 0.8 0.4
10-212100 Coal mining 68.0 70.7 -2.7 -4.0 2.7 4.0
10-212200 Metal ore mining 42.7 42.9 -0.2 -0.5 0.2 0.5
10-212300 Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying 86.4 84.3 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.4
10-213000 Support activities for mining 404.1 419.8 -15.7 -3.9 15.7 3.9
20-000000 Construction 6,051 6,012 39.0 0.6 39.0 0.6
20-236000 Construction of buildings 1,362.6 1,359.0 3.6 0.3 3.6 0.3
20-236100 Residential building 656.5 660.2 -3.7 -0.6 3.7 0.6
20-236200 Nonresidential building 706.1 698.8 7.3 1.0 7.3 1.0
20-237000 Heavy and civil engineering construction 845.6 853.8 -8.2 -1.0 8.2 1.0
20-238000 Specialty trade contractors 3,842.5 3,799.4 43.1 1.1 43.1 1.1
20-238001 Residential specialty trade contractors 1,647.8 1,637.7 10.1 0.6 10.1 0.6
20-238002 Nonresidential specialty trade contractors 2,194.7 2,161.7 33.0 1.5 33.0 1.5
30-000000 Manufacturing 12,254 12,266 -12.0 -0.1 12.0 0.1
31-000000 Durable goods 7,744 7,782 -38.0 -0.5 38.0 0.5
31-321000 Wood products 372.9 373.4 -0.5 -0.1 0.5 0.1
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 383.5 389.2 -5.7 -1.5 5.7 1.5
31-331000 Primary metals 399.7 405.6 -5.9 -1.5 5.9 1.5
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 1,465.0 1,468.2 -3.2 -0.2 3.2 0.2
31-333000 Machinery 1,134.0 1,138.6 -4.6 -0.4 4.6 0.4
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 1,050.4 1,055.4 -5.0 -0.5 5.0 0.5
31-334100 Computer and peripheral equipment 158.4 168.2 -9.8 -6.2 9.8 6.2
31-334200 Communications equipment 88.9 90.0 -1.1 -1.2 1.1 1.2
31-334400 Semiconductors and electronic components 368.3 369.7 -1.4 -0.4 1.4 0.4
31-334500 Electronic instruments 398.5 390.4 8.1 2.0 8.1 2.0
31-334600 Miscellaneous computer and electronic products 36.3 37.1 -0.8 -2.2 0.8 2.2
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 382.1 371.7 10.4 2.7 10.4 2.7
31-336000 Transportation equipment 1,596.8 1,608.6 -11.8 -0.7 11.8 0.7
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 904.5 919.9 -15.4 -1.7 15.4 1.7
31-337000 Furniture and related products 375.4 384.6 -9.2 -2.5 9.2 2.5
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 584.1 586.7 -2.6 -0.4 2.6 0.4
32-000000 Nondurable goods 4,510 4,484 26.0 0.6 26.0 0.6
32-311000 Food manufacturing 1,482.0 1,469.9 12.1 0.8 12.1 0.8
32-313000 Textile mills 117.1 118.7 -1.6 -1.4 1.6 1.4
32-314000 Textile product mills 114.7 113.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.2
32-315000 Apparel 137.3 137.9 -0.6 -0.4 0.6 0.4
32-322000 Paper and paper products 371.4 365.4 6.0 1.6 6.0 1.6
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 449.9 446.7 3.2 0.7 3.2 0.7
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 105.4 102.4 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8
32-325000 Chemicals 805.8 809.0 -3.2 -0.4 3.2 0.4
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 683.3 684.8 -1.5 -0.2 1.5 0.2
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 242.7 235.5 7.2 3.0 7.2 3.0
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 26,449 26,454 -5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0
41-420000 Wholesale trade 5,832.1 5,873.4 -41.3 -0.7 41.3 0.7
41-423000 Durable goods 2,920.5 2,935.0 -14.5 -0.5 14.5 0.5
41-424000 Nondurable goods 2,011.2 2,030.7 -19.5 -1.0 19.5 1.0
41-425000 Electronic markets and agents and brokers 900.4 907.7 -7.3 -0.8 7.3 0.8
42-000000 Retail trade 15,305.3 15,328.8 -23.5 -0.2 23.5 0.2
42-441000 Motor vehicle and parts dealers 1,900.1 1,897.6 2.5 0.1 2.5 0.1
42-441100 Automobile dealers 1,219.8 1,210.4 9.4 0.8 9.4 0.8
42-441200 Other motor vehicle dealers 139.6 139.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4
42-441300 Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores 540.7 548.1 -7.4 -1.4 7.4 1.4
42-442000 Furniture and home furnishings stores 460.9 457.0 3.9 0.8 3.9 0.8
42-443000 Electronics and appliance stores 510.5 491.6 18.9 3.7 18.9 3.7
42-444000 Building material and garden supply stores 1,222.7 1,244.0 -21.3 -1.7 21.3 1.7
42-445000 Food and beverage stores 3,023.1 2,991.0 32.1 1.1 32.1 1.1
42-446000 Health and personal care stores 1,027.0 1,022.4 4.6 0.4 4.6 0.4
42-447000 Gasoline stations 885.9 884.8 1.1 0.1 1.1 0.1
42-448000 Clothing and clothing accessories stores 1,299.4 1,325.8 -26.4 -2.0 26.4 2.0
42-451000 Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores 609.3 590.6 18.7 3.1 18.7 3.1
42-452000 General merchandise stores 3,071.8 3,108.7 -36.9 -1.2 36.9 1.2
42-452100 Department stores 1,305.4 1,304.4 1.0 0.1 1.0 0.1
42-452900 Other general merchandise stores 1,766.4 1,804.3 -37.9 -2.1 37.9 2.1
42-453000 Miscellaneous store retailers 799.0 797.5 1.5 0.2 1.5 0.2
42-454000 Nonstore retailers 495.6 517.8 -22.2 -4.5 22.2 4.5
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 4,758.6 4,693.3 65.3 1.4 65.3 1.4
43-481000 Air transportation 449.2 442.3 6.9 1.5 6.9 1.5
43-482000 Rail transportation 247.0 244.4 2.6 1.1 2.6 1.1
43-483000 Water transportation 65.1 64.8 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5
43-484000 Truck transportation 1,417.9 1,413.5 4.4 0.3 4.4 0.3
43-485000 Transit and ground passenger transportation 488.1 485.0 3.1 0.6 3.1 0.6
43-486000 Pipeline transportation 48.2 48.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
43-487000 Scenic and sightseeing transportation 25.1 25.0 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4
43-488000 Support activities for transportation 641.3 639.6 1.7 0.3 1.7 0.3
43-492000 Couriers and messengers 587.3 579.6 7.7 1.3 7.7 1.3
43-493000 Warehousing and storage 789.4 750.9 38.5 4.9 38.5 4.9
44-220000 Utilities 553.3 558.0 -4.7 -0.8 4.7 0.8
50-000000 Information 2,730 2,774 -44.0 -1.6 44.0 1.6
50-511000 Publishing industries, except Internet 723.5 716.7 6.8 0.9 6.8 0.9
50-512000 Motion picture and sound recording industries 391.1 381.1 10.0 2.6 10.0 2.6
50-515000 Broadcasting, except Internet 279.5 289.1 -9.6 -3.4 9.6 3.4
50-517000 Telecommunications 807.7 863.2 -55.5 -6.9 55.5 6.9
50-518000 Data processing, hosting and related services 292.3 292.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
50-519000 Other information services 235.5 231.7 3.8 1.6 3.8 1.6
55-000000 Financial activities 8,037 8,046 -9.0 -0.1 9.0 0.1
55-520000 Finance and insurance 5,992.2 5,999.8 -7.6 -0.1 7.6 0.1
55-521000 Monetary authorities - central bank 17.7 18.4 -0.7 -4.0 0.7 4.0
55-522000 Credit intermediation and related activities 2,556.8 2,564.8 -8.0 -0.3 8.0 0.3
55-522100 Depository credit intermediation 1,679.3 1,695.6 -16.3 -1.0 16.3 1.0
55-522110 Commercial banking 1,277.3 1,279.6 -2.3 -0.2 2.3 0.2
55-522200 Nondepository credit intermediation 586.5 581.9 4.6 0.8 4.6 0.8
55-522300 Activities related to credit intermediation 291.0 287.3 3.7 1.3 3.7 1.3
55-523000 Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts 895.7 890.8 4.9 0.5 4.9 0.5
55-524000 Insurance carriers and related activities 2,522.0 2,525.8 -3.8 -0.2 3.8 0.2
55-530000 Real estate and rental and leasing 2,044.6 2,046.5 -1.9 -0.1 1.9 0.1
55-531000 Real estate 1,490.7 1,491.9 -1.2 -0.1 1.2 0.1
55-532000 Rental and leasing services 530.6 531.6 -1.0 -0.2 1.0 0.2
55-533000 Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets 23.3 23.0 0.3 1.3 0.3 1.3
60-000000 Professional and business services 19,233 19,343 -110.0 -0.6 110.0 0.6
60-540000 Professional and technical services 8,581.7 8,620.4 -38.7 -0.5 38.7 0.5
60-541100 Legal services 1,112.9 1,115.8 -2.9 -0.3 2.9 0.3
60-541200 Accounting and bookkeeping services 1,084.6 1,116.3 -31.7 -2.9 31.7 2.9
60-541300 Architectural and engineering services 1,379.8 1,396.2 -16.4 -1.2 16.4 1.2
60-541400 Specialized design services 130.3 132.2 -1.9 -1.5 1.9 1.5
60-541500 Computer systems design and related services 1,863.1 1,821.9 41.2 2.2 41.2 2.2
60-541600 Management and technical consulting services 1,244.0 1,283.2 -39.2 -3.2 39.2 3.2
60-541700 Scientific research and development services 649.9 645.5 4.4 0.7 4.4 0.7
60-541800 Advertising and related services 475.2 483.1 -7.9 -1.7 7.9 1.7
60-541900 Other professional and technical services 641.9 626.2 15.7 2.4 15.7 2.4
60-550000 Management of companies and enterprises 2,189.6 2,192.6 -3.0 -0.1 3.0 0.1
60-560000 Administrative and waste services 8,462.0 8,529.9 -67.9 -0.8 67.9 0.8
60-561000 Administrative and support services 8,076.8 8,146.2 -69.4 -0.9 69.4 0.9
60-561100 Office administrative services 464.0 472.9 -8.9 -1.9 8.9 1.9
60-561200 Facilities support services 138.8 131.4 7.4 5.3 7.4 5.3
60-561300 Employment services 3,382.3 3,427.3 -45.0 -1.3 45.0 1.3
60-561320 Temporary help services 2,747.9 2,770.2 -22.3 -0.8 22.3 0.8
60-561400 Business support services 887.9 908.4 -20.5 -2.3 20.5 2.3
60-561500 Travel arrangement and reservation services 199.0 196.8 2.2 1.1 2.2 1.1
60-561600 Investigation and security services 860.6 877.9 -17.3 -2.0 17.3 2.0
60-561700 Services to buildings and dwellings 1,842.1 1,831.0 11.1 0.6 11.1 0.6
60-561900 Other support services 302.1 300.5 1.6 0.5 1.6 0.5
60-562000 Waste management and remediation services 385.2 383.7 1.5 0.4 1.5 0.4
65-000000 Education and health services 21,973 21,980 -7.0 0.0 7.0 0.0
65-610000 Educational services 3,615.3 3,617.9 -2.6 -0.1 2.6 0.1
65-620000 Health care and social assistance 18,358.1 18,362.2 -4.1 0.0 4.1 0.0
65-620001 Health care 14,883.9 14,927.9 -44.0 -0.3 44.0 0.3
65-621000 Ambulatory health care services 6,765.9 6,808.7 -42.8 -0.6 42.8 0.6
65-621100 Offices of physicians 2,502.1 2,524.8 -22.7 -0.9 22.7 0.9
65-621200 Offices of dentists 894.3 907.5 -13.2 -1.5 13.2 1.5
65-621300 Offices of other health practitioners 801.9 815.5 -13.6 -1.7 13.6 1.7
65-621400 Outpatient care centers 734.1 732.3 1.8 0.2 1.8 0.2
65-621500 Medical and diagnostic laboratories 256.6 250.5 6.1 2.4 6.1 2.4
65-621600 Home health care services 1,294.7 1,294.3 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0
65-621900 Other ambulatory health care services 282.2 283.8 -1.6 -0.6 1.6 0.6
65-622000 Hospitals 4,853.3 4,845.2 8.1 0.2 8.1 0.2
65-623000 Nursing and residential care facilities 3,264.7 3,274.0 -9.3 -0.3 9.3 0.3
65-623100 Nursing care facilities 1,639.7 1,645.0 -5.3 -0.3 5.3 0.3
65-623200 Residential mental health facilities 603.2 614.5 -11.3 -1.9 11.3 1.9
65-623300 Community care facilities for the elderly 860.5 858.5 2.0 0.2 2.0 0.2
65-623900 Other residential care facilities 161.3 156.0 5.3 3.3 5.3 3.3
65-624000 Social assistance 3,474.2 3,434.3 39.9 1.1 39.9 1.1
65-624100 Individual and family services 2,099.6 2,065.4 34.2 1.6 34.2 1.6
65-624200 Emergency and other relief services 153.7 153.1 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4
65-624300 Vocational rehabilitation services 332.4 329.8 2.6 0.8 2.6 0.8
65-624400 Child day care services 888.5 886.0 2.5 0.3 2.5 0.3
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 14,599 14,644 -45.0 -0.3 45.0 0.3
70-710000 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 1,982.2 1,983.7 -1.5 -0.1 1.5 0.1
70-711000 Performing arts and spectator sports 428.9 443.5 -14.6 -3.4 14.6 3.4
70-712000 Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions 142.9 137.8 5.1 3.6 5.1 3.6
70-713000 Amusements, gambling, and recreation 1,410.4 1,402.4 8.0 0.6 8.0 0.6
70-720000 Accommodation and food services 12,617.0 12,660.3 -43.3 -0.3 43.3 0.3
70-721000 Accommodation 1,851.6 1,834.9 16.7 0.9 16.7 0.9
70-722000 Food services and drinking places 10,765.4 10,825.4 -60.0 -0.6 60.0 0.6
80-000000 Other services 5,577 5,597 -20.0 -0.4 20.0 0.4
80-811000 Repair and maintenance 1,267.4 1,261.9 5.5 0.4 5.5 0.4
80-812000 Personal and laundry services 1,381.3 1,373.2 8.1 0.6 8.1 0.6
80-813000 Membership associations and organizations 2,928.0 2,962.2 -34.2 -1.2 34.2 1.2
90-000000 Government 22,348 22,288 60.0 0.3 60.0 0.3
90-910000 Federal 2,734.0 2,719.0 15.0 0.5 15.0 0.5
90-911000 Federal, except U.S. Postal Service 2,141.7 2,125.8 15.9 0.7 15.9 0.7
90-919120 U.S. Postal Service 592.7 592.8 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0
90-920000 State government 5,250.0 5,239.0 11.0 0.2 11.0 0.2
90-921611 State government education 2,582.1 2,600.7 -18.6 -0.7 18.6 0.7
90-922000 State government, excluding education 2,667.9 2,638.2 29.7 1.1 29.7 1.1
90-930000 Local government 14,364.0 14,330.0 34.0 0.2 34.0 0.2
90-931611 Local government education 8,164.3 8,133.7 30.6 0.4 30.6 0.4
90-932000 Local government, excluding education 6,199.3 6,196.4 2.9 0.0 2.9 0.0
Footnotes

(1) The CES estimates in this column contain reconstructions to series within the education and health services supersector. With the 2015 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series for CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities back to January 2000. CES previously reconstructed this series with the 2013 benchmark; however, between the 2013 and 2015 benchmark, a better source of information for the employment within NAICS 62412 for the state of California was found. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 27,000 less than the originally published March 2015 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2015 estimate level is −199,000 or −0.1 percent. This table displays March 2015 data after accounting for the decrease of 27,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the education and health services supersector, this table displays March 2015 data after incorporating the reconstructed series.

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To Table of Figures


Revisions in the postbenchmark period

From April 2015 to December 2015, also known as the postbenchmark period, estimates were recalculated for each month based on new benchmark levels and new net birth/death factors. Net birth/death factors were revised to incorporate information from the most recent year of universe employment counts. Table 3 shows the net birth/death model values for the supersectors over the postbenchmark period. From April 2015 to December 2015, the net birth/death model cumulatively added 928,000, compared with 852,000 in the previously published April 2015 to December 2015 employment estimates.

Table 3. Net birth/death estimates by industry supersector, April – December 2015 (in thousands)
CES Industry Code Supersector Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cumulative
Total

10-000000

Mining and logging

0 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 7

20-000000

Construction

33 40 23 11 12 7 11 -10 -19 108

30-000000

Manufacturing

-1 6 4 -3 4 2 2 4 2 20

40-000000

Trade, transportation, and utilities

4 25 9 3 18 8 28 8 5 108

41-420000

Wholesale trade

-4 5 -1 -3 4 0 7 3 2 13

42-000000

Retail trade

5 15 7 7 9 5 17 5 3 73

43-000000

Transportation and warehousing

3 5 3 -1 5 3 4 0 0 22

44-220000

Utilities

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

50-000000

Information

2 5 0 2 4 -3 6 4 0 20

55-000000

Financial activities

-1 6 1 2 5 -1 17 4 9 42

60-000000

Professional and business services

81 20 3 28 24 -16 78 7 -13 212

65-000000

Education and health services

19 15 -16 11 23 9 44 15 -4 116

70-000000

Leisure and hospitality

76 91 83 62 21 -37 -12 -20 4 268

80-000000

Other services

10 8 6 -3 3 -1 3 1 0 27

Monthly amount contributed

223 217 114 115 115 -31 178 13 -16 928

To Table of Figures


Table 4 presents revised total nonfarm employment data on a seasonally adjusted basis for January 2015 through December 2015. The revised data for April 2015 forward incorporate the effect of applying the rate of change measured by the sample to the new benchmark level, as well as updated net birth/death model adjustments and new seasonal adjustment factors. Revisions to November and December also reflect incorporation of additional sample receipts.

Table 4. Differences in seasonally adjusted levels and over-the-month changes, total nonfarm employment, January – December 2015 (in thousands)
2015 Levels Over-the-month Changes
As Previously Published As Revised Difference As Previously Published As Revised Difference

January

140,793 140,623 -170 201 221 20

February

141,059 140,888 -171 266 265 -1

March

141,178 140,972 -206 119 84 -35

April

141,365 141,223 -142 187 251 64

May

141,625 141,496 -129 260 273 13

June

141,870 141,724 -146 245 228 -17

July

142,093 142,001 -92 223 277 54

August

142,246 142,151 -95 153 150 -3

September

142,391 142,300 -91 145 149 4

October

142,698 142,595 -103 307 295 -12

November

142,950 142,875 -75 252 280 28

December(p)

143,242 143,137 -105 292 262 -30

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary.

To Table of Figures

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Changes to the CES published series

With the release of the January 2016 first preliminary estimates, CES incorporated series changes related to annual sample adequacy and disclosure review, and began publishing additional industry employment data with the first preliminary release of monthly estimates.

Series changes

All CES series are evaluated annually for sample size, coverage, and response rates. The following changes result from a re-evaluation of the sample and universe coverage for CES industries, which are based on North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industries. Some small industries no longer have sufficient sample to be estimated and published separately and will be combined with other similar industries for estimation and publication purposes. The following information is also available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesnewseries.htm.

A list of currently published CES series is available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesseriespub.htm.

Some series have new CES industry codes or titles as a result of the series changes (Exhibit 1). These CES industry code or title changes have been applied to all data types published for the designated series. Historical data for those series with new CES industry codes or CES industry titles were impacted as noted on the remainder of this page; historical data are available under the new CES industry codes or CES industry titles.

Exhibit 1. Series with CES industry code or title changes
NAICS Code Previous New
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

3325,6

31-332600 Spring and wire products 31-332600 Hardware, spring, and wire products

334112,8

31-334118 Computer terminals and other computer peripheral equipment 31-334118 Computer storage devices, terminals, and other peripheral equipment

31522,4,8

32-315280 Women's and all other cut and sew apparel 32-315280 Cut and sew apparel, except contractors

62322

65-623220 Residential mental and substance abuse care 65-623220 Residential mental health and substance abuse facilities

62412

65-624120 Services for the elderly and disabled 65-624120 Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities

811112,3

80-811113 Automotive transmission repair 80-811113 Automotive exhaust system and transmission repair

81292,9

80-812990 All other personal services 80-812990 All other personal services, including photofinishing

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 2 through Exhibit 7 show the new CES industry codes and titles, not the previous CES industry codes and titles, as noted in Exhibit 1.

Only directly estimated data types1 are included in the exhibits:

The directly estimated data types listed except for AE are collectively called non-AE data types. In order to more easily identify affected series, since AE series are published at a more detailed industry level than non-AE series, series changes are shown for AE and non-AE data types. The non-AE tables cover all directly estimated non-AE data types.

The first three exhibits reference the AE data type and the second three exhibits reference all non-AE data types. The three exhibits in each group display the discontinued, collapsed, and new series. Discontinued series exhibits (Exhibit 2 and Exhibit 5) display series for which the data types noted are no longer published. Collapsed series exhibits (Exhibit 3 and Exhibit 6) display series for which the data types noted are no longer published because the industry no longer has sufficient sample to be estimated and published separately. Affected industries have been combined with other similar industries for estimation and publication purposes. Historical data for these series were reconstructed to provide consistent time series. New series exhibits (Exhibit 4 and Exhibit 7) display series for which the data types noted are now published.

AE exhibits

Exhibit 2. Discontinued AE Series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Next Highest Published Industry Title (CES Industry Code)

42432

41-424320 Men's and boys' clothing Apparel and piece goods (41-424300)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 3. Collapsed AE series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Collapsed into CES Industry Title (CES Industry Code)

3325

31-332500 Hardware Hardware, spring, and wire products (31-332600)

334112

31-334112 Computer storage devices Computer storage devices, terminals, and other peripheral equipment (31-334118)

31522

32-315220 Men's and boys' cut and sew apparel Cut and sew apparel, except contractors (32-315280)

811112

80-811112 Automotive exhaust system repair Automotive exhaust system and transmission repair (80-811113)

81292

80-812920 Photofinishing All other personal services, including photofinishing (80-812990)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 4. New AE series

There are no new AE series published.

To Table of Figures


Non-AE exhibits

Exhibit 5. Discontinued Non-AE series
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Discontinued From Publication Next Highest Published Industry Title (CES Industry Code)

21232

10-212320 Sand, gravel, clay, and refractory mining WE Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (10-212300)

21239

10-212390 Other nonmetallic mineral mining WE Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (10-212300)

3271

31-327100 Clay products and refractories AE AWH, AE AHE Nonmetallic mineral products (31-327000)

3272

31-327200 Glass and glass products AE AWH, AE AHE Nonmetallic mineral products (31-327000)

3322

31-332200 Cutlery and hand tools AE AWH, AE AHE, WE Fabricated metal products (31-332000)

332321

31-332321 Metal windows and doors AE AWH, AE AHE Ornamental and architectural metal products (31-332320)

332323

31-332323 Ornamental and architectural metal work AE AWH, AE AHE Ornamental and architectural metal products (31-332320)

336111

31-336111 Automobiles AE AWH, AE AHE Automobiles and light trucks (31-336110)

336112

31-336112 Light trucks and utility vehicles AE AWH, AE AHE Automobiles and light trucks (31-336110)

337215

31-337215 Showcases, partitions, shelving, and lockers PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Furniture and related products (31-337000)

3152

32-315200 Cut and sew apparel AE AWH, AE AHE Apparel (32-315000)

3151,9

32-315900 All other apparel manufacturing AE AWH, AE AHE Apparel (32-315000)

32612

32-326120 Plastics pipe, fittings, and profile shapes AE AWH, AE AHE Plastics products (32-326100)

32613,6

32-326160 Plastics bottles and laminated plastics plate, sheet, and shapes AE AWH, AE AHE Plastics products (32-326100)

44811

42-448110 Men's clothing stores PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Clothing stores (42-448100)

5172

50-517200 Wireless telecommunications carriers (except satellite) PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Telecommunications (50-517000)

5174,9

50-517900 Other telecommunications PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Telecommunications (50-517000)

52222

55-522220 Sales financing PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Nondepository credit intermediation (55-522200)

54141

60-541410 Interior design services PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Specialized design services (60-541400)

56141

60-561410 Document preparation services PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Business support services (60-561400)

71321

70-713210 Casinos, except casino hotels PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Gambling industries (70-713200)

71329

70-713290 Other gambling industries PE, PE AWH, PE AHE Gambling industries (70-713200)

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 6. Collapsed Non-AE series

There are no collapsed non-AE series.

To Table of Figures


Exhibit 7. New Non-AE series

There are no new non-AE series published.

To Table of Figures

Additional series published at first preliminary release of monthly estimates

Additional industry employment data are now published by the CES program with the first preliminary release of monthly estimates. Twenty-seven additional industries are now available in the Employment Situation Table B-1 for both not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted employment. Exhibit 8 details the additional industries that are available:

Exhibit 8. Additional CES Series available with first preliminary release
NAICS Code CES Industry Code CES Industry Title CES Series ID
Not Seasonally Adjusted Seasonally Adjusted

2122

10-212200 Metal ore mining CEU1021220001 CES1021220001

2123

10-212300 Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying CEU1021230001 CES1021230001

3343,6

31-334600 Miscellaneous computer and electronic products CEU3133460001 CES3133460001

4412

42-441200 Other motor vehicle dealers CEU4244120001 CES4244120001

4413

42-441300 Auto parts, accessories, and tire stores CEU4244130001 CES4244130001

4529

42-452900 Other general merchandise stores CEU4245290001 CES4245290001

5222

55-522200 Nondepository credit intermediation CEU5552220001 CES5552220001

5223

55-522300 Activities related to credit intermediation CEU5552230001 CES5552230001

5414

60-541400 Specialized design services CEU6054140001 CES6054140001

5417

60-541700 Scientific research and development services CEU6054170001 CES6054170001

5418

60-541800 Advertising and related services CEU6054180001 CES6054180001

5419

60-541900 Other professional and technical services CEU6054190001 CES6054190001

5611

60-561100 Office administrative services CEU6056110001 CES6056110001

5612

60-561200 Facilities support services CEU6056120001 CES6056120001

5615

60-561500 Travel arrangement and reservation services CEU6056150001 CES6056150001

5616

60-561600 Investigation and security services CEU6056160001 CES6056160001

5619

60-561900 Other support services CEU6056190001 CES6056190001

6212

65-621200 Offices of dentists CEU6562120001 CES6562120001

6213

65-621300 Offices of other health practitioners CEU6562130001 CES6562130001

6215

65-621500 Medical and diagnostic laboratories CEU6562150001 CES6562150001

6219

65-621900 Other ambulatory health care services CEU6562190001 CES6562190001

6232

65-623200 Residential mental health facilities CEU6562320001 CES6562320001

6233

65-623300 Community care facilities for the elderly CEU6562330001 CES6562330001

6239

65-623900 Other residential care facilities CEU6562390001 CES6562390001

6241

65-624100 Individual and family services CEU6562410001 CES6562410001

6242

65-624200 Emergency and other relief services CEU6562420001 CES6562420001

6243

65-624300 Vocational rehabilitation services CEU6562430001 CES6562430001

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Reconstructions

Three separate data reconstructions were performed as part of the 2015 CES benchmark. Exhibit 9 outlines at the most detailed published levels, the CES series, data types, and timespans that were impacted by reconstructions of data.

Exhibit 9. CES detailed series involved in data reconstructions
CES Industry Code(s) CES Industry Title(s) Data Type(s) Involved Timespan Additional Information

65-624120

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities Employment of all employees (AE); employment of production and nonsupervisory employees (PE); and employment of women employees (WE) January 2000 – March 2015

65-000000; 80-813000

Education and health services; Membership associations and organizations All hours and earnings data types related to AE March 2006 – February 2009 These data were suppressed on November 24, 2015.

65-000000

Education and health services Employment of PE; all hours and earnings data types for both AE and PE March 2009 – February 2010

Services for the elderly and persons with disabilities, January 2000 – March 2015

The CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities was previously reconstructed with the 2013 benchmark due a correction in the coding of UI records for several state programs that provide funding for services for the elderly and persons with disabilities. That reconstruction was developed based upon the best information available at the time for the programs. For more information, see the 2013 CES National Benchmark Article at www.bls.gov/ces/cesbmart13.pdf.

Since the initial reconstruction was completed, the state of California Labor Market Information (LMI) agency continued to work on analyzing the data for the In-Home Support Services (IHSS) program with the authorized payroll agent. The payroll agent had switched to a new payroll processing system, providing more accurate employment counts for the IHSS program. The prior system’s primary focus was to ensure that wages were reported in the correct quarter, and did not focus on employment counts.

Further examination of the data from the IHSS program led the state of California LMI agency and BLS to the conclusion that further refinement to the services for the elderly and persons with disabilities employment series was appropriate.

This reconstruction resulted in revisions to the not seasonally adjusted data from January 2000 to March 2015. Seasonally adjusted data for this series and its aggregates were subject to revision back to January 1990.

Education and health services and membership associations and organizations, March 2006 – February 2009

On November 24, 2015, BLS suppressed all employee hours and earnings data for CES series 65-000000 education and health services and 80-813000 membership associations and organizations and their aggregates due to an error introduced during the 2009 CES benchmark. All employee (AE) hours and earnings data became official BLS series with the release of the 2009 CES benchmark. This meant that, for the first time, these previously experimental data were subjected to the same benchmarking procedures as the production and nonsupervisory employee (PE) hours and earnings data. During the 2009 CES benchmark, the AE hours and earnings data for the two series noted above for the time period of the experimental data series (March 2006 – February 2009) were not subjected to the same benchmarking procedures for that time period as their PE hours and earnings data counterparts; this also impacted the aggregates of the two noted series.

To correct for errors for the entire experimental time period (March 2006 – February 2009), BLS applied benchmarking procedures to the AE hours and earnings data for the two noted series consistent with the benchmarking procedures for PE hours and earnings data. For the summary levels of the two noted series, the AE hours and earnings data were then re-aggregated to account for the updated AE hours and earnings data.

This reconstruction resulted in revisions to the not seasonally adjusted data from March 2006 to February 2009. The seasonally adjusted data for these series were subject to revision back to March 2006, which is the start of the time series.

All industries and data types impacted by this reconstruction are listed in the exhibits below:

Exhibit 10. Industries involved in the CES data suppression
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title

05-000000

Total private

08-000000

Private service-providing

65-000000

Education and health services

80-000000

Other services

80-813000

Membership associations and organizations

Exhibit 11. Data types involved in the CES data suppression
Data Type CodeData Type Name

02

Average weekly hours of all employees

03

Average hourly earnings of all employees

11

Average weekly earnings of all employees

12

Average weekly earnings of all employees, 1982-1984 dollars

13

Average hourly earnings of all employees, 1982-1984 dollars

16

Indexes of aggregate weekly hours of all employees, 2007=100

17

Indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls of all employees, 2007=100

19

Average weekly hours of all employees, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted

56

Aggregate weekly hours of all employees, thousands

57

Aggregate weekly payrolls of all employees, thousands

Education and health services, March 2009 – February 2010

While reviewing the error that resulted in the suppression of CES all employee (AE) hours and earnings data on November 24, 2015, BLS discovered additional errors in the employment of production and nonsupervisory employees (PE) and in the hours and earnings for both AE and PE for CES series 65-000000 education and health services. These errors spanned March 2009 to February 2010. These additional errors were also the result of inconsistently applied benchmarking procedures in this series during the 2009 CES benchmark.

To correct for these errors, BLS applied consistent benchmarking procedures to these series.

This reconstruction resulted in revisions to the not seasonally adjusted data from March 2009 to February 2010. Seasonally adjusted data for this series and its aggregates were subject to revision back to January 1990 for the employment of PE and PE hours and earnings data and back to March 2006 for the AE hours and earnings data.

All industries and data types impacted by this reconstruction are available in the exhibits below:

Exhibit 12. Industries involved in this CES reconstruction
CES Industry CodeCES Industry Title

05-000000

Total private

08-000000

Private service-providing

65-000000

Education and health services
Exhibit 13. Data types involved in this CES reconstruction
Data Type CodeData Type Name

02

Average weekly hours of all employees

03

Average hourly earnings of all employees

06

Production and nonsupervisory employees, thousands

07

Average weekly hours of production and nonsupervisory employees

08

Average hourly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees

11

Average weekly earnings of all employees

12

Average weekly earnings of all employees, 1982-1984 dollars

13

Average hourly earnings of all employees, 1982-1984 dollars

16

Indexes of aggregate weekly hours of all employees, 2007=100

17

Indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls of all employees, 2007=100

19

Average weekly hours of all employees, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted

30

Average weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees

31

Average weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees, 1982-84 dollars

32

Average hourly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees, 1982-84 dollars

34

Indexes of aggregate weekly hours of production and nonsupervisory employees, 2002=100

35

Indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls of production and nonsupervisory employees, 2002=100

36

Average weekly hours, production/nonsupervisory employees, quarterly averages, seasonally adjusted

56

Aggregate weekly hours of all employees, thousands

57

Aggregate weekly payrolls of all employees, thousands

81

Aggregate weekly hours of production and nonsupervisory employees, thousands

82

Aggregate weekly payrolls of production and nonsupervisory employees, thousands

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Why benchmarks differ from estimates

A benchmark revision is the difference between the benchmark employment level for a given March and its corresponding sample-based estimate. The overall accuracy of the establishment survey is usually gauged by the size of this difference. The benchmark revision often is regarded as a proxy for total survey error, but this does not take into account error in the universe data or infrequent events such as historical reconstructions. The employment counts obtained from quarterly UI tax forms are administrative data that reflect employer record-keeping practices and differing state laws and procedures. The benchmark revision can be more precisely interpreted as the difference between two independently derived employment counts, each subject to its own error sources.

Like all sample surveys, the establishment survey is susceptible to two sources of error: sampling error and nonsampling error. Sampling error is present any time a sample is used to make inferences about a population. The magnitude of the sampling error, or variance, relates directly to sample size and the percentage of the universe covered by that sample. The CES monthly survey captures slightly under one-third of the universe, exceptionally high by usual sampling standards. This coverage ensures a small sampling error at the total nonfarm employment level. More information on the reliability of CES estimates is available in the Reliability section of the CES Technical Notes available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section1c.

Both the universe counts and the establishment survey estimates are subject to nonsampling errors common to all surveys – measurement, response, and processing errors. The error structures for both the CES monthly survey and the UI universe are complex. Still, the two programs generally produce consistent total employment figures, each validating the other.

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Benchmark revision effects for other data types

The routine benchmarking process results in revisions to the series for employment of production and nonsupervisory employees (PE) and employment of women employees (WE). There are no benchmark employment levels for these series; they are revised by preserving ratios of employment for the particular data type to employment of all employees (AE) prior to benchmarking, and then applying these ratios to the revised employment of all employees. These figures are calculated at the basic cell level and then aggregated to produce the summary estimates.

Average weekly hours, average hourly earnings, and in manufacturing industries, average weekly overtime hours are not benchmarked; they are estimated solely from reports supplied by survey respondents at the basic estimating cell level.

The aggregate industry levels of the hours and earnings series are derived as a weighted average. The employment of all employees estimates or the employment of production and nonsupervisory employees estimates for the basic cells essentially act as weights for their respective hours and earnings estimates for broader industry groupings. Adjustments of the employment of all employees estimates to new benchmarks may alter the weights used for both AE and PE hours and earnings, which, in turn, may change the estimates for both AE and PE hours and earnings at higher levels of aggregation.

Generally, new employment benchmarks have little effect on hours and earnings estimates for major industry groupings. To influence the hours and earnings estimates of a broader industry group, employment revisions have to be relatively large and must affect industries that have hours or earnings averages that are substantially different from those of other industries in their broader group. Table 5 and Table 6 provide information on the levels of specific hours and earnings series resulting from the March 2015 benchmark. At the total private level, there was no change in average weekly hours estimates for both AE and PE from the previously published level. Total private average hourly earnings increased by two cents for AE and PE from the previously published level.

Table 5. Effect of March 2015 benchmark revisions to AE AWH and AE AHE estimates, selected industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Average Weekly Hours Average Hourly Earnings ($)
Estimated (1) Revised Difference Estimated (1) Revised Difference
05-000000 Total private 34.7 34.7 0.0 25.03 25.05 0.02
06-000000 Goods-producing 40.3 40.3 0.0 26.11 26.11 0.00
08-000000 Private service-providing 33.6 33.6 0.0 24.78 24.80 0.02
10-000000 Mining and logging 44.0 44.0 0.0 31.31 31.35 0.04
20-000000 Construction 38.6 38.6 0.0 27.30 27.31 0.01
30-000000 Manufacturing 40.9 40.9 0.0 25.16 25.16 0.00
31-000000 Durable goods 41.3 41.3 0.0 26.47 26.48 0.01
31-321000 Wood products 39.8 39.8 0.0 18.52 18.49 -0.03
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 40.9 40.9 0.0 23.23 23.24 0.01
31-331000 Primary metals 43.2 43.2 0.0 25.06 25.08 0.02
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 41.3 41.3 0.0 22.61 22.62 0.01
31-333000 Machinery 41.5 41.5 0.0 27.17 27.17 0.00
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 40.4 40.4 0.0 34.05 34.05 0.00
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 40.5 40.5 0.0 25.64 25.64 0.00
31-336000 Transportation equipment 43.1 43.1 0.0 29.91 29.94 0.03
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 43.9 43.8 -0.1 24.77 24.63 -0.14
31-337000 Furniture and related products 39.3 39.3 0.0 19.62 19.64 0.02
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 39.4 39.4 0.0 24.31 24.31 0.00
32-000000 Nondurable goods 40.1 40.1 0.0 22.81 22.81 0.00
32-311000 Food manufacturing 39.8 39.8 0.0 18.78 18.80 0.02
32-313000 Textile mills 42.1 42.1 0.0 18.24 18.24 0.00
32-314000 Textile product mills 37.8 37.8 0.0 15.82 15.83 0.01
32-315000 Apparel 36.8 36.8 0.0 16.88 16.87 -0.01
32-322000 Paper and paper products 41.6 41.6 0.0 25.39 25.38 -0.01
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 37.6 37.6 0.0 22.66 22.66 0.00
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 42.2 42.2 0.0 38.95 39.05 0.10
32-325000 Chemicals 42.0 42.0 0.0 31.01 31.01 0.00
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 41.4 41.4 0.0 20.73 20.73 0.00
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 35.8 35.8 0.0 21.88 21.88 0.00
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 34.7 34.7 0.0 21.78 21.79 0.01
41-420000 Wholesale trade 39.2 39.2 0.0 28.55 28.55 0.00
42-000000 Retail trade 31.4 31.4 0.0 17.35 17.35 0.00
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 38.8 38.9 0.1 22.91 23.01 0.10
44-220000 Utilities 42.9 42.8 -0.1 37.08 37.04 -0.04
50-000000 Information 36.9 36.9 0.0 34.89 35.08 0.19
55-000000 Financial activities 38.1 38.1 0.0 31.59 31.59 0.00
60-000000 Professional and business services 36.5 36.5 0.0 30.28 30.31 0.03
65-000000 Education and health services 32.9 32.9 0.0 25.08 25.13 0.05
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 26.5 26.5 0.0 14.27 14.27 0.00
80-000000 Other services 32.0 32.0 0.0 22.45 22.57 0.12
Footnotes

(1) The CES estimates in this column contain reconstructions to series within CES supersectors. With the 2015 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series for CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities back to January 2000, which can impact education and health services. CES previously reconstructed this series with the 2013 benchmark; however, between the 2013 and 2015 benchmark, a better source of information for the employment within NAICS 62412 for the state of California was found. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 27,000 less than the originally published March 2015 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2015 estimate level is −199,000 or −0.1 percent. These changes to the employment data can lead to changes in hours and earnings data at higher level industries. This table displays March 2015 data after accounting for the decrease of 27,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the education and health services supersector, this table displays March 2015 data after incorporating the reconstructed series.

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Table 6. Effect of March 2015 benchmark revisions to PE AWH and PE AHE estimates, selected industries
CES Industry Code CES Industry Title Average Weekly Hours Average Hourly Earnings ($)
Estimated (1) Revised Difference Estimated (1) Revised Difference
05-000000 Total private 33.8 33.8 0.0 21.00 21.02 0.02
06-000000 Goods-producing 41.0 41.0 0.0 21.75 21.75 0.00
08-000000 Private service-providing 32.6 32.6 0.0 20.85 20.87 0.02
10-000000 Mining and logging 46.0 45.9 -0.1 26.60 26.59 -0.01
20-000000 Construction 38.9 38.9 0.0 25.02 25.02 0.00
30-000000 Manufacturing 41.8 41.7 -0.1 19.78 19.78 0.00
31-000000 Durable goods 42.1 42.1 0.0 20.86 20.86 0.00
31-321000 Wood products 40.3 40.4 0.1 15.85 15.84 -0.01
31-327000 Nonmetallic mineral products 41.4 41.4 0.0 19.46 19.50 0.04
31-331000 Primary metals 43.4 43.4 0.0 22.58 22.60 0.02
31-332000 Fabricated metal products 42.4 42.4 0.0 18.84 18.84 0.00
31-333000 Machinery 41.9 41.9 0.0 21.17 21.18 0.01
31-334000 Computer and electronic products 40.9 40.9 0.0 23.12 23.12 0.00
31-335000 Electrical equipment and appliances 42.0 42.0 0.0 18.71 18.71 0.00
31-336000 Transportation equipment 44.1 44.1 0.0 25.09 25.09 0.00
31-336001 Motor vehicles and parts 44.7 44.7 0.0 21.56 21.43 -0.13
31-337000 Furniture and related products 39.8 39.8 0.0 15.95 15.94 -0.01
31-339000 Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing 40.1 40.1 0.0 17.45 17.45 0.00
32-000000 Nondurable goods 41.2 41.2 0.0 17.97 17.99 0.02
32-311000 Food manufacturing 40.5 40.5 0.0 15.69 15.70 0.01
32-313000 Textile mills 43.1 43.1 0.0 14.42 14.42 0.00
32-314000 Textile product mills 37.0 37.0 0.0 13.35 13.36 0.01
32-315000 Apparel 38.1 38.1 0.0 13.51 13.51 0.00
32-322000 Paper and paper products 43.1 43.1 0.0 21.12 21.10 -0.02
32-323000 Printing and related support activities 39.8 39.8 0.0 18.24 18.24 0.00
32-324000 Petroleum and coal products 45.6 45.7 0.1 37.21 37.31 0.10
32-325000 Chemicals 42.9 42.9 0.0 21.60 21.60 0.00
32-326000 Plastics and rubber products 42.2 42.2 0.0 16.75 16.74 -0.01
32-329000 Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing 38.3 38.3 0.0 18.81 18.81 0.00
40-000000 Trade, transportation, and utilities 33.6 33.6 0.0 18.66 18.67 0.01
41-420000 Wholesale trade 38.9 38.9 0.0 23.63 23.63 0.00
42-000000 Retail trade 29.8 29.8 0.0 14.67 14.69 0.02
43-000000 Transportation and warehousing 38.6 38.7 0.1 20.82 20.88 0.06
44-220000 Utilities 42.7 42.7 0.0 34.07 34.02 -0.05
50-000000 Information 36.2 36.1 -0.1 28.70 28.82 0.12
55-000000 Financial activities 37.6 37.6 0.0 25.35 25.36 0.01
60-000000 Professional and business services 35.7 35.7 0.0 24.91 24.95 0.04
65-000000 Education and health services 32.1 32.1 0.0 21.92 21.97 0.05
70-000000 Leisure and hospitality 25.3 25.3 0.0 12.38 12.38 0.00
80-000000 Other services 30.8 30.8 0.0 18.94 19.07 0.13
Footnotes

(1) The CES estimates in this column contain reconstructions to series within CES supersectors. With the 2015 benchmark, CES reconstructed the national employment series for CES series 65-624120 services for the elderly and persons with disabilities back to January 2000, which can impact education and health services. CES previously reconstructed this series with the 2013 benchmark; however, between the 2013 and 2015 benchmark, a better source of information for the employment within NAICS 62412 for the state of California was found. The inclusion of the reconstructed series resulted in total nonfarm and total private employment that was 27,000 less than the originally published March 2015 estimate level. The difference between the benchmarked and originally published March 2015 estimate level is −199,000 or −0.1 percent. These changes to the employment data can lead to changes in hours and earnings data at higher level industries. This table displays March 2015 data after accounting for the decrease of 27,000 from the reconstructed series. Similarly, for the education and health services supersector, this table displays March 2015 data after incorporating the reconstructed series.

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Methods

Benchmark sources and procedures

Establishment survey benchmarking is done on an annual basis to a population derived primarily from the administrative file of employees covered by UI. All employers covered by UI laws are required to report employment and wage information to the appropriate Labor Market Information (LMI) agency four times per year. Approximately 97 percent of total nonfarm employment within the scope of the establishment survey is covered by UI. A benchmark for the remaining 3 percent is constructed from alternate sources, primarily records from the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), County Business Patterns (CBP), and Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll (ASPEP). This 3 percent is collectively referred to as noncovered employment. Noncovered employment data from these sources are available only on a lagged basis. More information on calculating noncovered employment in the CES program is available in the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#NCE.

The time required to complete the benchmark revision process—from the full collection of the UI population data to publication of the revised industry estimates—is about ten months. The benchmark adjustment procedure replaces the March sample-based employment estimates with UI-based population counts for March. The benchmark therefore determines the final employment levels, while sample movements capture month-to-month trends.

On a not seasonally adjusted basis, the sample-based estimates for the year preceding and the nine months following the benchmark month (March) are also subject to revision; seasonally adjusted data are subject to revision back five years. Employment estimates for the months between the most recent March benchmark and the previous year's benchmark are adjusted using a linear "wedge-back" procedure, which assumes that the total estimation error accumulated at a steady rate since the last benchmark. For the nine months following the March benchmark (also referred to as the postbenchmark period), CES applies previously derived over-the-month sample changes to the revised March level to get the revised estimates (see Revisions in the post benchmark period). New net birth/death model estimates also are calculated and applied during postbenchmark estimation. More information on benchmarks in the CES program is available in the Benchmarks section of the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section6b.

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Birth/Death

The CES sample alone is not sufficient for estimating the total nonfarm employment level because each month new firms generate employment that cannot be captured through the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between a firm opening for business and its appearance on the CES sample frame. The sample frame is built from Unemployment Insurance (UI) quarterly tax records. These records cover virtually all U.S. employers and include business births, but they only become available for updating the CES sampling frame 7 to 9 months after the reference month. After the births appear on the frame, there is also time required for sampling, contacting, and soliciting cooperation from the firm, and verifying the initial data provided. In practice, BLS cannot sample and begin to collect data from new firms until they are at least a year old.

BLS has researched both sample-based and model-based approaches to measuring birth units that have not yet appeared on the UI universe frame. The research demonstrated that sampling for births was not feasible in the very short CES production timeframes, so the Bureau utilizes a model-based approach for this component. This model incorporates two components, the first component is an indirect imputation for business deaths and the second component is an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series model designed to estimate the net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation from the first component. More information on the CES birth/death model is available in the Birth/Death Model section of the CES Technical Notes at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section5c.

Only error from the second component is directly measurable. Error from this component is measured by comparing the actual net of births and deaths with the model-based adjustment that was used in the CES sample-based estimates. Most recently, the data from April 2014 to March 2015 can be measured. As Table 7 shows, the actual net birth/death for April 2014 to March 2015 was approximately 79,000 above the forecasted amount used in the CES monthly estimates for the same time period.

Table 7. Differences between forecasted and actual net birth/death, total private employment, April 2014 – March 2015 (in thousands)
Benchmark 2015 2014 2015 Total
Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

Actual Net Birth/Death

250 249 112 99 143 -37 204 8 -21 -202 125 46 976

Forecast Net Birth/Death

263 204 129 122 104 -19 164 16 -15 -275 132 72 897

Difference

-13 45 -17 -23 39 -18 40 -8 -6 73 -7 -26 79

Cumulative Difference

-13 32 15 -8 31 13 53 45 39 112 105 79

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Seasonal adjustment

Typically, five years’ worth of seasonally adjusted data are revised with each CES annual benchmark. As with the not seasonally adjusted data, if additional seasonally adjusted revisions to the seasonal adjustment data are made with a benchmark, those revisions will be noted in previous sections of this article.

For technical information on how seasonal adjustment is performed in the CES program, refer to the Seasonal Adjustment section of the CES Technical Notes, available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm#section5e.

For more information on seasonal adjustment model specifications and special model adjustments, please see the Seasonal Adjustment Model Specification List section of the CES Seasonal Adjustment Files and Documentation page, available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesseasadj.htm#samodel.

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Availability of revised data

LABSTAT, the BLS public database, contains all historical employment, hours, and earnings data revised as a result of this benchmark, including both not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted data. The data can be accessed at www.bls.gov/ces, the CES homepage.

Previously published data are available on both a not seasonally adjusted and seasonally adjusted basis for all CES industries down to the 3-digit level from the CES Vintage Data page, available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesvininfo.htm.

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End Notes

1 CES estimates data in two ways: directly and indirectly. Directly estimated data types refer to data types for which estimates are calculated directly from the responding sample. Indirectly estimated data types refer to data types for which estimates are calculated from other directly estimated data types. Average weekly earnings of all employees and indexes of aggregate weekly hours of all employees are examples of indirectly estimated data types. For more information on indirectly estimated data types, see the CES Technical Notes available at www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cestn.htm.

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Table of figures

Tables

Exhibits

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Last Modified Date: April 5, 2016

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